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Full-Text Articles in Economic History

Movimientos Obreros Y Por Los Derechos Humanos En América Latina: Convergencia, Divergencia Y Consecuencias Para La Promoción De Los Derechos Económicos, Sociales Y Culturales [Labor Movements And Human Rights In Latin America: Convergence, Divergence, And The Implications For The Promotion Of Economic, Social And Cultural Rights], Maria Lorena Cook Jan 2006

Movimientos Obreros Y Por Los Derechos Humanos En América Latina: Convergencia, Divergencia Y Consecuencias Para La Promoción De Los Derechos Económicos, Sociales Y Culturales [Labor Movements And Human Rights In Latin America: Convergence, Divergence, And The Implications For The Promotion Of Economic, Social And Cultural Rights], Maria Lorena Cook

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Los derechos propios del trabajo forman parte de los derechos humanos hace mucho tiempo y gozan del reconocimiento de pactos internacionales. La Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos, adoptada por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas, en 1948, enumera los derechos a condiciones de trabajo justas y favorables; a igual remuneración por trabajo de igual valor; a una remuneración equitativa y favorable, y a formar sindicatos y afiliarse a ellos. El Pacto Internacional de Derechos Civiles y Políticos (PIDCP) incluye los derechos a la libertad de asociación y a formar sindicatos y afiliarse a ellos. El Pacto Internacional de Derechos ...


[Review Of The Book Growing Public: Social Spending And Economic Growth Since The Eighteenth Century], George R. Boyer Jul 2005

[Review Of The Book Growing Public: Social Spending And Economic Growth Since The Eighteenth Century], George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Lindert’s discussion of the costs and benefits of the welfare state is only one part, albeit the most eye-catching part, of this wide-ranging work in comparative economic history. Volume 1, written for non-specialists, presents “The Story”; it is tailor-made for upper-level undergraduate courses in economic and social history, public policy, and welfare economics. Volume 2 presents “Further Evidence,” including the regression results that underlie the findings presented in the first volume, and eighty pages of appendices. Graduate students and scholars studying the welfare state will want to read this volume in conjunction with Volume 1. For those who ...


Unemployment And The Uk Labour Market Before, During And After The Golden Age, Timothy J. Hatton, George R. Boyer Apr 2005

Unemployment And The Uk Labour Market Before, During And After The Golden Age, Timothy J. Hatton, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

During the ‘golden age’ of the 1950s and 1960s unemployment in Britain averaged 2 per cent. This was far lower than ever before or since and a number of hypotheses have been put forward to account for this unique period in labour market history. But there has been little attempt to isolate precisely how the determinants of wage setting and unemployment differed before, during and after the golden age. We estimate a two-equation model over the whole period from 1872 to 1999 using a newly constructed set of long-run labour market data. We find that the structure of real wage ...


The Evolution Of Unemployment Relief In Great Britain, George R. Boyer Jan 2004

The Evolution Of Unemployment Relief In Great Britain, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Relatively little has been written about unemployment relief during the period between the passage of the Poor Law Amendment Act in 1834 and the adoption of national unemployment insurance in 1911. This study is an attempt to help fill the gap in the literature. It examines the changing roles played by poor relief, private charity, trade unions, and public employment in the lives of the urban unemployed during cyclical downturns from 1834 to 1911. The story that emerges offers no support for a "Whig theory of welfare." Public assistance for the unemployed was more generous, and more certain, from ...


Comments On Geraghty, Márquez, And Vizcarra, George R. Boyer Jun 2003

Comments On Geraghty, Márquez, And Vizcarra, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

Professor Boyer reviews and comments upon the three dissertations that were finalists for the Alexander Gerschenkron Prize in 2002.


New Estimates Of British Unemployment, 1870-1913, George R. Boyer, Timothy J. Hatton Sep 2002

New Estimates Of British Unemployment, 1870-1913, George R. Boyer, Timothy J. Hatton

Articles and Chapters

We present new estimates of the British industrial unemployment rate for 1870- 1913, which improve on the Board of Trade's prior estimates. We use similar sources, but our series includes additional industrial sectors, allows for short-time working, and aggregates the various sectors using appropriate labor-force weights from the census. The resulting index suggests a rate of industrial unemployment that was generally higher, but less volatile, than the board's index. We then adjust our series to an economywide basis, and construct a consistent time series of overall unemployment for 1870-1999.


[Review Of The Book Poverty And Welfare In England, 1700-1850: A Regional Perspective], George R. Boyer Sep 2002

[Review Of The Book Poverty And Welfare In England, 1700-1850: A Regional Perspective], George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The last decade has seen an upsurge in research by social historians on the English poor laws, largely in the form of local studies. These have greatly increased our knowledge of the demographic makeup of the "pauper host," the generosity of relief benefits, and the ways in which paupers combined poor relief with other forms of income assistance in order to subsist. In this book, Steven King uses "poor law and other documentation" for 60 English communities to extend our understanding of the role played by poor relief from 1700 to 1850. He argues that during this period there ...


The Development Of The Neoclassical Tradition In Labor Economics, George R. Boyer, Robert S. Smith Jan 2001

The Development Of The Neoclassical Tradition In Labor Economics, George R. Boyer, Robert S. Smith

Articles and Chapters

This essay on labor economics examines neoclassical theory's rise to ascendancy following the second World War, with a secondary focus on the relative decline but continued influence of institutionalist economic theory. The authors describe the evolution of institutional and neoclassical theory from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries, examine some early intellectual debates between the two camps, briefly describe the work of neoclassical labor economics pioneers, and look at major developments over the past 30 years. They argue that neoclassical economists' increasing intellectual breadth and influence in public policy have led them to pay closer attention to issues that ...


The Influence Of London On Labor Markets In Southern England, 1830-1914, George R. Boyer Oct 1998

The Influence Of London On Labor Markets In Southern England, 1830-1914, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Historians have long acknowledged that London, because of its enormous size and rapidly growing demand for labor, acted as a powerful magnet for migrants from throughout southern England. However, while there is a large literature documenting the flow of migrants to London, there have been surprisingly few attempts to determine the consequences of this migration for southern labor markets. This article attempts to redress the imbalance in the literature by examining the influence of London on agricultural labor markets during the nineteenth century. In particular, the article examines the effect of distance from London on wage rates in southern ...


The Historical Background Of The Communist Manifesto, George R. Boyer Oct 1998

The Historical Background Of The Communist Manifesto, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The Manifesto of the Communist Party, published 150 years ago in London in February 1848, is one of the most influential and widely-read documents of the past two centuries. The historian A. J. P. Taylor (1967, p. 7) has called it a "holy book," and contends that because of it, "everyone thinks differently about politics and society." And yet, despite its enormous influence in the 20th century, the Manifesto is very much a period piece, a document of what was called the "hungry" 1840s. It is hard to imagine it being written in any other decade of the 19th ...


Migration And Labour Market Integration In Late Nineteenth-Century England And Wales, George R. Boyer Nov 1997

Migration And Labour Market Integration In Late Nineteenth-Century England And Wales, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] There is a long and well established tradition of studies analysing the pattern and causes of internal migration and assessing the degree of labour market integration in late nineteenth-century Britain. Some studies document the flows of migrants from one area to another and describe migrant characteristics and the directions of the predominant streams of migration. Others analyse the determinants of gross or net migration flows at the region or county level. The questions implicit in these studies are: How mobile was the labour force? What were the major factors which determined individual decisions to migrate? How are these factors ...


Labour Migration In Southern And Eastern England, 1861-1901, George R. Boyer Aug 1997

Labour Migration In Southern And Eastern England, 1861-1901, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

This paper examines the determinants of migration from 19 southern counties to six major destinations in England and Wales from 1861-70 to 1891-1900. I find that, while the size of origin-destination wage gaps and the distance between origin and destination areas were important determinants of migration flows, as expected, migration was also strongly influenced by the number of previous migrants from an origin county living in a destination. The assistance provided by previous migrants to friends and relatives contemplating migration led to a perpetuation of earlier migration patterns, and helps to explain the continued dominance of London as a destination ...


Poor Relief, Informal Assistance, And Short Time During The Lancashire Cotton Famine, George R. Boyer Jan 1997

Poor Relief, Informal Assistance, And Short Time During The Lancashire Cotton Famine, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This paper presents new evidence concerning the importance of poor relief as a source of income assistance for unemployed operatives during the Lancashire cotton famine. My comparison of weekly data on the number of relief recipients in 23 distressed poor law unions with estimates of weekly cotton consumption for the period November 1861 to December 1862 suggests that the average length of time between becoming unemployed and receiving poor relief was less than 2 months. This result is shown to be consistent with available evidence on working class saving. Given the meager amount of informal assistance available to them ...


Did Joseph Arch Raise Agricultural Wages? A Reply, George R. Boyer, Timothy J. Hatton May 1996

Did Joseph Arch Raise Agricultural Wages? A Reply, George R. Boyer, Timothy J. Hatton

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Dunbabin takes issue with us on the question of whether and by how much the agricultural workers' movement led by Joseph Arch raised agricultural wages in the early 1870s. A number of authors have speculated on what the wage effect might have been, but these speculations have rarely been based on more than a cursory examination of agricultural wage data and they have not been able to separate the effects of unionism from other factors influencing wages. Our article was the first to narrow down the range of estimates by making the best use of available data for the ...


The Impact Of Emigration On Real Wages In Ireland, 1850-1914, George R. Boyer, Timothy J. Halton, Kevin O'Rourke Jan 1994

The Impact Of Emigration On Real Wages In Ireland, 1850-1914, George R. Boyer, Timothy J. Halton, Kevin O'Rourke

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The chapter is organized as follows. First, we examine the growth of Irish wages and living standards in comparison with other countries. Second, we examine the hypothesis that the Irish agricultural wage was responsive to movements in the male population. Third, we attempt to estimate the effect of emigration on the population and labor force of Ireland from 1851-1911. In order to estimate the impact of faster labor force growth, we specify a computable general equilibrium model of the Irish economy. Then the effects of emigration are evaluated in a general equilibrium framework. Finally, we summarize the main findings ...


Regional Labour Market Integration In England And Wales, 1850-1913, George R. Boyer, Timothy J. Hatton Jan 1994

Regional Labour Market Integration In England And Wales, 1850-1913, George R. Boyer, Timothy J. Hatton

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This chapter examines the integration of labour markets within the rural and urban sectors of England and Wales during the second half of the nineteenth century. Although there is a large literature on internal migration and emigration in Victorian Britain, historians typically have focused on the direction and causes of migration rather than on its consequences for the labour market. Broadly speaking, the literature has found that workers did indeed migrate towards better wage-earning opportunities, that most moves were short-distance moves, and that once certain patterns of migration were established they often persisted. The studies leave the strong impression ...


England’S Two Agricultural Revolutions [Review Of The Book Enclosure And The Yeoman: The Agricultural Development Of The South Midlands, 1450-1850], George R. Boyer Dec 1993

England’S Two Agricultural Revolutions [Review Of The Book Enclosure And The Yeoman: The Agricultural Development Of The South Midlands, 1450-1850], George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Let me summarize the book's most significant accomplishments. Allen has convincingly shown that enclosures were not the major cause of the agricultural evolution. He is not the first historian to reach this conclusion, but no previous historian offered the amount of evidence Allen does to support the argument. His decision to divide the south Midlands into natural districts and examine the effects of enclosure in each district is a major advance over previous studies that examined enclosures at the county or regional level. His detailed analysis of output on open and enclosed farms has shown that enclosures reduced ...


[Review Of The Book British Unemployment, 1919-1939: A Study In Public Policy], George R. Boyer Oct 1991

[Review Of The Book British Unemployment, 1919-1939: A Study In Public Policy], George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Garside's book fills an important gap in the literature on interwar unemployment by providing a comprehensive account of the various types of public policy that government officials, politicians, businessmen, and union leaders advocated as means for reducing unemployment, and by emphasizing the effect of the changing nature of the unemployment problem on the debates on public policy. The book's one major shortcoming is that it contains very little analysis of the effects of government unemployment policies.


[Review Of The Book Interwar Unemployment In International Perspective], George R. Boyer Apr 1990

[Review Of The Book Interwar Unemployment In International Perspective], George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The book redresses two imbalances in the recent literature on interwar unemployment: its almost exclusive focus on the United States and Britain, and its predominantly macroeconomic nature. To achieve these goals, the editors encouraged the authors of the country studies to address a set of microeconomic issues, including the extent to which the incidence and duration of unemployment varied across economic and demographic groups, and the effect of unemployment on labor force participation and poverty. Two macroeconomic issues also are addressed in several of the papers: the effects of real wages and of unemployment insurance on unemployment. These two ...


Malthus Was Right After All: Poor Relief And Birth Rates In Southeastern England, George R. Boyer Feb 1989

Malthus Was Right After All: Poor Relief And Birth Rates In Southeastern England, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

The payment of child allowances to laborers with large families was widespread in early nineteenth-century England. This paper tests Thomas Malthus's hypothesis that child allowances caused the birth rate to increase. A cross-sectional regression model is estimated to explain variations in birth rates across parishes in 1826-30. Birth rates are found to be related to child allowances, income, and the availability of housing, as Malthus contended. The paper concludes by examining the role played by the adoption of child allowances after 1795 in the fertility increase of the early nineteenth century.


What Did Unions Do In Nineteenth-Century Britain?, George R. Boyer Jun 1988

What Did Unions Do In Nineteenth-Century Britain?, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

The article examines the development of the insurance function of trade unions. It analyzes how such policies worked, and why union benefit packages differed across occupations. It also addresses the impact of insurance policies on union organization. Insurance benefits increased the ability of unions to attract and retain members. They did not, however, significantly increase the power of union leaders relative to employers or union rank and file.


[Review Of The Book The Economics Of The Industrial Revolution], George R. Boyer Jul 1986

[Review Of The Book The Economics Of The Industrial Revolution], George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This book contains a collection of papers on the causes and impact of the Industrial Revolution in Britain. The authors are, with perhaps one exception, practitioners of the New Economic History, which relies on economic theory and statistical testing of hypotheses. The papers cover three topics: the causes of the Industrial Revolution; the role of agriculture; and the impact of industrialization on the standard of living of British workers.


The Old Poor Law And The Agricultural Labor Market In Southern England: An Empirical Analysis, George R. Boyer Mar 1986

The Old Poor Law And The Agricultural Labor Market In Southern England: An Empirical Analysis, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

The paper examines the economic role played by poor relief in early nineteenth-century England. A three-equation model is estimated to explain cross-parish variations in per capita relief expenditures, agricultural laborers' annual wage income, and unemployment rates. Relief expenditures are found to be related to crop mix, the political power of labor-hiring farmers, distance from London, and employment opportunities in cottage industry. The results strongly support the revisionist analysis of the Old Poor Law, and reject the analysis contained in the Report of the Royal Poor Law Commission.


[Review Of The Book The Idea Of Poverty: England In The Early Industrial Age], George R. Boyer Jul 1985

[Review Of The Book The Idea Of Poverty: England In The Early Industrial Age], George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] One must have some knowledge of a society's conception of poverty in order to understand the existence of differing methods of poor relief over time and place. In The Idea of Poverty, Gertrude Himmelfarb presents a detailed account of England's poverty problem during the years 1750 to 1850 as seen by contemporary English economists, politicians, journalists, and novelists. She attempts to determine why the image of poverty, and of the poor, changed over those years and how the popular image of the poor influenced society's methods of relieving poverty. The result is a book that anyone ...


The Economic Role Of The English Poor Law, 1780-1834, George R. Boyer Jun 1985

The Economic Role Of The English Poor Law, 1780-1834, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Over the 85-year period from 1748/50 to 1832/34, real per capita expenditures on poor relief increased at an average rate of approximately 1 percent per year. There were also important changes in the administration of relief with respect to able-bodied laborers during the period. Policies providing relief outside of workhouses to unemployed and under-employed able-bodied laborers became widespread during the 1770s and 1780s in the grain-producing South and East of England. The so-called Speenhamland system of outdoor relief flourished until 1834, when it was abolished by the Poor Law Amendment Act. The aim of the thesis is ...


[Review Of The Book British Labour History, 1815-1914], George R. Boyer Jan 1985

[Review Of The Book British Labour History, 1815-1914], George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] One of the most important issues in economic history is the effect of industrialization on workers' living standards and on the development of labor movements and class consciousness. Because Great Britain was the first nation to industrialize, the British workers have been a favorite topic among economic and social historians. Until now, however, there have been no textbooks covering all aspects of British labor history. E. H. Hunt has admirably filled this gap. His book deals with practically every topic of interest concerning British workers from the end of the Napoleonic Wars to the beginning of World War I.


The Union Wage Effect In Late Nineteenth Century Britain, Timothy J. Hatton, George R. Boyer, Roy E. Bailey Nov 1984

The Union Wage Effect In Late Nineteenth Century Britain, Timothy J. Hatton, George R. Boyer, Roy E. Bailey

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This paper offers an historical dimension to the impact of trade unions on earnings by estimating the union wage effect in Britain in 1889-90 using data from the US Commissioner of Labor survey conducted at that time. The determinants of union status are also investigated in terms of a probit estimation using individual characteristics which may be correlated with union membership. The results of this first step are used in the computation of selectivity corrected estimates of the union wage effect. It is found that the effect of union membership on earnings at this time was of the order ...