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Full-Text Articles in Economic History

The Oecd And Phases In The International Political Economy, 1961-2011, Judith Clifton, Daniel Díaz-Fuentes Dec 2011

The Oecd And Phases In The International Political Economy, 1961-2011, Judith Clifton, Daniel Díaz-Fuentes

Judith Clifton

In 2011, the OECD turned fifty. To provide a broad foundation for further thinking on this organization, we analyse its evolution over half a century from two perspectives: phases in the international political economy and the literature on IPE. By so doing, we uncover two paradoxes. Firstly, we find that the organization’s evolution closely mirrored major phases in the postwar international political economy until recently. However, the OECD’s long-term dependence on theWest has now become an obstacle to its efforts to adapt to the latest phase, characterised by the rise of non-Western powers. Secondly, we show that, during ...


Introduction To The Symposium On 'Financial Risks And Economic Stability In Emerging Market Economies', Lucjan Orlowski Dec 2011

Introduction To The Symposium On 'Financial Risks And Economic Stability In Emerging Market Economies', Lucjan Orlowski

WCBT Faculty Publications

Developing resilience to contagion effects from global financial crises and economic recessions has been an ongoing crucial task for policymakers in emerging market economies. The recent global financial crisis of 2007-2009 has underscored the importance of pursuing disciplined macroeconomic policies and of devising sound macroprudential regulations that would strengthen the immunity of emerging markets and their institutions to various types of risks, including credit, default, sovereign, liquidity and market risks. The studies included in this symposium are not intended to provide a comprehensive overview of financial vulnerabilities in a broad spectrum of emerging markets. Rather, they share a common aim ...


Impacts Of Social Upbringing On Family Integration In Military Life In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Oct 2011

Impacts Of Social Upbringing On Family Integration In Military Life In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

In a country on the eve of losing one third of its land, 80% of potential natural resources and 75% of external exports value, economic future seems gloomy. Many opinions were given for economic solutions after the Southern Sudan secession. However, that does not support a theoretical framework that those are the only reasons for the expected economic collapse. Our theory here is that such collapse already happened because of economic mismanagement, corruption and hoarding initiated by the calls for empowerment and carried out by the regime's members. Such acts extended to the banks, economic institutions and randomized privatization ...


Multinational Companies And Investments In Sudan: Case Study Of Oil Exploration And Extraction, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Oct 2011

Multinational Companies And Investments In Sudan: Case Study Of Oil Exploration And Extraction, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The purpose of this paper is to present the role of multinational companies in general then its role in Sudan with particular emphasis on oil exploration and extraction. Chinese companies of multinationalities currently control the newly born oil industry in the country. Needless to say that the dire needs of the government because of its international isolation and sanctions compelled it to be subjected to bellow standards conditions in all economic and environmental aspects. The government accepted the conditions for the past twelve years. However, the secession of Southern Sudan into new country gives better re-negotiations opportunity to the newly ...


Impacts Of Formal Financing On The Development Of The Sudanese Agricultural Sector, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor Aug 2011

Impacts Of Formal Financing On The Development Of The Sudanese Agricultural Sector, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The agricultural sector of Sudan is faced by many problems. In the irrigated schemes, the government who officially owns most of them there are entrenched managerial problems that brewed for more than six decades. Moreover, the privatization policies of those schemes provoked many outcries and protests. Large schemes like Gezira have collapsed, this year 2011, only 10% of its over one million hectares were cultivated. The rainfed farming is not different with lack of machineries, shortages of available labor and high priced agricultural inputs, it is not expected to fare better than the irrigated schemes. However, even if those problems ...


African Economic Blocs And Trade: Case Study Of Comesa And Sudan, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor Aug 2011

African Economic Blocs And Trade: Case Study Of Comesa And Sudan, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Comprehensively, Economic Trade Partnerships and Blocs are important to a member country. However, with the continuing global financial distresses it is useful to evaluate them to maximize possible benefit. The question of joining, continue membership with the Comesa is vital to the Sudanese economy that presently stands in a very decisive time. The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa is a free trade area with nineteen member states stretching from Libya to Zimbabwe. COMESA formed in December 1994, replacing a Preferential Trade Area which had existed since 1981. Nine of the member states formed a free trade area in ...


Economic Papers Online, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor Aug 2011

Economic Papers Online, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Those are economic papers online on the pages of Econpaper by Issam AW Mohamed


Review Of The Role Of Agriculture In Sudan Economy, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor Aug 2011

Review Of The Role Of Agriculture In Sudan Economy, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The calamities of Sudan expand on daily basis. The secession of Southern Sudan has deprived the country of 25% of it total area, 24% of population, over 80% of its oil income. Moreover, it has separated with 75% of it vegetation cover and 30% of potential arable land. In addition, Sudan stands to tolerate at least 25% of its water resources. Economic situation precarious with the Darfur rebellions, the inception of Southern Kordofan's region civil strive and the inflamed complaints in its Blue Nile region. That resulted besides deprivation of oil revenues and other potentials to increased cost of ...


Effects Of The Humanitarian Aid, Internal Displacement On The Social Impacts In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Aug 2011

Effects Of The Humanitarian Aid, Internal Displacement On The Social Impacts In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The study presented here reviews activities of NGOs in Sudan by surveying and studying the activities of Save the Children of United Kingdom. Activities of NGOs in Sudan were always a controversial issue that resulted in the expulsion of many in 2009. There were also precedents of such expulsions in previous and following years. The paper discusses humanitarian work in Sudan, positive and negative sides. The case study's activities of the Save the Children efforts in Jebel Aulia Internally Displaced People, specially their efforts in education were investigated. It is concluded that introduce invaluable help in educational field, building ...


Regulating And Deregulating The Public Utilities 1830–2010, Judith Clifton Dr. Aug 2011

Regulating And Deregulating The Public Utilities 1830–2010, Judith Clifton Dr.

Judith Clifton

History can provide invaluable insights into important issues of the economic and social regulation of utilities, and offer lessons towards future debates. But the history of utility regulation – which speaks of changing, diverse and complex experiences around the world – was, unfortunately, sidelined or marginalised when economists and policymakers enthusiastically embraced the question of how to reform the utilities from the 1970s. This paper provides an overview of the three, overarching, `waves' of utility regulation from the nineteenth century to the present, documenting how, when and why the ways in which the roles of the state, the market and firms altered ...


From National Monopoly To Multinational Corporation: How Regulation Shaped The Road Towards Telecommunications Internationalisation, Judith Clifton, Daniel Díaz-Fuentes, Francisco Comín Aug 2011

From National Monopoly To Multinational Corporation: How Regulation Shaped The Road Towards Telecommunications Internationalisation, Judith Clifton, Daniel Díaz-Fuentes, Francisco Comín

Judith Clifton

One of the consequences of major regulatory reform of the telecommunications sector from the end of the 1970s – particularly, privatisation, liberalisation and deregulation – was the establishment of a new business environment which permitted former national telecommunications monopolies to expand abroad. From the 1990s, a number of these firms, particularly those based in Europe, joined the rankings of the world's leading multinational corporations. Their internationalisation was uneven, however: while some firms internationalised strongly, others ventured abroad much slower. This article explores how the regulatory framework within which telecommunications incumbents evolved over the long-term shaped their subsequent, uneven, paths to internationalisation ...


Global Financial Crisis And Effects On The Agricultural Sector Of Sudan, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor Jul 2011

Global Financial Crisis And Effects On The Agricultural Sector Of Sudan, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The severe impacts of the global financial crisis had effects on all world. However, in Sudan scientists and researchers were greatly shocked because of the governmental camouflaging on their real effects on the economy. Minister of National Economy and Finance denied the effects on the Sudanese economy. The governor of the Sudan Central bank did the same with emphasis from both that everything are quite and normal and that Sudan can absorb all shocks on its economic performance. Truly, they ave eaten their words in the following months and confessed the partial effects on the Sudanese economy. Moreover, after they ...


Thieves Or Doctors, Armed Civil Conflicts In Darfur And Impacts On Education In Refugees Camps, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Jul 2011

Thieves Or Doctors, Armed Civil Conflicts In Darfur And Impacts On Education In Refugees Camps, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The study presented here depends on a field survey of refugees' camps in war strived Darfur region. The data are genuine from people and children. The expelling of NGOs from the region was a moral shock to the whole world, but in Darfur, it was a humanitarian catastrophe affecting the population. In this paper, I surveyed and analyzed data on what I consider the most important factor which are children and establish education as the base of the arguments introduced here. A case study is introduced which is Attash refugees or displaced camp were produced. Data were collected by field ...


Impacts Of Sudan Macroeconomic Policy On Agriculture, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor Jul 2011

Impacts Of Sudan Macroeconomic Policy On Agriculture, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The crisis of Southern Sudan and eminent secession in 9 July 2011 is a nightmare to the Sudanese national economy. The dependence on oil revenue that controlled the country for the past 11 years and negligence of the other real economy's economic sectors, agriculture and industry severely threatens the country. That is not only with diminished returns but with also with economic nightmarish economic catastrophe, famine and internal implosion. Short-sightedness on utilizing the oil money that bubbled the economy atrophied the real economic sectors and disabled it from responding to secession consequences of parting with 75% of revenues from ...


The Crisis Of A Nation (1), Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Jul 2011

The Crisis Of A Nation (1), Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

This is the first part of a book I started writing in the year 2008 under the title of Sad Triology: The Crisis of a Nation. I name this chapter the Delirium as it represents the political response to what happens in the country due to the international outrage and pressures to Darfur Crisis. This part is narrating pressures on Sudan's Inqaz regime, specially after the Darfur region crisis and civil wars, the rage of the international society and responses, the impacts of the International Instututions including the ICC and the hunt for justice. All those qualitative variables had ...


Wto-Doha Multilateral Trade Negotiations And Agriculture, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Jul 2011

Wto-Doha Multilateral Trade Negotiations And Agriculture, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The Doha Development Round or Doha Development Agenda (DDA) is the current trade-negotiation round of the World Trade Organization (WTO), which launched in November 2001. With the start of this round, non-trade concerns (NTCs) were explicitly renowned and integrated into the negotiation process. Generally, multi-functionality proponents attempt to resist agricultural trade liberalization by giving high support to protect their domestic producers. These are net food importing countries, some small countries with highly protected agricultural sector and large trade deficits in some main outputs and unfavourable agro-climatic conditions. The opponents of the multi-functionality argument all claim to recognize the legitimacy of ...


Empowerment, Corruption And Economic Chaos In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Jun 2011

Empowerment, Corruption And Economic Chaos In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

In a country on the eve of losing one third of its land, 80% of potential natural resources and 75% of external exports value, economic future seems gloomy. Many opinions were given for economic solutions after the Southern Sudan secession. However, that does not support a theoretical framework that those are the only reasons for the expected economic collapse. Our theory here is that such collapse already happened because of economic mismanagement, corruption and hoarding initiated by the calls for empowerment and carried out by the regime's members. Such acts extended to the banks, economic institutions and randomized privatization ...


Analysis Of Hiv/Aids Incidents In Sudan With Reference To Khartoum State, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Jun 2011

Analysis Of Hiv/Aids Incidents In Sudan With Reference To Khartoum State, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The present paper introduces results of an analysis conducted on data collected from Khartoum state for the yea 2009. It aims to apply statistical models for the HIV/AIDS data in Khartoum state centers of testing blood and counseling. AIDS is recognized as an emerging disease only in the early 1980s, AIDS has rapidly established itself throughout the world, and is likely to endure and persist well into the 21s century. AIDS has evolved from a mysterious illness to a global pandemic which has infected tens of millions less than 20 years. The importance of the study is to emphasize ...


Pillars Of Demise: Empowerment And Corruption, Economic Chaos And Political Disintegration In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Jun 2011

Pillars Of Demise: Empowerment And Corruption, Economic Chaos And Political Disintegration In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

In a country on the eve of losing one third of its land, 80% of potential natural resources and 75% of external exports value, economic future seems gloomy. Many opinions were given for economic solutions after the Southern Sudan secession. However, that does not support a theoretical framework that those are the only reasons for the expected economic collapse. Our theory here is that such collapse already happened because of economic mismanagement, corruption and hoarding initiated by the calls for empowerment and carried out by the regime's members. Such acts extended to the banks, economic institutions and randomized privatization ...


Review Of Somalia, Greed, Colonization And Socioeconomic Impacts, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Jun 2011

Review Of Somalia, Greed, Colonization And Socioeconomic Impacts, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

In a country that lost all feasible authorities for over twenty years economic future seems gloomy. No feasible economic solutions are seen. The paper review auspices of the Somalian tragedy and retort history of its last dictatorship, Siad Barri, the following civil conflict and the process of the present total war, everyone against everyone. Socioeconomic impacts are discussed along with the education situation and state human capital there.


Economics Of Water Use For Commodity Production In Scarcity Arid Regions: Kutum, Darfur, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor Jun 2011

Economics Of Water Use For Commodity Production In Scarcity Arid Regions: Kutum, Darfur, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The paper investigates water use in a rural village in semi-arid of Darfur region. Water use is viewed from the perspective of four production sectors: agriculture, rural industry, trade and services as well as domestic: drinking, cooking and sanitary uses. Water for these uses may be from three sources: rain water, surface water, and groundwater. This study focuses on groundwater. Results of a detailed survey indicate that groundwater use is dominated by agricultural activities including irrigated vegetables and grains, tree crops, and animal rearing. A ratio of water use to income generated is used as a measure of water intensity ...


Chaebol And Korea's Industrial Finance, Murat Doral, Michael Patrono Jun 2011

Chaebol And Korea's Industrial Finance, Murat Doral, Michael Patrono

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

The Korean economy is based on a government led and export oriented growth model centered on business groups or conglomerates known as chaebols which have close relationships with the government. The government led growth model, also known as Guided or Managed Capitalism, relies on a government dominated, but privately owned, business sector. The private business sector is itself dominated by chaebols which are family owned or controlled business groups. These groups are supported by preferential relationships with the government. While the chaebol system was an important element of South Korea's early industrial growth, it ultimately had to be reformed ...


Impacts Of The Political Regime On The High Education System Of Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed May 2011

Impacts Of The Political Regime On The High Education System Of Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

In totalitarian systems, especially that of dogmatic nature, education is often targeted to be devoted for the preparations of young generations and dedicating them to the regimes' structure and principles. However, such method negatively influences the educational system and renders the efficient inputs to students. The results can be manifested in deterioration of knowledge, human capital development and the future performance per se.


Effects Of Social Edification And Family Integration In Military Life In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed May 2011

Effects Of Social Edification And Family Integration In Military Life In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The Sudanese army human components are unique in its composition. That is reflected in the country's political and social life. The independence of 1956 means fifty five of turmoil and turbulences. Democratically elected governments controlled the country for only ten years while the military institution's coup de etats took the rest. This paper studies the impacts of social upbringing on the families, military or civilians in order too shed lights on why all military, seemingly are possessed by the illusion of grasping power. The military seems built into the Sudanese society in superior form, i.e., above the ...


The Labor Market Effects Of U.S. Immigration: What Is The Latest Evidence?, Orn Bodvarsson Apr 2011

The Labor Market Effects Of U.S. Immigration: What Is The Latest Evidence?, Orn Bodvarsson

Western Migration Conference Series

Bio:

Örn Bodvarsson is Professor of Economics, Chair of the Department of Management, and Interim Chair of the Department of Social Work at St. Cloud State University. He is also a Research Fellow at the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Bonn, Germany. A labor economist, Bodvarsson has been working in the immigration field since 2001, focusing on host country distributional effects of immigration, determinants of migration, internal migration in China, and wage discrimination against the foreign-born. In 2009 Springer published his co-authored book, The Economics of Immigration: Theory and Policy, recently reviewed in Journal of Economic Literature.


An Overview Of Economic Patterns Of Partnerships Between Developing And Rich Countries With Special Reference To Usa And Sudan, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor Apr 2011

An Overview Of Economic Patterns Of Partnerships Between Developing And Rich Countries With Special Reference To Usa And Sudan, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The current paper presents unique approach to economic analysis where the theoretical framework applied here postulates that relationships between rogue countries, such as Korea, Syria, Iran and Sudan necessarily are potential parts for an economically mutual and viably profitable partnership. The paper reviews such relationships, especially between African and European countries like Lume and kotono. I first present a review of existing trade and economic partnerships. Next, I discuss economic relationships between developed and developing countries. It is revealed that in some instances, the predatory nature of those agreements and partnerships are manifested which atrophy the basic potentials of the ...


Poverty Alleviation, Banks' Structures And Islamic Financing In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Apr 2011

Poverty Alleviation, Banks' Structures And Islamic Financing In Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The continuous regressions in the per capita income of the Sudanese people have triggered many suggestions to ameliorate their productive capabilities. One of them was the facilitations in financing programs through official channels. However, there are many structural impediments that inhibit those programs. One of the financial programs was the Small or miniature financing in addition to the establishment to specialized Banks as the Family Bank. The current paper discusses issues of financing in Sudan as part of programs initiated to improve income per capita. Islamic and regular financing systems are analyzed in order to explain existing impediments. Then Family ...


Implications Of Economic Interactions Between Northern And Southern Tribes Of Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Mar 2011

Implications Of Economic Interactions Between Northern And Southern Tribes Of Sudan, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The present paper discusses issues of the tribal interactions living on the borders between North and South Sudan. Foresights are looked for, especially after secession. There are multiple ethnic relations and mutual resources collectively utilized. Different tribes live on those resources, in specifics those who depend on a livelihood of herding cattle, camels, sheep and goats. The conceptions of no-borders, free water resources and open range were entrenched for hundreds of years. The sudden realization of necessities of new borders generates revulsion, sense of deprivation and end of traditional life practice. Additionally, development issues are weak with lack of infrastructure ...


Economic Perspectives Of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Technology Transfer And Rural Water Use In Darfur, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor Mar 2011

Economic Perspectives Of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Technology Transfer And Rural Water Use In Darfur, Issam A.W. Mohamed Professor

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Civil strife, human sufferings are the signs pronounced by international media. There are political ramifications of the Darfur crisis, however, there are also the problems of water availability and methods of utilization. The current paper analyzes field data survey collected from the town of Kutum, Northern Darfur where the civil crisis started. The focus is on studying methods and utilization efficiency in the area. It is concluded here that it is important to revise technological transfer to me integrated with the indigenous knowledge for better and sustainable water use in Kutum, Darfur.


Using Garch Model In The Analysis Of Trade Liberalization And Poverty In Developing Countries, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed Mar 2011

Using Garch Model In The Analysis Of Trade Liberalization And Poverty In Developing Countries, Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

Professor Issam A.W. Mohamed

The current paper reviews impacts of trade liberalization on developing countries and levels of poverty. The expected impacts of multilateral trade liberalization on wage levels and subsequent poverty are implored. Empirical Auto-regression models are visualized to develop a different set of strategies and programs to provide real benefits to the poor with real benefits. It is concluded that GARCH updating formula takes the weighted average of the unconditional variance, the squared residual for the first observation and the starting variance and estimates the variance of the second observation. This input into the forecast of the third variance and so forth ...