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Full-Text Articles in Economic History

The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter Jul 2019

The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

The international economic trends of globalization and neoliberalism have exposed and enabled the exploitation of Mexican workers, especially women in the maquiladora garment industry. During the 1950s, globalization gave rise to the new international division of labor and transnational corporations (TNCs) that have offshored labor-intensive phases of production to developing countries, many of which have pursued export-led industrialization. Export processing in Mexico was encouraged in the 1960s by Item 807 of the U.S. Tariff Code and Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program. Especially following the Latin American debt crisis of the 1980s, advanced capitalist countries and International Financial Institutions foisted ...


Lessons Learned: The National Consumers' League, The Fight For $15, And Their Battles To Raise The Minimum Wage, Rosa Mykyta-Chomsky May 2019

Lessons Learned: The National Consumers' League, The Fight For $15, And Their Battles To Raise The Minimum Wage, Rosa Mykyta-Chomsky

Senior Theses

In 2019, workers in the United States often find themselves unable to support a family on the wages produced by one job, or even several, jobs. The pattern has obtained for more than a century. In this paper, I examine historical efforts to address this plight and discuss how non­government organizations may collaborate to combat the problem. I focus on the work of the National Consumers' League, and its efforts during the first three decades of the twentieth century to promote protective labor legislation. Specifically, I examine the NCL's work in connection with the Adkins v. Children's ...


Examination Of United States Housing Data And The Racial Wealth Gap Case Study Of Westchester County, Ny, Ezekiel Nana Demasio Jan 2019

Examination Of United States Housing Data And The Racial Wealth Gap Case Study Of Westchester County, Ny, Ezekiel Nana Demasio

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


Through The Eyes Of Locals: A Changing Climate In Bolivia, Jacob D. Rex Jan 2019

Through The Eyes Of Locals: A Changing Climate In Bolivia, Jacob D. Rex

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Deforestation and Agricultural Land-Use Change in Bolivia as a Function of Socio-Economic Realities.

This research combines semi-structured interviews of key informants and local participants, as well as field observations, which were conducted between January and April of 2019 in the Departments of Santa Cruz & Chuquisaca.


Philadelphia Inventories Of Estate 1746-1775, Billy G. Smith Dec 2018

Philadelphia Inventories Of Estate 1746-1775, Billy G. Smith

The Magazine of Early American Datasets (MEAD)

PHILADELPHIA INVENTORIES of Estate, 1746-1775 (Project 45). Value of Estates.

Source: Inventories of Estate for Philadelphia, Philadelphia City Archives.


Entrepreneurship Education Empowers Youth To Change Their Lives, Marianna Brashear, Jason Riddle Mar 2018

Entrepreneurship Education Empowers Youth To Change Their Lives, Marianna Brashear, Jason Riddle

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) aims at equipping Title 1 schools with free, hands-on, engaging materials that any teacher can facilitate either individually or in a classroom setting with no background in entrepreneurship necessary. These versatile lessons, courses, and workshops teach the entrepreneurial mindset optimizing opportunities for grades 8-12 students no matter which life/career path they choose.


The Colonial American Economy, Joshua L. Rosenbloom Feb 2018

The Colonial American Economy, Joshua L. Rosenbloom

Economics Working Papers

The first permanent British settlement in what became the United States was established in 1607, nearly 170 years prior to the American declaration of independence. This chapter examines the economic development of the British North American colonies that became the United States. As it describes, abundant natural resources and scarce labor and capital contributed to the remarkable growth in the size of the colonial economy, and allowed the free white colonial population to enjoy a relatively high standard of living. There was not, however, much improvement over time in living standards. Patterns of factor abundance also played an important role ...


Antebellum Labor Markets, Joshua L. Rosenbloom Feb 2018

Antebellum Labor Markets, Joshua L. Rosenbloom

Economics Working Papers

The United States economy was transformed in the period between American independence and the beginning of the Civil War by rapid population growth, the development of manufacturing, the onset of modern economic growth, increasing urbanization, the rapid spread of settlement into the trans-Appalachian west, and the rise of European immigration. These years were also characterized by an increasing sectional conflict between free and slave states that culminated in 1861 in Southern secession from the Union and a bloody and destructive Civil War. Labor markets were central to each of these developments, directing the reallocation of labor between sectors and regions ...


Constraining Labor's “Double Freedom”: Revisiting The Impact Of Wrongful Discharge Laws On Labor Markets, 1979-2014, Eric Hoyt Jan 2018

Constraining Labor's “Double Freedom”: Revisiting The Impact Of Wrongful Discharge Laws On Labor Markets, 1979-2014, Eric Hoyt

Doctoral Dissertations

I study the impact of wrongful discharge laws, a form of employment protection in the U.S., on union membership, wages, job tenure, and on-the-job training. There are several important contributions of this work to the previous social science research on the topic: First, I update the legal adoption dataset to 2014. Second, this is the first examination to date of the link between wrongful discharge laws and unions. Third, this is the first analysis that is able to include firm size controls in the investigation of the impact of wrongful discharge laws on wages. Finally, this analysis is the ...


An Evaluation Of The State Of Iowa Revenue Forecasts, 1995 – 2017, Peter F. Orazem Dec 2017

An Evaluation Of The State Of Iowa Revenue Forecasts, 1995 – 2017, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers

A critical task in establishing the State of Iowa budget is to project available tax revenue. The 2017 fiscal year was characterized by tax revenues that did not live up to predictions, leading to midyear cuts in planned government expenditures and tapping into reserves. That experience raises the question of whether the Iowa state government revenue forecasts are faulty. Are revenue shortfalls avoidable through improved forecasts or are occasional shortfalls inevitable with even the best statistical predictions? I will show that the Iowa government revenue forecasts pass the standard tests of unbiasedness and rationality, meaning that they are not obviously ...


Essays On Inequality And Macroeconomic Stability, Thomas Hauner Sep 2017

Essays On Inequality And Macroeconomic Stability, Thomas Hauner

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation consists of three chapters. . .

Chapter 1: Aggregate Wealth and Its Distribution as Determinants of Financial Crises: Panel Evidence This essay investigates the relationship between wealth inequality and financial crises across a panel of nine advanced economies over the past 100 years. While substantiation of a role for income inequality is ambiguous in the literature, evidence is presented suggesting a unique capacity for the accumulation of assets to increase the likelihood of a future financial crisis episode. Testing long-run panel data with a reduced form, two-way fixed effects model, estimates suggest that increasing wealth inequality, in an economy with ...


The Impact Of Wealth And Sentiment On Consumption: Before And After The Great Recession, Joshua Schwartz Jun 2017

The Impact Of Wealth And Sentiment On Consumption: Before And After The Great Recession, Joshua Schwartz

Honors Theses

I study the impact of consumer sentiment and the wealth effect on aggregate U.S. consumption before and after the Great Recession. First I will introduce a background of the 2008 financial crisis and some major factors leading up to it. I will discuss both the Michigan Consumer Sentiment index as well as the Conference Board's Consumer Confidence index. I will also discuss several measures of net worth relevant for my study. Second I will discuss the relevant literature and the main findings that correspond to my thesis. Third I will present the methodology used for my thesis and ...


The Current Farm Downturn Vs The 1920s And 1980s Farm Crises: An Economic And Regulatory Comparison, Wendong Zhang, Kristine A. Tidgren Jan 2017

The Current Farm Downturn Vs The 1920s And 1980s Farm Crises: An Economic And Regulatory Comparison, Wendong Zhang, Kristine A. Tidgren

Economics Publications

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the current farm economic downturn and credit restructuring by comparing it with the 1920s and 1980s farm crises from both economic and regulatory perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach This paper closely compares critical economic and regulatory aspects of the current farm downturn with two previous farm crises in the 1920s and 1980s, and equally importantly, the golden eras that occurred before them. This study compares key aggregate statistics in land value, agricultural credit, lending regulations, and also evaluates the situations and impacts on individual farmer households by using three representative case studies ...


Institutionalized: How Racial Wealth Inequality Creates A Cycle Of Mass Incarceration, Alphonso C. Kenneth Jan 2017

Institutionalized: How Racial Wealth Inequality Creates A Cycle Of Mass Incarceration, Alphonso C. Kenneth

Senior Projects Fall 2017

Racial wealth inequality is a relentless cycle that operates uniquely in America because it implies that the racial consequences of racism continue to influence decisions made in structures and institutions and create unjust economic relationships between white and Black people in America.(Richard F. America) The recent political discourse alleges, by asserting neoclassical theory, that the wealth divide is resultant of differences in self-determination, prioritization, and work ethic alone varying across racial demographics — reinforcing the assumption that some races of people (Whites and Asians, for example) work harder than others(like Blacks). Therefore, by the transitive property, racial wealth inequality ...


Trends And Determinants Of Us Farmland Values Since 1910: Evidence From The Iowa Land Value Survey, Wendong Zhang, Zachariah Beek Jan 2016

Trends And Determinants Of Us Farmland Values Since 1910: Evidence From The Iowa Land Value Survey, Wendong Zhang, Zachariah Beek

Economics Publications

Valued at 2.31 trillion US dollars in 2016, farm real estate (land and structures) accounted for 85% of total US farm assets; in addition, farm real estate also represents the largest single item in a typical farmer’s investment portfolio. As a result, changes in its values have been a perennial interest to policy-makers, farmers, researchers and investors alike. Focusing on Iowa, a Midwestern state at the heart of the Corn Belt, and using annual data since 1950 from the Iowa Land Value Survey, this article analyses what drives the changes in land values in Iowa and across the ...


Housing Market Bust And Farmland Values: Identifying The Changing Influence Of Proximity To Urban Centers, Wendong Zhang, Cynthia J. Nickerson Nov 2015

Housing Market Bust And Farmland Values: Identifying The Changing Influence Of Proximity To Urban Centers, Wendong Zhang, Cynthia J. Nickerson

Economics Publications

This article estimates the impact of the 2007–2008 residential housing market bust on farmland values, using parcel-level farmland sales data from 2001–2010 for a 50-county region under urbanization pressure in western Ohio. Hedonic model estimates reveal that farmland was not immune to the residential housing bust; the portion of farmland value attributable to proximity to urban areas was almost cut in half shortly after the bust in 2009–2010. Nonetheless, total farmland prices remained relatively stable in the 2000s, likely due to increased demand for agricultural commodities. Our results are robust to different assumptions about the structure of ...


Economic Wealth And Social Welfare: A Longitudinal Analysis Of Transnational Well-Being, Kelly Brooke Martin Oct 2015

Economic Wealth And Social Welfare: A Longitudinal Analysis Of Transnational Well-Being, Kelly Brooke Martin

KELLY B MARTIN

Macro changes in the financial arena have prompted ongoing research focused on global economic trends. As America emerges from an era of stagnant wages, rising unemployment, and growing class stratification it is necessary to explore differences in cross-national socioeconomic behavior to address the changing needs of our country. Many studies attempt to describe statistical correlations between economic wealth and social well-being domestically and abroad by utilizing methodological perspectives that do not account for longitudinal change. To address the gap in existing research, this study seeks to measure variations in econometric indicators between the U.S. and Nordic countries to further ...


Higher Education And Income Distribution In A Less Developed Country, Gary S. Fields Sep 2015

Higher Education And Income Distribution In A Less Developed Country, Gary S. Fields

Gary S Fields

[Excerpt] The primary purpose of this paper is to empirically test among both the intra- and the inter-generational version of these three hypotheses for higher (i.e. post-secondary) levels of education for one less developed country, Kenya. A secondary purpose is to investigate other economic aspects of spending on higher education, most notably the question of horizontal equity in school finance. Before proceeding, a methodological point is in order. There is no consensus in the public economics literature on what is a suitable criterion for assessing the equitability of a fiscal programme. At least three criteria may be distinguished (the ...


Wealthy, But Unequal: The Anomaly Of Inequality In The United States, Joseph Puleo Aug 2015

Wealthy, But Unequal: The Anomaly Of Inequality In The United States, Joseph Puleo

Political Analysis

No abstract provided.


Economic Wealth And Social Welfare: A Longitudinal Analysis Of Transnational Well-Being, Kelly Brooke Martin Aug 2015

Economic Wealth And Social Welfare: A Longitudinal Analysis Of Transnational Well-Being, Kelly Brooke Martin

Doctoral Dissertations

Macro changes in the financial arena have prompted ongoing research focused on global economic trends. As America emerges from an era of stagnant wages, rising unemployment, and growing class stratification it is necessary to explore differences in cross-national socioeconomic behavior to address the changing needs of our country. Many studies attempt to describe statistical correlations between economic wealth and social well-being domestically and abroad by utilizing methodological perspectives that do not account for longitudinal change. To address the gap in existing research, this study seeks to measure variations in econometric indicators between the U.S. and Nordic countries to further ...


The Labor Share Question In China, Hao Qi Jan 2015

The Labor Share Question In China, Hao Qi

Doctoral Dissertations

In this study I explore why China’s labor share measured by the conventional approach experienced a major decline over the period from the mid-1990s to the outbreak of the global financial and economic crisis in 2008. I adopt a Marxian approach to address this question. Following the Marxian approach, I focus on how the power relation in the sphere of production affects labor’s share. I argue that major changes in the power relation that took place during the transition of China’s economic system have played a crucial role in the changes of distribution.

To this end, I ...


The Political Economy Of Environmental Justice: A Comparative Study Of New Delhi And Los Angeles, Ratik Asokan Jan 2015

The Political Economy Of Environmental Justice: A Comparative Study Of New Delhi And Los Angeles, Ratik Asokan

CMC Senior Theses

Though mainstream environmentalism, both in the U.S. and India, was initially rooted in social justice, it has, over time, moved away from this focus. The Environmental Justice Movement consequently arose to reunite social and environmental activism. In this thesis, I trace the historical relationship between the mainstream environmentalism, the Environmental Justice Movement, and marginalized communities. After providing this general overview, I examine two case studies – in Los Angeles and New Delhi respectively – where marginalized communities have been involved in Environmental Justice activities. My analysis reveals that marginalized communities often act in an ‘environmentalist’ or ‘environmentally friendly’ manner, without defining ...


La Economía Política De La Desigualdad De Ingreso En Chile, 1850-2009, Javier E. Rodríguez Weber Dec 2013

La Economía Política De La Desigualdad De Ingreso En Chile, 1850-2009, Javier E. Rodríguez Weber

Javier E. Rodríguez Weber

This dissertation studies the relationship between income inequality and the development process, considered as the sum of economic, social and political changes produced over time. It does so using the case of Chile between 1850 and 2009. Its goals are to describe the tendencies in income distribution over time, and also to explain, signalling their causes and some of their consequences. In the empirical area, the main contributions of the dissertation are the estimates of historical series of salaries, wages, and different measures of income distribution –Gini index, Theil, labour share and the income of the top 1%. To make ...


Challenges Of The Cooperative Movement In Addressing Issues Of Human Security In The Context Of A Neoliberal World: The Case Of Argentina, Stefan Ivanovski Mar 2012

Challenges Of The Cooperative Movement In Addressing Issues Of Human Security In The Context Of A Neoliberal World: The Case Of Argentina, Stefan Ivanovski

Stefan Ivanovski

The response of some Argentine workers to the 2001 crisis of neoliberalism gave rise to a movement of worker-recovered enterprises (empresas recuperadas por sus trabajadores or ERTs). The ERTs have emerged as former employees took over the control of generally fraudulently bankrupt factories and enterprises. The analysis of the ERT movement within the neoliberal global capitalist order will draw from William Robinson’s (2004) neo-Gramscian concept of hegemony. The theoretical framework of neo-Gramscian hegemony will be used in exposing the contradictions of capitalism on the global, national, organizational and individual scales and the effects they have on the ERT movement ...


[Review Of The Book The Idea Of Poverty: England In The Early Industrial Age], George R. Boyer Jan 2012

[Review Of The Book The Idea Of Poverty: England In The Early Industrial Age], George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

[Excerpt] One must have some knowledge of a society's conception of poverty in order to understand the existence of differing methods of poor relief over time and place. In The Idea of Poverty, Gertrude Himmelfarb presents a detailed account of England's poverty problem during the years 1750 to 1850 as seen by contemporary English economists, politicians, journalists, and novelists. She attempts to determine why the image of poverty, and of the poor, changed over those years and how the popular image of the poor influenced society's methods of relieving poverty. The result is a book that anyone ...


The Economic Role Of The English Poor Law, 1780-1834, George R. Boyer Jan 2012

The Economic Role Of The English Poor Law, 1780-1834, George R. Boyer

George R. Boyer

[Excerpt] Over the 85-year period from 1748/50 to 1832/34, real per capita expenditures on poor relief increased at an average rate of approximately 1 percent per year. There were also important changes in the administration of relief with respect to able-bodied laborers during the period. Policies providing relief outside of workhouses to unemployed and under-employed able-bodied laborers became widespread during the 1770s and 1780s in the grain-producing South and East of England. The so-called Speenhamland system of outdoor relief flourished until 1834, when it was abolished by the Poor Law Amendment Act. The aim of the thesis is ...


The Gettysburg Economic Review, Volume 6, Spring 2012 Jan 2012

The Gettysburg Economic Review, Volume 6, Spring 2012

Gettysburg Economic Review

No abstract provided.


The Rise Of American Industrial And Financial Corporations, Elizabeth A. Laughlin Jan 2012

The Rise Of American Industrial And Financial Corporations, Elizabeth A. Laughlin

Gettysburg Economic Review

This paper identifies and analyzes the steps the United States took in its progression to an industrial nation. Launched by the merger movement in the late nineteenth century, vertical and horizontal integration lead to trusts and monopolies in a number of industries. Simultaneously, the labor market was undergoing a number of reforms with the deskilling of workers. The rise of big business was made possible through the growth of the financial sectors and companies such as J.P Morgan. The case study of The Standard Oil Co. highlights the wealth and power that robber barons such as J.D. Rockefeller ...


Why Economic Performance Has Differed Between Brazil And China? A Comparative Analysis Of Brazilian And Chinese Macroeconomic Policy, Fernando Ferrari-Filho, Anthony Petros Spanakos Jun 2009

Why Economic Performance Has Differed Between Brazil And China? A Comparative Analysis Of Brazilian And Chinese Macroeconomic Policy, Fernando Ferrari-Filho, Anthony Petros Spanakos

Department of Political Science and Law Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

This paper addresses a specific question: why has China grown so rapidly and Brazil not? To answer this question, it (i) establishes the basis for comparison between China and Brazil by contextualizing these countries within the BRICs concept, and (ii) presents a comparative analysis of Brazilian and Chinese reforms focusing only on the issue of macroeconomic policy, especially the monetary and exchange rate regimes, and its effect on growth.


Commodity Exports, Invisible Exports And Terms Of Trade For The Middle Colonies, 1720 To 1775, Peter Mancall, Joshua L. Rosenbloom, Thomas J. Weiss Sep 2008

Commodity Exports, Invisible Exports And Terms Of Trade For The Middle Colonies, 1720 To 1775, Peter Mancall, Joshua L. Rosenbloom, Thomas J. Weiss

Joshua L. Rosenbloom

Economic historians of the eighteenth-century British mainland North American colonies have given considerable weight to the role of exports as a stimulus for economic growth. Yet their analyses have been handicapped by reliance on one or two time series to serve as indicators of broader changes rather than considering the export sector as a whole. Here we present new comprehensive export measures for the middle colonies. We find that aggregate exports in constant prices grew very quickly, but barely faster than population during the period under consideration. Furthermore, improvements in the terms of trade increased the colonists’ ability to buy ...