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Full-Text Articles in Economic History

Signals In The Black Stack / Geometyr Design Manual, Jason T. Scaglione Sep 2019

Signals In The Black Stack / Geometyr Design Manual, Jason T. Scaglione

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The following white paper provides a critical accompaniment to my capstone project: the GEOMEtyr Design Manual. GEOMEtyr is a virtual reality to be made accessible as a mobile and web platform for the visualization of certain systemic elements of a utopic world that parallels our own planet’s geographies, polities, and climates. As such, the GEOMEtyr virtualization is designed to derive utopian space from the informational structures of our own world. The operations by which this may be accomplished are broadly described within the accompanying GEOMEtyr manual. The white paper, Signals in the Black Stack, elaborates vital world-building characteristics of ...


Jpmorgan Chase London Whale C: Risk Limits, Metrics, And Models, Arwin G. Zeissler, Andrew Metrick Aug 2019

Jpmorgan Chase London Whale C: Risk Limits, Metrics, And Models, Arwin G. Zeissler, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

Value at Risk (VaR) is one of the most commonly used ways to measure and monitor market risk. At JPMorgan Chase (JPM), very large derivative positions established by Bruno Iksil in the Synthetic Credit Portfolio (SCP) caused the bank’s Chief Investment Office (CIO) to exceed its VaR limit for four days in a row in January 2012. In response, the CIO changed to a new VaR model on January 30, which appeared to immediately reduce VaR by half. However, JPM soon discovered that this new VaR model had not been properly implemented and the bank went back to using ...


Jpmorgan Chase London Whale B: Derivatives Valuation, Arwin G. Zeissler, Andrew Metrick Aug 2019

Jpmorgan Chase London Whale B: Derivatives Valuation, Arwin G. Zeissler, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

After consistently producing positive results through 2011, the JPMorgan Chase (JPM) traders who oversaw the bank’s Synthetic Credit Portfolio (SCP) grew alarmed by a consistent string of losses beginning in January 2012. (The SCP was maintained by JPM to help hedge default risk and was the source of the 2012 London Whale trading loss.) To minimize the losses reported to their superiors until such time that market prices hopefully turned in their favor, the SCP traders began valuing their largest derivative positions in a manner that was not consistent with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and JPM policy. The ...


Jpmorgan Chase London Whale A: Risky Business, Arwin G. Zeissler, Daisuke Ikeda, Andrew Metrick Aug 2019

Jpmorgan Chase London Whale A: Risky Business, Arwin G. Zeissler, Daisuke Ikeda, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

In December 2011, the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of JPMorgan Chase (JPM) instructed the bank’s Chief Investment Office to reduce the size of its Synthetic Credit Portfolio (SCP) during 2012, so that JPM could decrease its RiskWeighted Assets as the bank prepared to adopt the impending Basel III bank capital regulations. However, the SCP traders were also told to minimize the trading costs incurred to reduce Risk-Weighted Assets, while still maintaining the opportunity to profit from unexpected corporate bankruptcies. In an attempt to balance these competing objectives, head SCP derivatives trader Bruno Iksil suggested in January ...


The Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program: A Systemwide Systemic Risk Exception, Lee Davison Aug 2019

The Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program: A Systemwide Systemic Risk Exception, Lee Davison

Journal of Financial Crises

In the fall of 2008, short-term credit markets were all but frozen, creating liquidity issues for banks and bank holding companies that could not rollover their debt at reasonable rates. Fearing that the situation would worsen if something was not done, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Federal Reserve Board invoked, and the Secretary of the Treasury approved, the use of the “systemic risk exception” (SRE) under the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991, to provide unprecedented broad-based relief to struggling banks. The SRE permitted the FDIC to depart from its “least-cost” requirement when addressing failing ...


Usa, Sebastian Braun Aug 2019

Usa, Sebastian Braun

Sebastian Braun

Approximately 5.1 million people in the U.S., or 1.7% of the total population, identify as Native American or Alaska Native alone or in combination with another ethnic identity. Around 2.5 million, or 0.8% of the population, identify as American Indian or Alaska Native only.1 Five hundred and sixty-six tribal entities were federally-recognized at the beginning of 2015,2 and most of these have recognized national homelands. Twenty-three per cent of the Native population live in American Indian areas or Alaska Native villages. The state with the largest Native population is California; the place with ...


The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter Jul 2019

The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

The international economic trends of globalization and neoliberalism have exposed and enabled the exploitation of Mexican workers, especially women in the maquiladora garment industry. During the 1950s, globalization gave rise to the new international division of labor and transnational corporations (TNCs) that have offshored labor-intensive phases of production to developing countries, many of which have pursued export-led industrialization. Export processing in Mexico was encouraged in the 1960s by Item 807 of the U.S. Tariff Code and Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program. Especially following the Latin American debt crisis of the 1980s, advanced capitalist countries and International Financial Institutions foisted ...


The Historical And Materialist Subtext Of The Battle Of The Sheep, Chad M. Gasta Jul 2019

The Historical And Materialist Subtext Of The Battle Of The Sheep, Chad M. Gasta

Chad M. Gasta

In his perceptive work on the interrelationship between history and literature, Louis Montrose advocates a resituation of texts within their contexts which leads to "a reciprocal concern with the historicity of texts and the textuality of history" (20). For Montrose, aesthetic works can historicize the past and provide an understanding and explanation of times past, even though they cannot provide an objective portrayal of history (20). It is in this spirit that i would like to approach the Battle of the Sheep in Don Quijote. To resituate this well-known episode within its socio-historical context is to make possible a more ...


Working Paper No. 21, The Union Of Democracy And Socialism: Towards An Intellectual Biography Of Karl Kautsky, Leo Solovyov Jun 2019

Working Paper No. 21, The Union Of Democracy And Socialism: Towards An Intellectual Biography Of Karl Kautsky, Leo Solovyov

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that Karl Kautsky’s vision of social democracy considered and incorporated the best of his day’s socialist theory, leading to the creation of a powerful formula that has also proved enduring, leading towards the achievement of socialist goals. Karl Kautsky was influenced by his work with Karl Marx, Eduard Bernstein and Friedrich Engels. During his time with these noted thinkers he created a unique form of socialism that today is termed ‘social democracy’. Kautsky advanced the view that socialism could better survive when it integrated democracy. Socialism cannot have a period of dictatorship for ...


Working Paper No. 24, Economic Thought During Japan’S Meiji Era, Karson M. Pence Jun 2019

Working Paper No. 24, Economic Thought During Japan’S Meiji Era, Karson M. Pence

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that it was Fukuzawa Yukichi who played a key roled in developing ideas that assisted the modernization of Japan, leading up to and especially after the Meiji Reformation of 1868. In An Outline of a Theory of Civilization [1875], Fukuzawa advances a clear understanding that Japan should make the shift from a producer nation to a manufacturer nation, and without having to bear the costs of importing vast sums of foreign capital. Under suspicion that the 250 year rule of the Bakufu left the Japanese economy stagnant and weak, Fukuzawa asserted that the only means ...


Working Paper No. 25, On The Importance Of Contributions By Robert Torrens, Mitchell Veele Jun 2019

Working Paper No. 25, On The Importance Of Contributions By Robert Torrens, Mitchell Veele

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that although hardly recognized, Robert Torrens’ contributions prove significant and also provided bases for advances later credited to David Ricardo. In his first published work, An Essay on the External Corn Trade [1815], Torrens discusses at length the negative consequences of Britain’s Corn Laws, based upon the practice of restricting foreign corn imports. Through this prescient work, Torrens should be considered as the first to advance several concepts and principles that prove foundational for classical economic thought. Though attributed to David Ricardo, the principle of comparative advantage was actually first described by Torrens and ...


Working Paper No. 05, Proudhon, Bakunin And Anarcho-Socialism, Lauren Sweger-Hollingsworth Jun 2019

Working Paper No. 05, Proudhon, Bakunin And Anarcho-Socialism, Lauren Sweger-Hollingsworth

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Mikhail Bakunin advanced ideas supporting what can be identified as anarcho-socialism, and the distinctness in their approaches can also be associated with splits that emerged with the First International Workingmen’s Association. For Proudhon, the institution of property entrenches inequality. In Proudhon’s judgement, society must orient towards advancing independence, proportionality, equality, and individual autonomy without limitations from legal structures. In Bakunin’s anarcho-socialist view, society must reject all forms of authority. In Bakunin’s conception of society, economic and political structures must be constructed from base to summit, founded upon ...


Working Paper No. 13, Friedrich List And National Development, Mitch Priestley Jun 2019

Working Paper No. 13, Friedrich List And National Development, Mitch Priestley

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that Friedrich List offers an approach to national economic development based upon implementing policies. List conceptualizes and describes a situation wherein the United States, along with Germany and some other Continental European countries, face challenges dissimilar to Britain. List emphasizes an alternate approach towards national development that flies in the face of Adam Smith’s laissez-faire, free-trade prescription, focusing instead upon the powers of production, that he suggests, offer a proper measure of a nation’s wealth. List is a limited protectionist who advocates for national policies suited to a nation based upon its history ...


Working Paper No. 15, Jevons’ Selective Interpretation Of Bentham, Devin Bales Jun 2019

Working Paper No. 15, Jevons’ Selective Interpretation Of Bentham, Devin Bales

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that in The Theory of Political Economy, W. Stanley Jevons offers a selective interpretation of Jeremy Bentham’s notion of utility. Moreover, Jevons does so in a manner that generates enduring implications for Economics as a science. Special emphasis is placed upon Jevons’ use of Bentham’s understanding of the circumstances that direct pursuits of pleasure and avoidance of pain. Emphasized is that Jevons’ omission of ‘fecundity, purity, and extent’ as quantifiers of utility, creates enduring implications that emerged years after his book’s publication in 1871. What is finally considered are some of the ...


Working Paper No. 16, Had We Paid Attention To Keynes?, Saidhbhe Quigley Jun 2019

Working Paper No. 16, Had We Paid Attention To Keynes?, Saidhbhe Quigley

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that a host of problems could have been averted had we paid attention to Keynes. In the view of Keynes (2013, pp. 23-28), the Versailles Treaty was unnecessarily punitive towards Germany. He explains that the terms negotiated during the Paris Peace Conference were at odds with the agreement that took place during the Armistice when both sides decided to lay down their weapons and end fruitless battling. Consequently, following the Wall Street Crash of 1929, Germany registered as one of the most nations most tragically affected by the Great Depression. This is partially because of ...


Working Paper No. 23, Hyman Minsky And Financial Instability, Gabriel Caballero Jun 2019

Working Paper No. 23, Hyman Minsky And Financial Instability, Gabriel Caballero

Working Papers in Economics

Hyman Minsky can readily be categorized as a post-Keynesian economist, for he advances a purist’s interpretation of John Maynard Keynes’ The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. Through employing a rigorous Keynesian framework, Minsky developed an enduring contribution to the literature bearing the title: “The Financial Instability Hypothesis” (1992), that appears as Working Paper No. 74 at the Jerome Levi Institute. In this document Minsky considered forces and variables that induce financial instability—that are also specific to advanced capitalist economies. He challenges the classical economists and the notion that a general equilibrium will prevail. Instead, Minsky goes ...


Working Paper No. 26, Basic Tenets Of The Austrian School Of Economics, Vladislav Yurlov Jun 2019

Working Paper No. 26, Basic Tenets Of The Austrian School Of Economics, Vladislav Yurlov

Working Papers in Economics

The Austrian school of economic thought has offered many ideas throughout its more than century old history. Beginning with Carl Menger’s Principles of Economics, the focus of this school dealt with individuals acting in a society for the benefit of everyone. With liberalism at their core, thinkers such as Friedrich von Wieser, Ludwig von Mises, and Friedrich Hayek saw economics as a practical approach to living. This inquiry seeks to establish that the Austrian school of economics advanced basic tenets. Building off of, and often creating their own ideas, Austrian economists gave rise to the principles of marginalism, significance ...


Working Paper No. 27, Processes In Capital Accumulation Leading Towards Inequality, Matthew Perez Jun 2019

Working Paper No. 27, Processes In Capital Accumulation Leading Towards Inequality, Matthew Perez

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry considers, compares, and contrasts two different theoretical explanations of processes leading towards capital accumulation and also inequality. First considered is Immanuel Wallerstein’s Historical Capitalism. In this book he advances and stresses that processes leading towards capital accumulation are inherently unequal, as these processes are based upon commodification, proletarization, and jurisdiction. The second part considers the views advanced by Thomas Picketty. In his Capital in the Twenty First Century, Picketty offers a fundamentally different understanding of what drives and leads towards capital accumulation and income inequality. In contrasts to Wallerstein, Picketty explains that the dynamic generating capital accumulation ...


Working Paper No. 04, Marx And Religion, Lauren Sweger-Hollingsworth Jun 2019

Working Paper No. 04, Marx And Religion, Lauren Sweger-Hollingsworth

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that, in his writings, Karl Marx offers his perspectives on religion. The origins of Marx’s conception of religion can be traced to his family history, adolescence, and time at the University of Berlin. Marx’s criticism of contemporary philosophy offers a penetrating account of his views on religion, proving critical of the individualism and idealism implemented by his contemporaries. In Marx’s judgement, religion offers a false sense of solace in a world marked by abuse. Religion rationalizes domination, sows societal divisions, and preserves oppressive institutions. Marx’s materialist approach focuses on the real-life ...


Working Paper No. 17, William Petty And Political Economy, Clarissa Allen Jun 2019

Working Paper No. 17, William Petty And Political Economy, Clarissa Allen

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that during the first part of the 1600s, William Petty generated original contributions to political economy. Subsequent to the Irish rebellion and in the wake of the English occupation of Ireland, Petty led a team of surveyors for measuring out areas of Ireland. The survey that he led mapped selected territories and detailed numerous characteristics, thus employing an early, rudimentary, but highly insightful census method. Petty sought to describe his world objectively and quantitatively through the use of numbers, weights, and measures – rather than subjectively. Petty developed a method of calculation still famously known as ...


Working Paper No. 18, Thomas Piketty On Capital And Inequality, Max Randall Jun 2019

Working Paper No. 18, Thomas Piketty On Capital And Inequality, Max Randall

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to establish that, in his Capital in the Twenty-First Century, Thomas Piketty advances ideas concerning the origins and implication of economic inequality. Piketty commences his inquiry by considering and detailing wage differences amongst distinct classes of society. This mechanism for the distribution of income is compared across selected nations, and the differing tendencies over time are examined in detail. Distinct from working wages, Piketty considers income effects associated with capital ownership. Adding to this, Piketty shows that effects of inheritance need be considered as capital is passed to successive generations, thereby allowing the accruing of monetary gains ...


Working Paper No. 20, Veblen And The Question Of Sexual Selection, Jenica M. Kramer Jun 2019

Working Paper No. 20, Veblen And The Question Of Sexual Selection, Jenica M. Kramer

Working Papers in Economics

This inquiry seeks to counter a hypothesis recently advanced by Jon D. Wisman; which states that Thorstein Veblen “missed” the opportunity to incorporate sexual selection into his evolutionary economics. To the contrary, I shall argue that Veblen’s vision is not at all lacking and that he intentionally failed to integrate into his evolutionary thinking the animal drive of sexual selection. First-off, I offer an account of Wisman’s thesis and this is followed by a refutation of his argument while making use of Veblen’s key concepts. Tracing the evolution of “conspicuous consumption” to its social inception, I endeavor ...


Forests And Health In Mexico: Preliminary And Pre-Preliminary Work - June 2019, Alejandro López-Feldman Jun 2019

Forests And Health In Mexico: Preliminary And Pre-Preliminary Work - June 2019, Alejandro López-Feldman

Forest Collaborative Research

Presentation focuses on subjective wellbeing and natural protected areas in Mexico


Working Paper No. 12, Technological Convergence And Institutional Evolution In The Energy Sector, James Bennett May 2019

Working Paper No. 12, Technological Convergence And Institutional Evolution In The Energy Sector, James Bennett

Working Papers in Economics

Over a span of more than a hundred years, fossil fuel production could be considered as a long-standing ceremonial technology in the Veblenian sense. However in recent times, due to rapid innovation through technological convergence, renewable energy is becoming just as cost effective and threatens to replace fossil fuels. Robert McCullough observes this change in renewable energy costs, in his report “The End of Big Iron”. Thorsten Veblen’s dichotomy between ceremonial and instrumental technologies, and his thoughts on institutional change can also aide in explaining this recent struggle between “ceremonial” fossil fuels and “instrumental” renewable energy technologies. Nathan Rosenberg ...


A Correction For Regression Discontinuity Designs With Group-Specific Mismeasurement Of The Running Variable, Otávio Bartalotti, Quentin Brummet, Steven Dieterle May 2019

A Correction For Regression Discontinuity Designs With Group-Specific Mismeasurement Of The Running Variable, Otávio Bartalotti, Quentin Brummet, Steven Dieterle

Economics Working Papers

When the running variable in a regression discontinuity (RD) design is measured with error, identification of the local average treatment effect of interest will typically fail. While the form of this measurement error varies across applications, in many cases the measurement error structure is heterogeneous across different groups of observations. We develop a novel measurement error correction procedure capable of addressing heterogeneous mismeasurement structures by leveraging auxiliary information. We also provide adjusted asymptotic variance and standard errors that take into consideration the variability introduced by the estimation of nuisance parameters, and honest confidence intervals that account for potential misspecification. Simulations ...


A Statistical Analysis Of Economic Perceptions In The 2015 United Kingdom General Election, Amarvir Singh-Bal Mr. May 2019

A Statistical Analysis Of Economic Perceptions In The 2015 United Kingdom General Election, Amarvir Singh-Bal Mr.

Undergraduate Economic Review

This paper characterises the vote which took place in the United Kingdom's (U.K.) 2015 General Election as an ‘accountability instrument.’ In doing so, the research interrogates which sections of the electorate hold the incumbent government more accountable for economic outcomes between the 2010 and 2015 U.K. General Elections. The Rational Choice Theory and the Michigan Model are used in this study to present two interlinked, and yet distinct, hypotheses – that less politically informed and non-partisan voters are more likely to hold the government accountable for economic performances; compared to the politically informed and partisan voters within the ...


Revitalización Económica: The Change Of Chilean Economic Principles In The 1970s, Xander Piedra May 2019

Revitalización Económica: The Change Of Chilean Economic Principles In The 1970s, Xander Piedra

Languages and Literature Undergraduate Student Works

Revitalización Económica: The Change of Chilean Economic Principles in the 1970s

Socio-economic policy reforms of the 1970s had a profound impact on Chilean society. These reforms were highly controversial and sharply debated both nationally and internationally. My project investigates the impact of foreign interventions on Chile’s economy and society. These interventions resulted in a rise in economic activity and, at the same time, produced substantial social unrest. Despite social instability and human rights violations, these economic interventions forged the framework for a stable economic future. At the center of these economic reforms stood the 'Chicago Boys' and their program ...


Lessons Learned: The National Consumers' League, The Fight For $15, And Their Battles To Raise The Minimum Wage, Rosa Mykyta-Chomsky May 2019

Lessons Learned: The National Consumers' League, The Fight For $15, And Their Battles To Raise The Minimum Wage, Rosa Mykyta-Chomsky

Senior Theses

In 2019, workers in the United States often find themselves unable to support a family on the wages produced by one job, or even several, jobs. The pattern has obtained for more than a century. In this paper, I examine historical efforts to address this plight and discuss how non­government organizations may collaborate to combat the problem. I focus on the work of the National Consumers' League, and its efforts during the first three decades of the twentieth century to promote protective labor legislation. Specifically, I examine the NCL's work in connection with the Adkins v. Children's ...


1st Place Contest Entry: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn Apr 2019

1st Place Contest Entry: Countering The Current: The Function Of Cinematic Waves In Communist Vs. Capitalist Societies, Maddie Gwinn

Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize

This is Maddie Gwinn's submission for the 2019 Kevin and Tam Ross Undergraduate Research Prize, which won first place. It contains her essay on using library resources, a three-page sample of her research project on how the Czech New Wave and New Hollywood cinema are defined by their agency in preserving and prescribing cultural meaning across their societies while being bound to their economic systems, and her works cited list.

Maddie is a senior at Chapman University, majoring in Film Production. Her faculty mentor is Dr. Carmichael Peters.


Mexico: Neoliberalism, Popular Grievances, And The Rise Of Andrés Manuel López Obrador, Irving Cortes-Martinez Apr 2019

Mexico: Neoliberalism, Popular Grievances, And The Rise Of Andrés Manuel López Obrador, Irving Cortes-Martinez

Honors Theses

Andrés Manuel López Obrador, commonly referred to as AMLO, has become Mexico’s first leftist president in over seven decades. He has promised to get rid of Mexico’s problems through a peaceful but radical transformation, while placing the needs of the people first. For the past three decades, the nation’s political and economic systems have failed to create positive results. Mexico currently faces mass inequality and poverty, corruption and impunity, and insecurity and organized crime. Through his political activism and most importantly, his political narrative, AMLO has become a popular actor and is seen as the president who ...