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Full-Text Articles in Behavioral Economics

Inattention To Deferred Increases In Tax Bases: How Michigan Homebuyers Are Paying For Assessment Limits, Sebastien J. Bradley Feb 2017

Inattention To Deferred Increases In Tax Bases: How Michigan Homebuyers Are Paying For Assessment Limits, Sebastien J. Bradley

Sebastien J Bradley

The Michigan property tax system gives rise to wide variation in taxable basis across comparable homes due to the application of acquisition-value based assessment limits. Exploiting the fact that the resulting differences in property tax liability are temporarily inherited by new homebuyers, I estimate the degree of capitalization of these largely-idiosyncratic tax differences in a setting free of many of the econometric problems that typically plague estimation of property tax capitalization in order to evaluate whether homebuyers understand the tax implications of their home purchases. Consistent with anecdotal evidence, I find that homebuyers are woefully inattentive to the temporary nature ...


Retirement Planning Among Middle-Aged And Older Hispanics, Luisa Blanco, Emma Aguila, Arturo Gongora, Beverly Weidmer, O. Kenrik Duru Sep 2015

Retirement Planning Among Middle-Aged And Older Hispanics, Luisa Blanco, Emma Aguila, Arturo Gongora, Beverly Weidmer, O. Kenrik Duru

Luisa Blanco

The goal of this study is to deepen the understanding of how middle age and older Hispanics plan for retirement, where we conducted four focus groups in the Los Angeles area with a total of 38 participants. Our study provides interesting findings, specifically for women since 84 percent of the participants were female. We find that that most participants, whether they were already retired or not, are not well prepared for retirement since they have been unable to save for retirement and have not made specific retirement plans, such as determining desired retirement age, estimating retirement budget, and collecting information ...


A Qualitative Analysis Of The Use Of Financial Services And Saving Behavior Among Older African Americans And Latinos In The Los Angeles Area, Luisa Blanco, Maria Ponce, Arturo Gongora, O. Kenrik Duru Dec 2014

A Qualitative Analysis Of The Use Of Financial Services And Saving Behavior Among Older African Americans And Latinos In The Los Angeles Area, Luisa Blanco, Maria Ponce, Arturo Gongora, O. Kenrik Duru

Luisa Blanco

For this study, we conducted 7 focus groups in the Los Angeles area with a total of 70 participants (42 Latinos and 28 African Americans) recruited from 3 senior centers and a church. Overall, participants were not well prepared for the future in terms of their health care financing. African Americans in the study tended to participate more in the formal financial sector and show a high level of sophistication when managing their finances than Latinos. African Americans also were more likely to save than Latinos, but their level of saving was not very large. We also find that participants ...


Teleinvestmentevangelists: Celebrity, Ritual And Religion And The Quest To “Beat The Market”, E. Douglas, Mary Keller, Elton Mcgoun Dec 2014

Teleinvestmentevangelists: Celebrity, Ritual And Religion And The Quest To “Beat The Market”, E. Douglas, Mary Keller, Elton Mcgoun

Mary L Keller

Purpose – This paper aims to offer a cultural understanding of investor faith in stock picking despite overwhelming evidence questioning its efficacy. Why, in the face of very widely communicated findings calling into question the advice and assistance offered by financial professionals to help them pick stocks or manage their mutual funds, do so many people persist in these practices? The authors believe that the best way to understand investor faith in the efficacy of stock picking is through teleinvestmentevangelists such as Jim Cramer, whose fusion of celebrity and religion taps into the ritualistic elements of investment that usually lie hidden ...


Pay-What-You-Want Pricing: Can It Be Profitable?, Yong Chao, Jose Fernandez, Babu Nahata Dec 2014

Pay-What-You-Want Pricing: Can It Be Profitable?, Yong Chao, Jose Fernandez, Babu Nahata

Yong Chao

Using a game theoretic framework, we show that not only can pay-what-you-want (PWYW) pricing generate positive profits, but it can also be more profitable than charging a fixed price to all consumers. Further, whenever it is more profitable, it is also Pareto-improving. We derive conditions in terms of two parameters, namely the marginal cost of production and the psychological cost of the consumer for paying too little compared to her reference price.

The paper makes the following contributions to the existing literature. First, we endogenize the choice of pricing strategies—PWYW vs. fixed price. Thus rather than solely focusing on ...


Prices And Social Behavior: Evidence From Adult Smoking In Canadian Aboriginal Communities, Jesse A. Matheson Dec 2014

Prices And Social Behavior: Evidence From Adult Smoking In Canadian Aboriginal Communities, Jesse A. Matheson

Jesse A Matheson

This paper provides estimates of tobacco price elasticity explicitly distinguishing between two price effects: the direct effect, reflecting individual reaction to a price change, and the indirect effect, whereby price influences the individual by changing community smoking behavior. Canada's Aboriginal communities are small and secluded, allowing for plausible identification of reference groups on a relatively large scale. Estimates suggest a 10 percent increase in price decreases daily smoking by 0.91 percentage points (2.11 percent), occasional smoking by 1.24 percentage points (8.27 percent) and average smoking intensity by 0.15 cigarettes per day (2.9 percent ...


Willingness To Pay For Flood And Ecological Risk Reduction In An Urban Watershed, David Clark, Diane Novotny, Robert Griffin, Douglas Booth, Alena Bartosova, M Hutchinson Jul 2014

Willingness To Pay For Flood And Ecological Risk Reduction In An Urban Watershed, David Clark, Diane Novotny, Robert Griffin, Douglas Booth, Alena Bartosova, M Hutchinson

Robert Griffin

Urban watershed managers frequently must address alternative policy goals; flood control and ecological risk reduction. This study combines hydrologic models of flood control and biotic models of ecologic risk with economic models of willingness-to-pay and psychological models of risk processing and planned behavior to evaluate these two alternative policy objectives. The findings reveal that flood risk exposure, especially for those individuals who would remain outside the 100 year flood plain if the project were enacted, does influence the financial support that local residents would be willing to make to a flood control project. Other important determinants include demographic factors such ...


The Relation Between Variance And Information Rents In Auctions, Brett Katzman, Julian Reif, Jesse Schwartz May 2014

The Relation Between Variance And Information Rents In Auctions, Brett Katzman, Julian Reif, Jesse Schwartz

Jesse A. Schwartz

This paper examines the conventional wisdom, expressed in McAfee and McMillan's (1987) widely cited survey paper on auctions, that links increased variance of bidder values to increased information rent. We find that although the conventional wisdom does indeed hold in their (1986) model of a linear contract auction, this relationship is an artifact of that particular model and cannot be generalized. Using Samuelson's (1987) model, which is similar but allows for unobservable costs, we show that increased variance does not always imply increased information rent. Finally, we give the appropriate measure of dispersion (different from variance) that provides ...


Collusive Bidding In The Fcc Spectrum Auctions, Peter Cramton, Jesse Schwartz May 2014

Collusive Bidding In The Fcc Spectrum Auctions, Peter Cramton, Jesse Schwartz

Jesse A. Schwartz

This paper describes the bid signaling that occurred in many of the FCC spectrum auctions. Bidders in these auctions bid on numerous spectrum licenses simultaneously, with bidding remaining open on all licenses until no bidder is willing to raise the bid on any license. Simultaneous open bidding allows bidders to send messages to their rivals, telling them on which licenses to bid and which to avoid. This “code bidding” occurs when one bidder tags the last few digits of its bid with the market number of a related license. We examine how extensively bidders signaled each other with retaliating bids ...


Wage Bargaining Under The National Labor Relations Act, Jesse Schwartz, Quan Wen May 2014

Wage Bargaining Under The National Labor Relations Act, Jesse Schwartz, Quan Wen

Jesse A. Schwartz

Sections 8(a)(3) and 8(a)(5) of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) prohibit the management of a firm from unilaterally increasing the wage during contract negotiations without the union's approval. We show how the management can strategically increase the wage during negotiations without violating the NLRA. Increasing the wage during negotiations will upset the union's incentive to strike and decrease the union's bargaining power, thereby shrinking the set of equilibrium contracts in the firm's favor. Indeed, as the union becomes more patient, the set of equilibrium wages converges to the best equilibrium outcome ...


Purchasing Nonprescription Contraceptives: The Underlying Structure Of A Multi-Item Scale, Chris Manolis, Robert Winsor, Sheb True Mar 2014

Purchasing Nonprescription Contraceptives: The Underlying Structure Of A Multi-Item Scale, Chris Manolis, Robert Winsor, Sheb True

Robert D. Winsor

The authors develop a multi-item scale measuring attitudes associated with purchasing nonprescription contraceptives. Although contraceptives represent a common as well as consequential purchase for many people, published research has not addressed measures of attitudes associated with this purchase decision. A scale development method is presented measuring both male and female consumer attitudes toward purchasing contraceptives. Ultimately, a multi-item scale demonstrating a high degree of invariance across 2 samples (men and women) is developed.


Agency And Compensation: Evidence From The Hotel Industry, Matthew Freedman, Renata Kosova Feb 2014

Agency And Compensation: Evidence From The Hotel Industry, Matthew Freedman, Renata Kosova

Matthew Freedman

We examine how agency problems in the workplace interact with compensation policies by taking advantage of the structure of the hotel industry, in which many chains have both company managed and franchised properties. As residual claimants on their properties’ profits, franchisees have stronger incentives to monitor employees than managers in company managed hotels. Exploiting this variation and using rich, longitudinal data on the hotel industry, we estimate differences in wages and human resource practices across company managed and franchised hotels within chains as well as within individual hotels as they change organizational form. Our results suggest that the timing of ...


The Role Of Family Ties In Mitigating Moral Hazard: Firm-Level Evidence From Tamil Nadu, India, Goldie Chow Nov 2013

The Role Of Family Ties In Mitigating Moral Hazard: Firm-Level Evidence From Tamil Nadu, India, Goldie Chow

Goldie Chow

Drawing on firm-level data from the district of Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu, India, this study explores the role of family ties as a means to counteract potential moral hazard concerns. It is shown that firms will be more likely to employ family relations when faced with a higher hidden context for moral hazard. Specifically, the analysis finds that the presence of family members within the firm is higher when the firm provides general training and that firms that are more likely to do external business with family relations when it is believed that the legal system is not effective. Additionally ...


Pay-What-You-Want Pricing And Competition: Breaking The Bertand Trap, Yong Chao, Jose Fernandez, Babu Nahata Dec 2012

Pay-What-You-Want Pricing And Competition: Breaking The Bertand Trap, Yong Chao, Jose Fernandez, Babu Nahata

Yong Chao

Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing is a recent participative pricing strategy where a seller offers a good or service for any price consumers want to pay, including zero or some minimum payment. This paper provides a theoretical framework to study strategic effects of the PWYW pricing under duopoly by incorporating behavioral considerations of consumers in making voluntary payments when they could be freeloaders. Without identifying any particular behavioral factor, we assume that consumers feel a sense of guilt when they pay less than their reference points. It is shown that the PWYW pricing can be a profitable marketing strategy than the conventional ...


Resource Allocation, Affluence And Deadweight Loss When Relative Consumption Matters, Jesse A. Matheson, B. Curtis Eaton Dec 2012

Resource Allocation, Affluence And Deadweight Loss When Relative Consumption Matters, Jesse A. Matheson, B. Curtis Eaton

Jesse A Matheson

We explore the link between affluence and well-being using a simple general equilibrium model with a pure Veblen good. Individuals derive utility from the pure Veblen good based solely on how much they consume relative to others. In equilibrium, consumption of the pure Veblen good is the same for everyone, so the Veblen good contributes nothing to utility. Hence, resources devoted to the Veblen good provide us with a measure of deadweight loss. We ask: Under what preference conditions does the proportion of productive capacity devoted to the pure Veblen good increase as an economy becomes more affluent? In a ...


Mindscapes And Landscapes: Hayek And Simon On Cognitive Extension, Leslie Marsh Oct 2012

Mindscapes And Landscapes: Hayek And Simon On Cognitive Extension, Leslie Marsh

Leslie Marsh

Hayek’s and Simon’s social externalism runs on a shared presupposition: mind is constrained in its computational capacity to detect, harvest, and assimilate “data” generated by the infinitely fine-grained and perpetually dynamic characteristic of experience in complex social environments. For Hayek, mind and sociality are co-evolved spontaneous orders, allowing little or no prospect of comprehensive explanation, trapped in a hermeneutically sealed, i.e. inescapably context bound, eco-system. For Simon, it is the simplicity of mind that is the bottleneck, overwhelmed by the ambient complexity of the environmental. Since on Simon’s account complexity is unidirectional, Simon is far more ...


Looking At China’S Great Leap Forward From A Systems Perspective, Brandy Futrell Mar 2012

Looking At China’S Great Leap Forward From A Systems Perspective, Brandy Futrell

Brandy Futrell

China’s Great Leap Forward (GLF) campaign of 1958-1961 led by Mao Tse-Tung resulted in a horrendous famine that cost millions of lives. This paper examines the campaign from a systems perspective across the individual, group/societal, and regulatory levels. Looking at each level illustrates errors that explain how the GLF failed.


Stigmergy 3.0: From Ants To Economies, Leslie Marsh, Margery Doyle Dec 2011

Stigmergy 3.0: From Ants To Economies, Leslie Marsh, Margery Doyle

Leslie Marsh

No abstract provided.


Women’S Decision Making: A Contextual Assessment, Safdar Khan Dec 2010

Women’S Decision Making: A Contextual Assessment, Safdar Khan

Safdar Khan

No abstract provided.


Hayek's Philosophical Psychology, Leslie Marsh Dec 2010

Hayek's Philosophical Psychology, Leslie Marsh

Leslie Marsh

Hayek's philosophical psychology as set out in his The Sensory Order (1952) has, for the most part, been neglected. Despite being lauded by computer scientist grandee Frank Rosenblatt and by Nobel prize-winning biologist Gerald Edelman, cognitive scientists -- with a few exceptions -- have yet to discover Hayek's philosophical psychology. On the other hand, social theorists, Hayek's traditional disciplinary constituency, have only recently begun to take note and examine the importance of psychology in the complete Hayek corpus. This volume brings together for the first time state-of-the-art contributions from neuroscientists and philosophers of mind as well as economists and ...


Are Ceos Expected Utility Maximizers?, John List, Charles Mason Dec 2010

Are Ceos Expected Utility Maximizers?, John List, Charles Mason

Charles F Mason

Are individuals expected utility maximizers? This question represents much more than academic curiosity. In a normative sense, at stake are the fundamental underpinnings of the bulk of the last half-century’s models of choice under uncertainty. From a positive perspective, the ubiquitous use of benefit-cost analysis across government agencies renders the expected utility maximization paradigm literally the only game in town. In this study, we advance the literature by exploring CEO’s preferences over small probability, high loss lotteries. Using undergraduate students as our experimental control group, we find that both our CEO and student subject pools exhibit frequent and ...


Prediction Markets To Forecast Electricity Demand, Peter Cramton, Luciano De Castro Mar 2010

Prediction Markets To Forecast Electricity Demand, Peter Cramton, Luciano De Castro

Luciano I. de Castro

Forecasting electricity demand for future years is an essential step in resource planning. A common approach is for the system operator to predict future demand from the estimates of individual distribution companies. However, the predictions thus obtained may be of poor quality, since the reporting incentives are unclear. We propose a prediction market as a form of forecasting future demand for electricity. We describe how to implement a simple prediction market for continuous variables, using only contracts based on binary variables. We also discuss specific issues concerning the implementation of such a market.


Time Use And Food Consumption, Marianne Bertrand, Diane Schanzenbach Apr 2009

Time Use And Food Consumption, Marianne Bertrand, Diane Schanzenbach

Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach

No abstract provided.


Inflation Monitor, Muhammad Arby, Fida Hussain, Safdar Khan May 2006

Inflation Monitor, Muhammad Arby, Fida Hussain, Safdar Khan

Safdar Khan

Extract:
Although inflationary pressures persisted in the economy for the second year in a row, the headline inflation fell to 7.6 percent year-on-year in June 2006 that was 1 percentage point less than inflation in corresponding month last year.1 The inflation containment was more visible in the last six months of FY06 as compared to first six months (Jul 05 to Dec 05): the average CPI inflation during the first half of the year was 8.4 percent which declined to 7.4 percent in the second half primarily due to fall in food inflation. Inflation measured by ...


Dynamics Of Energy Consumption, Safdar Khan Dec 2005

Dynamics Of Energy Consumption, Safdar Khan

Safdar Khan

Extract:
Dynamics of Energy Consumption Pakistan has been facing severe imbalances in energy demand and supply for the last couple of decades. During early 1980s domestic supply of energy was fulfilling almost 86 percent of total domestic energy demand; a gap of 14 percent was being filled by imports. However, the demand – supply gap started increasing since then and reached to almost 47 percent by the year 2000 (see Figure S2.1).


A History Of Political Experience, Leslie Marsh Dec 2005

A History Of Political Experience, Leslie Marsh

Leslie Marsh

This book survives superficial but fails deeper scrutiny. A facile, undiscerning criticism of Lectures in the History of Political Thought (LHPT) is that on Oakeshott’s own account these are lectures on a non-subject: ‘I cannot detect anything which could properly correspond to the expression “the history of political thought”’ (p. 32). This is an entirely typical Oakeshottian swipe – elegant and oblique – at the title of the lecture course he inherited from Harold Laski. If title and quotation sit awkwardly we should remember that Oakeshott never prepared the text for publication – a fortiori he did not prepare it for publication ...


Interventions Intended To Reduce Pregnancy-Related Outcomes Among Adolescents., Lauren Scher, Rebecca Maynard, Stagner Matthew Dec 2005

Interventions Intended To Reduce Pregnancy-Related Outcomes Among Adolescents., Lauren Scher, Rebecca Maynard, Stagner Matthew

REBECCA A MAYNARD

This review synthesizes the evidence on the effectiveness of programs aimed at reducing sexual risk-taking among teens. By including only rigorous randomized controlled trials that meet additional methodological criteria, it uses meta-analytic techniques to estimates the average effects that interventions have on reducing sexual experience, unprotected sexual activity, and pregnancy rates. It focuses on four main types of interventions: (1) one-time consultations; (2) sex education programs with an abstinence focus (and no contraceptive focus); (3) sex education programs with a contraception component; and (4) multi-component youth development programs. In total, this review presents findings based on over 37,000 youth ...


Economic Growth, Saving And Investment, Safdar Khan Dec 2004

Economic Growth, Saving And Investment, Safdar Khan

Safdar Khan

Extract:
Despite an evident slowdown in major economies around the global amidst a sustained rise in international oil prices, the domestic economy surpassed its growth target by a wide margin for the third consecutive year, witnessing a growth rate of 8.4 percent in FY05, the highest during the last two decades (see Figure 2.1 & 2.2).


Macroeconomic And Financial Sector Comparison With Saarc And Asean Countries, Safdar Khan Dec 2003

Macroeconomic And Financial Sector Comparison With Saarc And Asean Countries, Safdar Khan

Safdar Khan

Extract:
Two distinct regional associations, SAARC and ASEAN, comprise over seventeen different economies of Asia. These economies differ from each other in terms of their age, size and economic performance. However, some comparisons can be drawn between these intra-regional economies on the basis of economic and financial performance for a uniform period of observation, spanning from 1990 to 2003.1 This chapter discusses the financial sector indicators of the SAARC and ASEAN countries under the framework of macroeconomic performance, with the objective of assessing the level of Pakistan’s performance in comparison with these countries.


Financial Sector Deepening And Economic Growth In Pakistan, Safdar Khan Dec 2002

Financial Sector Deepening And Economic Growth In Pakistan, Safdar Khan

Safdar Khan

No abstract provided.