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Full-Text Articles in Behavioral Economics

Actual Versus Hypothetical Wta Stated Values For Recreational Fishing Licenses: Experimental Evidence Of Fish Tales, Scott Steinback, Kristy Wallmo, Sabrina Lovell, Eric Thunberg, John Foster Oct 2019

Actual Versus Hypothetical Wta Stated Values For Recreational Fishing Licenses: Experimental Evidence Of Fish Tales, Scott Steinback, Kristy Wallmo, Sabrina Lovell, Eric Thunberg, John Foster

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

We compared hypothetical willingness to accept (WTA) values for Massachusetts saltwater recreational fishing licenses with WTA values obtained in an actual (simulated) marketplace. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation approach, our results align with past evidence that found WTA values elicited from hypothetical transactions overstate those derived from an actual marketplace. We also provide the first evidence about the effectiveness of an ex-post certainty adjustment technique in a WTA environment. While the adjustment technique has been found to eliminate hypothetical bias in willingness to pay (WTP) settings, we find that when applied in a WTA setting, the approach mitigates but ...


Watch Me Give: Narcissism As A Moderator To Donating To A Nonprofit, Austin Prewett, Charles Elliott, Paul A. Story Aug 2019

Watch Me Give: Narcissism As A Moderator To Donating To A Nonprofit, Austin Prewett, Charles Elliott, Paul A. Story

The Kennesaw Journal of Undergraduate Research

With increased online connectivity in the current generation, more non-for-profit organizations are focusing their efforts on producing online marketing appeals. It has, therefore, become necessary to identify the effect some appeals have on different people. The present study seeks to determine whether an organization offering increased recognition will result in a greater willingness to give by people with narcissistic personalities. Additionally, it will determine if “willingness” to give or “amount” given are different between genders or employment status, as prior research suggests. Results indicated that whether the organization offered increased recognition or not, narcissism did not affect willingness to give ...


Barriers: An Exploration Of Architectural Structures As An Indication Of Wealth And Socioeconomic Status, Lisa Demoranville Jun 2019

Barriers: An Exploration Of Architectural Structures As An Indication Of Wealth And Socioeconomic Status, Lisa Demoranville

Honors Theses

I decided to explore the barriers and limitations of wealth through an investigation of architectural structures, focusing on popular industries and institutions on which our society commonly depends. I have noticed that places such as hospitals, schools, grocery stores, and restaurants differ dramatically depending on the neighborhoods in which they were located. This topic sparked my interest after living in Lima, Peru for a month, as I was able to observe the developing economy and dramatic division of wealth among the population. Certain questions about the divides and differences within a society and its culture started crossing my mind; not ...


Local Food Policy & Consumer Food Cooperatives: Evolutionary Case Studies, Afton Hupper May 2019

Local Food Policy & Consumer Food Cooperatives: Evolutionary Case Studies, Afton Hupper

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Darwin’s theory of natural selection has played a central role in the development of the biological sciences, but evolution can also explain change in human culture. Institutions, mechanisms that govern behavior and social order, are important subjects of cultural evolution. Institutions can help stabilize cooperation, defined as behavior that benefits others, often at a personal cost. Cooperation is important for solving social dilemmas, scenarios in which the interests of the individual conflict with those of the group. A number of mechanisms by which institutions evolve to support cooperation have been identified, yet theoretical models of institutional change have rarely ...


Time-Shifted Rationality And The Law Of Law's Leverage: Behavioral Economics Meets Behavioral Biology, Owen D. Jones Apr 2019

Time-Shifted Rationality And The Law Of Law's Leverage: Behavioral Economics Meets Behavioral Biology, Owen D. Jones

Owen Jones

A flood of recent scholarship explores legal implications of seemingly irrational behaviors by invoking cognitive psychology and notions of bounded rationality. In this article, I argue that advances in behavioral biology have largely overtaken existing notions of bounded rationality, revealing them to be misleadingly imprecise - and rooted in outdated assumptions that are not only demonstrably wrong, but also wrong in ways that have material implications for subsequent legal conclusions. This can be remedied. Specifically, I argue that behavioral biology offers three things of immediate use. First, behavioral biology can lay a foundation for both revising bounded rationality and fashioning a ...


Economic Cycles As A Source Of Social Influence On Individuals, Nina Sirola Apr 2019

Economic Cycles As A Source Of Social Influence On Individuals, Nina Sirola

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

The current review summarizes emerging research in psychology and associated disciplines showing that the economic cycles exert social influence on individuals across a range of psychological domains. Most research on social influence focused on how factors in the proximal environment impact individuals, while influences emanating from the state of the economy as a whole received far less attention. I review the development of different intellectual traditions examining social influence to explain the relative lack of attention to economic cycles and position emerging work on the topic relative to past research. I then review research on how economic cycles influence individuals ...


One Step At A Time: Does Gradualism Build Coordination?, Maoliang Ye, Jie Zheng, Plamen Nikolov, Sam Asher Jan 2019

One Step At A Time: Does Gradualism Build Coordination?, Maoliang Ye, Jie Zheng, Plamen Nikolov, Sam Asher

Economics Faculty Scholarship

This study investigates a potential mechanism to promote coordination. With theoretical guidance using a belief-based learning model, we conduct a multi-period, binary-choice, and weakest-link laboratory coordination experiment to study the effect of gradualism – increasing the required levels (stakes) of contributions slowly over time rather than requiring a high level of contribution immediately – on group coordination performance. We randomly assign subjects to three treatments: starting and continuing at a high stake, starting at a low stake but jumping to a high stake after a few periods, and starting at a low stake while gradually increasing the stakes over time (the Gradualism ...


The Changing Nature Of Work, Leadership, And Organizational Culture In Future Ready Organizations, Saloni Dhir Jan 2019

The Changing Nature Of Work, Leadership, And Organizational Culture In Future Ready Organizations, Saloni Dhir

CMC Senior Theses

Abstract

The relationship between individual and organizational performance is a key challenge for leaders in modern organizations, especially with the current disruption in technology and innovation. This thesis is a literature review and compilation of the relevant empirical evidence on various processes of industrial groups and organizational characteristics such as the changing nature of work, leadership, and company culture in detail. I investigate the complex challenges that millennials and organizations are facing in the current VUCA work environment as well as their potential responses to these changes. I map out the evolution of the concept of work and compare changes ...


Examining The Utility Of Behavioral Economic Demand In Addiction Science, Justin Charles Strickland Jan 2019

Examining The Utility Of Behavioral Economic Demand In Addiction Science, Justin Charles Strickland

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

The marriage of perspectives from behavioral economic theory and learning theory has the potential to advance an understanding of substance use and substance use disorder. Behavioral economic demand is a central concept to this interdisciplinary approach. Evaluating demand in the laboratory and clinic can improve previous research on the relative reinforcing effects of drugs by accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of reinforcement rather than viewing reinforcement as a unitary construct. Recent advances in the commodity purchase task methodology have further simplified the measurement of demand values in human participants. This dissertation project presents a programmatic series of studies designed to ...


Neurobehavioral Measurements Of Natural And Opioid Reward Value, Aaron Paul Smith Jan 2019

Neurobehavioral Measurements Of Natural And Opioid Reward Value, Aaron Paul Smith

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

In the last decade, (non)prescription opioid abuse, opioid use disorder (OUD) diagnoses, and opioid-related overdoses have risen and represent a significant public health concern. One method of understanding OUD is as a disorder of choice that requires choosing opioid rewards at the expense of other nondrug rewards. The characterization of OUD as a disorder of choice is important as it implicates decision- making processes as therapeutic targets, such as the valuation of opioid rewards. However, reward-value measurement and interpretation are traditionally different in substance abuse research compared to related fields such as economics, animal behavior, and neuroeconomics and may ...


Development Of A Translational Model Of Co-Use Of Alcohol And Nicotine For Testing Potential Pharmacotherapies, Sarah Elizabeth Maggio Jan 2019

Development Of A Translational Model Of Co-Use Of Alcohol And Nicotine For Testing Potential Pharmacotherapies, Sarah Elizabeth Maggio

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Co-users of alcohol and nicotine are the largest group of polysubstance users worldwide. Although pharmacotherapies are available for alcohol (EtOH) or tobacco use disorders individually, it may be possible to develop a single pharmacotherapy to treat heavy drinking tobacco smokers through capitalizing on the commonalities in their mechanisms of action. Towards this goal, several models of concurrent access to EtOH and nicotine were explored as potential preclinical models of co-use using female alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Additionally, potential pharmacotherapeutics for the treatment of EtOH and nicotine co-use disorder were tested using different variations of our model. Treatments tested included (1) varenicline ...


Circadian Variations And Risky Decision Making, Sana Sra Jan 2019

Circadian Variations And Risky Decision Making, Sana Sra

Scripps Senior Theses

Over the past decades, decision making under risk has garnered a great amount of attention both in the field of economics and psychology. Although state-dependent variabilities of risk taking are well-documented, little is known about the effects of a person’s preferred time of day, or chronotype, in risky decision making. Under circumstances of circadian mismatch (e.g., when an “early bird” makes decisions in the evening), research suggests that decision making may reflect a greater reliance on heuristics, such as using stereotypes in social judgments. However, the effects of circadian mismatch on heuristics in risky decision making are relatively ...


Differences In Sexual Delay Discounting Among In-Treatment Adults With Opioid Use Disorder, Jonathan J.K. Stoltman Jan 2019

Differences In Sexual Delay Discounting Among In-Treatment Adults With Opioid Use Disorder, Jonathan J.K. Stoltman

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Previous research has found impulsive decision-making to be a core component of addiction (Moody, Franck, Hatz, & Bickel, 2016). One way to measure impulsive choice is through the use of a delay discounting task. The delay discounting task provides a way to measure choice of immediate, smaller rewards compared to delayed, larger rewards (Odum, 2011b). An emerging area of research in addiction science is the intersection of addiction and sexual health. Previous sexual delay discounting research has focused on whether attractiveness or STD risk can shift the likelihood of waiting until a condom was available (Johnson & Bruner, 2012). This study is ...


The Onset, Spread, And Prevention Of Mass Atrocities: Perspectives From Network Models, Charles H. Anderton, Jurgen Brauer Sep 2018

The Onset, Spread, And Prevention Of Mass Atrocities: Perspectives From Network Models, Charles H. Anderton, Jurgen Brauer

Economics Department Working Papers

No abstract provided.


Abandoning The Dream Of Omnipotence: On Autonomy And Self-Binding, Charlie Coil Aug 2018

Abandoning The Dream Of Omnipotence: On Autonomy And Self-Binding, Charlie Coil

Theses and Dissertations

I offer a prolegomenon to the philosophical study of a uniquely human activity—the self-binding act. This philosophical interest directly connects with the Enlightenment project of centralizing personal autonomy and individual freedom as primary values of personhood. Self-binding represents an easily referenced action that introduces a possible clash between autonomy and freedom on the one hand seen as in conflict with other ancient basic human values like self-control and avoiding akrasia. This dissertation investigates the inverted manner whereby an act of self-binding, which voluntarily and effectively limits a person’s options, can end up augmenting rather than interfering with personal ...


Don’T Worry Be Happy: Analysis Of Happiness As An Economic Measurement, Kofi Boadu May 2018

Don’T Worry Be Happy: Analysis Of Happiness As An Economic Measurement, Kofi Boadu

Master's Theses

Everyone wants to be happy. Happiness however never seems to be a national goal. A possible answer is that happiness is subjective and on its own may not be reflective of the economic status of a country. Therefore, should people’s happiness should be treated equally with other traditional economic measurements? This cross-country level study looks at the relationship between happiness and traditional economic measurements; mainly GDP per capita. Questions concerning whether GDP per capita indeed captures the overall well-being of a citizen and happiness’ eligibility as an economic measurement are addressed. Findings confirm that happiness and GDP per capita ...


Behaviors And Perceptions Of Environmental Decision Making: The Role Of Information Dissemination Through Public Disclosures And Labels, Jordan R. Anthony May 2018

Behaviors And Perceptions Of Environmental Decision Making: The Role Of Information Dissemination Through Public Disclosures And Labels, Jordan R. Anthony

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Environmental decision making may be influenced by information and how this information has been disseminated. By recognizing that information needs to be salient to the individual (Cash et al., 2003, 2006), tailored and framed to the individual (Pelletier & Sharp, 2008), and recognizing that the information must be presented in a way that the individual is ready and able to accept the information (Teisl, Rubin, & Noblet, 2008) all serve as a means to improve the effect information has on environmental decision making. Through this work, two studies of contextual examples of how information dissemination affects environmental decision making are presented.

The first study seeks to learn about how safety information disclosures affect the perception of risk. Coastal water quality may be threatened by natural and human process; it is important to understand how coastal water users perceive the risk to human health associated with these threats (Hlavsa et al., 2011; Lewis & Miller, 2016). I use data collected by the New England Sustainability Consortium’s Safe Beaches & Shellfish Project 2015 mail survey conducted in Maine and New Hampshire on coastal residents (Fox et al., 2017). I investigate how information through public disclosures at either beaches or shellfish harvesting areas influence risk perceptions associated with entering the water (or eating shellfish) under an advisory or closure. Further, we test to see if the frames of marine environment or public health may be more appropriate to communicate information to the public and how it influences risk perception. The findings suggest that disclosures of poor coastal water quality at these areas do not influence risk perception nor do specific messages appear to alter risk perceptions.

The second study seeks to better understand consumer information seeking behavior and use of product labels for aquaculture products and how these behaviors change when the heterogeneity in preferences is considered. Despite aquaculture’s stance as a rapidly growing sustainable food technology, public opinion about aquaculture is still relatively unformed (Murray et al., 2017). Labeling of aquaculture products is an opportunity to provide information that is salient and messages that bridge the gap between the individual and the information presented on labels at the time of purchase (Cash et al., 2003, 2006; Pelletier & Sharp, 2008; Teisl et al., 2008). We use data from a 2017 national survey collected by the Sustainable Ecological Aquaculture Network Human Dimensions Team to capture behaviors and perceptions of aquaculture. To approach our unique problem, audience segmentation methods ...


Attentional Processing: Replication And Extension Of Selection Bias As A Predictor Of Intertemporal Choice Behavior, Dylan Rutter May 2018

Attentional Processing: Replication And Extension Of Selection Bias As A Predictor Of Intertemporal Choice Behavior, Dylan Rutter

Masters Theses

Basic underlying mechanisms of discounting delayed rewards remain unclear (Green & Myerson, 2013). There has been evidence that attentional mechanisms (e.g., fixation and fixation duration) could be further investigate processes related to the discounting of delayed rewards (Franco-Watkins, Matteson, & Jackson, 2016). Franco-Watkins et al. (2016) was the first to propose a measure of attentional mechanisms in a discounting paradigm, known as selection bias. The authors found selection bias was positively correlated with choice behavior. The present study replicated selection bias using a titration procedure and Area Under the Curve scores. This study also analyzed selection bias across choice presentations at ...


Individual Differences In Discounting Delayed Gains, Delayed Losses, And Probabilistic Losses, Yu-Hua Yeh May 2018

Individual Differences In Discounting Delayed Gains, Delayed Losses, And Probabilistic Losses, Yu-Hua Yeh

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many decisions in one’s daily life involve the discounting of delayed or probabilistic losses: Should we pay off our credit-card balance in full or incur interest; should we buy more collision and liability insurance or risk having to pay more in case of an accident? Despite its importance, however, discounting of losses is understudied, and few studies have focused on individual differences. The current study recruited 407 on-line participants through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk who completed three discounting questionnaires: delayed losses, probabilistic losses, and delayed gains. Magnitude effects were observed with delayed gains (i.e., larger delayed gains were ...


Discrimination: Does Perception Of Corruption Affect Our Interactions?, Ramón Garcia Gomez Apr 2018

Discrimination: Does Perception Of Corruption Affect Our Interactions?, Ramón Garcia Gomez

Honors Theses (PPE)

Does our perception of corruption affect our interactions? This question was answered through an experimental survey of 90 participants and the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) from Transparency International’s 2017 Report. The survey revealed that those who were categorized as low-corrupt with an above average CPI exhibited altruism towards individuals from perceived high-corrupt regions but discriminated negatively against them when restrictions were placed on the interaction. In the experiment, participants were allowed to give any amount between zero and six dollars in both games. Altruism was measured through the dictator game and low-corrupt participants were found to give one dollar ...


Does Ease Mediate The Ease-Of-Retrieval Effect? A Meta-Analysis, Evan Weingarten, J. W. Hutchinson Mar 2018

Does Ease Mediate The Ease-Of-Retrieval Effect? A Meta-Analysis, Evan Weingarten, J. W. Hutchinson

Marketing Papers

A wealth of literature suggests individuals use feelings in addition to facts as sources of information for judgment. This paper focuses on a manipulation in which participants list either a few or many examples of a given type, and then make a judgment. Instead of using the number of arguments or evidence strength, participants are hypothesized to use the subjective ease of generating examples as the primary input to judgment. This result is commonly called the ease-of-retrieval effect, and the feeling of ease is typically assumed to mediate the effect. We use meta-analytic methods across 142 papers, 263 studies, and ...


Time Delay And Investment Decisions: Evidence From An Experiment In Tanzania, Plamen Nikolov Jan 2018

Time Delay And Investment Decisions: Evidence From An Experiment In Tanzania, Plamen Nikolov

Economics Faculty Scholarship

Attitudes toward risk underlie virtually every important economic decision an individual makes. In this experimental study, I examine how introducing a time delay into the execution of an investment plan influences individuals’ risk preferences. The field experiment proceeded in three stages: a decision stage, an execution stage and a payout stage. At the outset, in the Decision Stage (Stage 1), each subject was asked to make an investment plan by splitting a monetary investment amount between a risky asset and a safe asset. Subjects were informed that the investment plans they made in the Decision Stage are binding and will ...


The Effect Of Fast Food Restaurants On Type 2 Diabetes Rates, Grace Bailey Jan 2018

The Effect Of Fast Food Restaurants On Type 2 Diabetes Rates, Grace Bailey

CMC Senior Theses

This paper conducts an analysis of county level data to determine the effect of fast food restaurants on type 2 diabetes rates. Due to endogeneity concerns with respect to the location of fast food restaurants, this paper follows the work of Dunn (2010) and uses the number of interstate exits in a given county to serve as an instrument for fast food restaurants. The strength of the instrument, which is theoretically and empirically tested in this paper, imposes some restraints on the interpretation of the findings. Using the Two-Stage Least Squares estimation method, I find that the presence of fast ...


How To Prevent Unhelpful Personality Traits From Evolving Into Unhelpful Financial Behaviors: The Benefits Of Future Clarity, Simon Andrew Moss, Eraj Ghafoori, Liam Smith Jan 2018

How To Prevent Unhelpful Personality Traits From Evolving Into Unhelpful Financial Behaviors: The Benefits Of Future Clarity, Simon Andrew Moss, Eraj Ghafoori, Liam Smith

Journal of Financial Therapy

Many organizations have implemented programs to improve the financial behavior of impending retirees and other vulnerable demographics. These programs are predicated on the assumption that financial behavior is indeed modifiable. Yet, many enduring traits, such as emotional instability, could promote financial anxiety and provoke imprudent financial behaviors, limiting the utility of these programs. This study, however, tests the possibility that future clarity—the degree to which individuals perceive their future as vivid and certain—could diminish the extent to which emotional instability coincides with financial anxiety and imprudent financial behavior. Specifically, 1516 participants over 50 completed a questionnaire that gauges ...


The Impact Of Psychological Trauma On Finance: Narrative Financial Therapy Considerations In Exploring Complex Trauma And Impaired Financial Decision Making, D. Bruce Ross Iii, Ed Coambs Jan 2018

The Impact Of Psychological Trauma On Finance: Narrative Financial Therapy Considerations In Exploring Complex Trauma And Impaired Financial Decision Making, D. Bruce Ross Iii, Ed Coambs

Journal of Financial Therapy

The current paper aims to foster new discussion on the complex, deleterious, and conflated relationship between psychological trauma and financial management processes. Trauma and financial distress are interconnected, affecting the cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and relational aspects of our lives. A case vignette is presented for financial therapists which utilizes an integrated, trauma-informed approach addressing the lasting impact of childhood trauma on financial management behaviors and the client’s life story. Treatment modalities consider narrative financial therapy, four categories of sexual and financial shame, and four phases of trauma restoration. Ethical and practice implications are discussed.


The Cultural Shaping Of Career Aspirations: Acculturation And Chinese Biculturals' Career Identity Styles, Dan Tao, Rui Zhang, Evelina Lou, Richard N. Lalonde Jan 2018

The Cultural Shaping Of Career Aspirations: Acculturation And Chinese Biculturals' Career Identity Styles, Dan Tao, Rui Zhang, Evelina Lou, Richard N. Lalonde

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Choosing one’s occupation is an important life decision for young adults. This decision may be particularly complicated for biculturals who have access to two potentially conflicting sets of career-related cultural norms. The present study examined the role of both mainstream and heritage acculturations in the context of career decisions, for a sample of bicultural Chinese emerging adults in Canada (N = 194). Results first verified the validity of a modified measure of Berzonsky’s (1989) identity processing styles in the career domain. Path analysis supported our proposed model and showed that Canadian acculturation predicted an informational career identity style, whereas ...


Protocol Invariance And The Timing Of Decisions In Dynamic Games, Ulrich Doraszelski, Juan F. Escobar Sep 2017

Protocol Invariance And The Timing Of Decisions In Dynamic Games, Ulrich Doraszelski, Juan F. Escobar

Marketing Papers

We characterize a class of dynamic stochastic games that we call separable dynamic games with noisy transitions and establish that these widely used models are protocol invariant provided that periods are sufficiently short. Protocol invariance means that the set of Markov perfect equilibria is nearly the same irrespective of the order in which players are assumed to move within a period. Protocol invariance can facilitate applied work and renders the implications and predictions of a model more robust. Our class of dynamic stochastic games includes investment games, R&D races, models of industry dynamics, dynamic public construction games, asynchronously repeated ...


Unique Prediction Of Cannabis Use Severity And Behaviors By Delay Discounting And Behavioral Economic Demand, Justin C. Strickland, Joshua A. Lile, William W. Stoops Jul 2017

Unique Prediction Of Cannabis Use Severity And Behaviors By Delay Discounting And Behavioral Economic Demand, Justin C. Strickland, Joshua A. Lile, William W. Stoops

Psychology Faculty Publications

Few studies have simultaneously evaluated delay discounting and behavioral economic demand to determine their unique contribution to drug use. A recent study in cannabis users found that monetary delay discounting uniquely predicted cannabis dependence symptoms, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency. This study sought to replicate and extend this research by evaluating delay discounting and behavioral economic demand measures for multiple commodities and including a use quantity measure. Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk was used to sample individuals reporting recent cannabis use (n = 64) and controls (n = 72). Participants completed measures of monetary delay discounting as well as alcohol ...


Generating Prevalence Estimates Of Sensitive Behaviors Through List Randomization: Survey Experiment Among Indian Males, Abha Indurkar May 2017

Generating Prevalence Estimates Of Sensitive Behaviors Through List Randomization: Survey Experiment Among Indian Males, Abha Indurkar

Master's Theses

Survey respondents may under-report or misreport sensitive behaviors due to social desirability bias. List randomization is an indirect way of asking questions which allows respondents to answer sensitive questions without the surveyor knowing their actual response. This has emerged as a new technique to ask sensitive questions as it reduces respondent’s discomfort while reporting sensitive behaviors. In this study, we apply list randomization to generate prevalence estimates of sensitive behaviors and perception related to homosexuality, molestation of women and notion of partner purity in the sample of young, college educated Indian males. Our findings are consistent with the literature ...


How To Measure Well-Being At Work And Why It Matters, Singapore Management University May 2017

How To Measure Well-Being At Work And Why It Matters, Singapore Management University

Perspectives@SMU

Supported staff are key drivers of high performing workplaces