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Full-Text Articles in Mass Communication

Mediating Possibility After Suffering: Meaning Making Of The Micro-Political Through Digital Media, Samira Rajabi Aug 2018

Mediating Possibility After Suffering: Meaning Making Of The Micro-Political Through Digital Media, Samira Rajabi

CARGC Papers

CARGC Paper 9, “Mediating Possibility after Suffering: Meaning Making of the Micro-political through Digital Media,” by CARGC Postdoctoral Fellow, Samira Rajabi, is based on Rajabi’s 2018 CARGC Colloquium. Using three empirical case studies from Instagram, Rajabi examines the Trump administration’s 2017 travel ban as a traumatic experience and its digital mediation. First exploring a general understanding of trauma as it relates to global media studies, she then develops the notion of “symbolic trauma” to understand how Iranian-Americans mediated the travel ban’s effects.


Interventions Highlighting Hypocrisy Reduce Collective Blame Of Muslims For Individual Acts Of Violence And Assuage Anti-Muslim Hostility, Emile Bruneau, Nour Kteily, Emily B. Falk Mar 2018

Interventions Highlighting Hypocrisy Reduce Collective Blame Of Muslims For Individual Acts Of Violence And Assuage Anti-Muslim Hostility, Emile Bruneau, Nour Kteily, Emily B. Falk

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Collectively blaming groups for the actions of individuals can license vicarious retribution. Acts of terrorism by Muslim extremists against innocents, and the spikes in anti-Muslim hate crimes against innocent Muslims that follow, suggest that reciprocal bouts of collective blame can spark cycles of violence. How can this cycle be short-circuited? After establishing a link between collective blame of Muslims and anti-Muslim attitudes and behavior, we used an “interventions tournament” to identify a successful intervention (among many that failed). The “winning” intervention reduced collective blame of Muslims by highlighting hypocrisy in the ways individuals collectively blame Muslims—but not other groups ...


Global Brain Dynamics During Social Exclusion Predict Subsequent Behavioral Conformity, Nick Wasylyshyn, Brett H. Falk, Javier O. Garcia, Christopher N. Cascio, Matthew B. O'Donnell, C. R. Bingham, Bruce G. Simons-Morton, Jean M. Vettel, Emily B. Falk Feb 2018

Global Brain Dynamics During Social Exclusion Predict Subsequent Behavioral Conformity, Nick Wasylyshyn, Brett H. Falk, Javier O. Garcia, Christopher N. Cascio, Matthew B. O'Donnell, C. R. Bingham, Bruce G. Simons-Morton, Jean M. Vettel, Emily B. Falk

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Individuals react differently to social experiences; for example, people who are more sensitive to negative social experiences, such as being excluded, may be more likely to adapt their behavior to fit in with others. We examined whether functional brain connectivity during social exclusion in the fMRI scanner can be used to predict subsequent conformity to peer norms. Adolescent males (n = 57) completed a two-part study on teen driving risk: a social exclusion task (Cyberball) during an fMRI session and a subsequent driving simulator session in which they drove alone and in the presence of a peer who expressed risk-averse or ...


Advertising Content And Consumer Engagement On Social Media: Evidence From Facebook, Dokyun Lee, Kartik Hosanagar, Harikesh Nair Jan 2018

Advertising Content And Consumer Engagement On Social Media: Evidence From Facebook, Dokyun Lee, Kartik Hosanagar, Harikesh Nair

Marketing Papers

We describe the effect of social media advertising content on customer engagement using data from Facebook. We content-code 106,316 Facebook messages across 782 companies, using a combination of Amazon Mechanical Turk and natural language processing algorithms. We use this data set to study the association of various kinds of social media marketing content with user engagement—defined as Likes, comments, shares, and click-throughs—with the messages. We find that inclusion of widely used content related to brand personality—like humor and emotion—is associated with higher levels of consumer engagement (Likes, comments, shares) with a message. We find that ...


Awakening The Potential Of Positive Computing: A Transversal, Heliotropic Design Paradigm For Human Flourishing, Ryan Wynia Dec 2017

Awakening The Potential Of Positive Computing: A Transversal, Heliotropic Design Paradigm For Human Flourishing, Ryan Wynia

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Positive Computing literature does not consider the complex implications stemming from the evidence of computing technologies’ harmful effects. Moreover, present approaches to integrating well-being science into the design of interactive systems are built on deficit-oriented models. In response, a transversal, social constructionist paradigm of Positive Computing sensitive to the social complex and views technology as a part ofcivilization as a living, human construction is explored as a means of advancing the Positive Computing domain. The work argues the well-being of civilization needs to be routinely re-secured through the development of a metacognitive, affirmative competency that recognizessocial systems as capable of ...


Backlash: The Politics And Real-World Consequences Of Minority Group Dehumanization, Nour Kteily, Emile Bruneau Jan 2017

Backlash: The Politics And Real-World Consequences Of Minority Group Dehumanization, Nour Kteily, Emile Bruneau

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Research suggests that members of advantaged groups who feel dehumanized by other groups respond aggressively. But little is known about how meta-dehumanization affects disadvantaged minority group members, historically the primary targets of dehumanization. We examine this important question in the context of the 2016 U.S. Republican Primaries, which have witnessed the widespread derogation and dehumanization of Mexican immigrants and Muslims. Two initial studies document that Americans blatantly dehumanize Mexican immigrants and Muslims; this dehumanization uniquely predicts support for aggressive policies proposed by Republican nominees, and dehumanization is highly associated with supporting Republican candidates (especially Donald Trump). Two further studies ...


Clarifying Goals, Revitalizing Means: An Independent Evaluation Of The Freedom Online Coalition, Susan Morgan May 2016

Clarifying Goals, Revitalizing Means: An Independent Evaluation Of The Freedom Online Coalition, Susan Morgan

Internet Policy Observatory

This independent evaluation of the Freedom Online Coalition (FOC) was commissioned by the Coalition as it approaches its fifth anniversary. The FOC sought input into a wider strategic review they are carrying out to assess its effectiveness with a particular focus on four areas – membership, governance and structure, the Coalition’s efforts and activities, and funding.

Thirty interviews with government representatives, members of civil society, business representatives, and academics were conducted between September 2015 and January 2016, along with an in-person consultation with 14 stakeholders at the Internet Governance Forum in Brazil in November 2015. Desk research on five similar ...


They See Us As Less Than Human: Metadehumanization Predicts Intergroup Conflict Via Reciprocal Dehumanization, Nour Kteily, Gordon Hodson, Emile Bruneau Mar 2016

They See Us As Less Than Human: Metadehumanization Predicts Intergroup Conflict Via Reciprocal Dehumanization, Nour Kteily, Gordon Hodson, Emile Bruneau

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Although the act of dehumanizing an outgroup is a pervasive and potent intergroup process that drives discrimination and conflict, no formal research has examined the consequences of being dehumanized by an outgroup—that is, “metadehumanization.” Across 10 studies (N = 3,440) involving several real-world conflicts spanning 3 continents, we provide the first empirical evidence that metadehumanization (a) plays a central role in outgroup aggression that is (b) mediated by outgroup dehumanization, and (c) distinct from metaprejudice. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrate experimentally that Americans who learn that Arabs (Study 1a) or Muslims (Study 1b) blatantly dehumanize Americans are more likely ...


Functional Brain Imaging Predicts Public Health Campaign Success, Emily B. Falk, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Steven Tompson, Richard Gonzalez, Sonya Dal Cin, Victor J. Strecher, Kenneth M. Cummings, Lawrence An Feb 2016

Functional Brain Imaging Predicts Public Health Campaign Success, Emily B. Falk, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Steven Tompson, Richard Gonzalez, Sonya Dal Cin, Victor J. Strecher, Kenneth M. Cummings, Lawrence An

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Mass media can powerfully affect health decision-making. Pre-testing through focus groups or surveys is a standard, though inconsistent, predictor of effectiveness. Converging evidence demonstrates that activity within brain systems associated with self-related processing can predict individual behavior in response to health messages. Preliminary evidence also suggests that neural activity in small groups can forecast population-level campaign outcomes. Less is known about the psychological processes that link neural activity and population-level outcomes, or how these predictions are affected by message content. We exposed 50 smokers to antismoking messages and used their aggregated neural activity within a ‘self-localizer’ defined region of medial ...


Participation Vs. Effectiveness Of Paid Endorsers In Social Advertising Campaigns: A Field Experiment, Jing Peng, Christophe Van Den Bulte Jan 2016

Participation Vs. Effectiveness Of Paid Endorsers In Social Advertising Campaigns: A Field Experiment, Jing Peng, Christophe Van Den Bulte

Marketing Papers

We investigate the participation and effectiveness of paid endorsers in viral-for-hire social advertising. We conduct a field experiment with an invitation design in which we manipulate both incentives and a soft eligibility requirement to participate in campaigns. The latter provides a strong and valid instrument to separate participation from outcomes effects. Since likes, comments, and retweets are count variables, and since potential endorsers can self-select to participate in multiple campaigns, we propose a Poisson lognormal model with sample selection and correlated random effects to analyze variations in participation and effectiveness. There are three main findings. (1) Payments higher than the ...


When Similarity Strikes Back: The Positive And Negative Role Of Character-Audience Similarity In Anti-Smoking Campaigns, Minji Kim Jan 2016

When Similarity Strikes Back: The Positive And Negative Role Of Character-Audience Similarity In Anti-Smoking Campaigns, Minji Kim

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

As media technology evolves quickly, tailored and targeted communication has emerged as an important strategy in persuasion. One of the most widely used and easiest tactics of tailoring is using an exemplar or persuader character similar to the target audience. However, the effect of character-audience similarity may significantly differ depending on other message features such as how the similar character is shown to behave within the message. This dissertation examines the positive and negative effects of the similarity between the audience and the exemplar character in anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs), based on demographics and smoking status. Would character-audience similarity ...


The Ascent Of Man: Theoretical And Empirical Evidence For Blatant Dehumanization, Nour Kteily, Emile Bruneau, Adam Waytz, Sarah Cotterill Nov 2015

The Ascent Of Man: Theoretical And Empirical Evidence For Blatant Dehumanization, Nour Kteily, Emile Bruneau, Adam Waytz, Sarah Cotterill

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Dehumanization is a central concept in the study of intergroup relations. Yet although theoretical and methodological advances in subtle, “everyday” dehumanization have progressed rapidly, blatant dehumanization remains understudied. The present research attempts to refocus theoretical and empirical attention on blatant dehumanization, examining when and why it provides explanatory power beyond subtle dehumanization. To accomplish this, we introduce and validate a blatant measure of dehumanization based on the popular depiction of evolutionary progress in the “Ascent of Man.” We compare blatant dehumanization to established conceptualizations of subtle and implicit dehumanization, including infrahumanization, perceptions of human nature and human uniqueness, and implicit ...


Satellite Communication And Peacebuilding In East Africa, Lisa Parks Feb 2015

Satellite Communication And Peacebuilding In East Africa, Lisa Parks

ICTs, Statebuilding and Peacebuilding in Africa

This report highlights new opportunities to integrate satellite communication into peacebuilding initiatives in East Africa, especially given challenges faced by terrestrial and undersea telecom operators, the affordances of satellite technologies, and growth of the satellite market in Africa.

Section one of the report describes threats to terrestrial and undersea telecom infrastructure in East Africa arising from vandalism, theft, and sabotage. Section two delineates the unique affordances of communication satellites and then describes some of the major players in the African satellite market as well as their satellite assets. Finally, section three offers a series of recommendations for how satellite capacity ...


Harnessing Hollywood Hype: Film Marketing Meets The Challenges And Opportunities Of The 21st Century, Katherine Felsburg Wong Jan 2015

Harnessing Hollywood Hype: Film Marketing Meets The Challenges And Opportunities Of The 21st Century, Katherine Felsburg Wong

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Marketing is a vital commercial activity and source of competitive advantage within the Hollywood film industry, serving to create, circulate and translate symbolic meaning around a film and its ancillary products, construct and target key audience segments, guide audience expectations and viewing choices, and mitigate financial risk. Marketers thus play an increasingly central role in all stages of the filmmaking process. To examine the often overlooked structures and practices of Hollywood’s marketing arm, this study adopts a media industry studies approach, employing interviews, fieldwork, and textual analysis to explore the social, technological, organizational, economic, and spatial forces that shape ...


The Role Of The Common Core In The Gubernatorial Elections Of 2014, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Bobbi Newman, Ariel Smith Nov 2014

The Role Of The Common Core In The Gubernatorial Elections Of 2014, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Bobbi Newman, Ariel Smith

CPRE Policy Briefs

After the Spring 2014 primaries, the Common Core State Standards were viewed as a political hot potato. As former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee said, “the Common Core has become toxic, I think it’s radioactive…It has become an incredibly controversial topic on both the left and the right.” Even so, the Common Core turned out to play a role in some of the governor’s races in November 2014.

In this analysis of candidate positions and the role of the Common Core across the 36 gubernatorial races of 2014, CPRE researchers Bobbi Newman, Jonathan Supovitz and Arial Smith used ...


How State Education Agencies Acquire And Use Research In School Improvement Strategies, Margaret E. Goertz, Diane Massell, Carol Barnes Oct 2014

How State Education Agencies Acquire And Use Research In School Improvement Strategies, Margaret E. Goertz, Diane Massell, Carol Barnes

CPRE Policy Briefs

Policymakers have urged state education agencies (SEAs) to engage with organizations outside of their agencies to extend their capacity and to help them collect and use research to support school improvement. However, little is known about how SEAs search for, select, and use research in their school improvement efforts.

In the first study to examine communication structures, social capital, and information networks within SEAs, researchers Goertz, Barnes, and Massell in How State Education Agencies Acquire and Use Research in School Improvement Strategies applied social network perspectives and methods to identify knowledge sources utilized by SEAs. Their findings provide important insights ...


Framing Climate Change In Local News Before And After Hurricane Sandy, Brian A. Werner May 2014

Framing Climate Change In Local News Before And After Hurricane Sandy, Brian A. Werner

Master of Environmental Studies Capstone Projects

Hurricane Sandy came ashore in Brigantine, NJ on October 29, 2012. This study examines the frequency and framing of newspaper coverage of climate change during the year before and the year after Hurricane Sandy. It focuses only on high-circulation newspapers that serve populations in the areas in New York and New Jersey that were hardest hit by the storm: The Star-Ledger (Newark, NJ), The Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, PA), The Press of Atlantic City (Atlantic City, NJ), and Newsday (Long Island, NY). A total of 408 articles about climate change were coded and analyzed. In general, the frequency of coverage of ...


In The Shadow Of Official Ambition: National Media Policy Confronts Global Media Capital, Michael Curtin Apr 2014

In The Shadow Of Official Ambition: National Media Policy Confronts Global Media Capital, Michael Curtin

CARGC Papers

CARGC Paper 1 drew on Curtin’s then book project, Media Capital, which compares and contrasts cities that have become centers of the global film and television industries, such as Bombay, Lagos, and Miami. In the paper, Curtin explored the implications of Chinese cultural policy within the broader context of media globalization, providing a framework for understanding the logics of media capital and the challenges confronting national governments, making comparisons to Arab, African, and Indian media, and reflecting on the prospects for creativity and diversity in film and television.


Advertising, Big Data, And The Clearance Of The Public Realm: Marketers’ New Approaches To The Content Subsidy, Nick Couldry, Joseph Turow Jan 2014

Advertising, Big Data, And The Clearance Of The Public Realm: Marketers’ New Approaches To The Content Subsidy, Nick Couldry, Joseph Turow

Departmental Papers (ASC)

This article addresses implications for democracy of two interconnected developments involving big data and the media. One is the targeting of consumers for advertising by marketers and the new data-capture industry that supports them. The other involves the transformation of advertisers’ approach to subsidizing media content production. We describe these developments and consider their consequences for democratic life, drawing on classical and recent democratic theory (Paine, Dahl, Mouffe, Rosanvallon). We conclude that big data’s embedding in personalized marketing and content production threatens the ecology of connections that link citizens and groups via information, argumentation, empathy, and celebration as members ...


Salvation Or Folly? The Promises And Perils Of Digital Paywalls, Victor Pickard Jan 2014

Salvation Or Folly? The Promises And Perils Of Digital Paywalls, Victor Pickard

Departmental Papers (ASC)

This article chronicles the recent history of the debate in the United States over digital paywalls, a model often hailed as newspapers’ savior. We show how this debate has evolved from emphasizing industry-wide adoption to focusing on individual experiments. While highlighting potential legal, economic, and democratic concerns with paywalls, we examine the empirical record of three prominent newspaper paywall models: the Arkansas Democrat- Gazette, the Dallas Morning News, and the New York Times. While each has enjoyed varying levels of success, our analysis suggests that paywalls are unable to offset steep losses in advertising revenue. We conclude by briefly discussing ...


Attractability And Virality: The Role Of Message Features And Social Influence In Health News Diffusion, Hyun Suk Kim Jan 2014

Attractability And Virality: The Role Of Message Features And Social Influence In Health News Diffusion, Hyun Suk Kim

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

What makes health news articles attractable and viral? Why do some articles diffuse widely by prompting audience selections (attractability) and subsequent social retransmissions (virality), while others do not? Identifying what drives social epidemics of health news coverage is crucial to our understanding of its impact on the public, especially in the emerging media environment where news consumption has become increasingly selective and social. This dissertation examines how message features and social influence affect the volume and persistence of attractability and virality within the context of the online diffusion of New York Times (NYT) health news articles. The dissertation analyzes (1 ...


When, Why, And How Controversy Causes Conversation, Zoey Chen, Jonah A. Berger Oct 2013

When, Why, And How Controversy Causes Conversation, Zoey Chen, Jonah A. Berger

Marketing Papers

How does controversy affect conversation? Five studies using both field and laboratory data address this question. Contrary to popular belief, controversial things are not necessarily more likely to be discussed. Controversy increases likelihood of discussion at low levels, but beyond a moderate level of controversy, additional controversy actually decreases likelihood of discussion. The controversy-conversation relationship is driven by two countervailing processes. Controversy increases interest (which increases likelihood of discussion) but simultaneously increases discomfort (which decreases likelihood of discussion). Contextual factors such as anonymity and whether people are talking to friends or strangers moderate the controversy-conversation relationship by impacting these component ...


Positive Media: An Introductory Exploration, Meghan B. Keener Aug 2012

Positive Media: An Introductory Exploration, Meghan B. Keener

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Media has become an increasingly large part of our lives, and therefore plays a crucial role in our well-being. Positive psychology, the science of well-being, can be complemented through the new potentialities of media, which in many ways also seeks to improve the human experience. I create the context for a new dialogue about what "positive media" might be. By adopting a positive lens and discussing exemplars in different formats, this paper explores the ways media effectively incorporates elements of well-being. Through this positive approach, we gain an appreciation for what media does well. The paper also recommends ways that ...


Ayllu On The Airwaves: Rap, Reform, & Redemption On Aymara National Radio, Karl Frederic Swinehart Jan 2012

Ayllu On The Airwaves: Rap, Reform, & Redemption On Aymara National Radio, Karl Frederic Swinehart

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Of the indigenous languages of the Americas, Aymara counts among the few with more than one million speakers; yet, in the country with its greatest number of speakers, Bolivia, concerns of language shift to Spanish are widespread, making it the focus of varied political, linguistic, educational, and cultural interventions. This dissertation provides a comparative linguistic ethnographic account of three media platforms in Bolivia from which models of Aymara language emanate-a Jesuit radio station, a hip-hop collective, and the radio station of the Aymara Education Council--to address the following questions: In what ways do these centers of institutional authority advance or ...


Bowling Online: Examining Social Capital And The Impact Of Internet-Generated Interactions, Alon Gur Jan 2012

Bowling Online: Examining Social Capital And The Impact Of Internet-Generated Interactions, Alon Gur

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Part of who we are is whom we communicate with. That basic premise, that our family and friends affect our own personality, is accepted even in academic treatises that promote nature over nurture as determinants of personality (McCrae & Costa Jr. et al., 2000). Social capital, as a theory, is directly tied to that notion; we build a fund based on friendship and trust and favors – a trust fund, figuratively – and we “invest” in jobs or other relationships for the sake of personal benefit. Harvard Professor Robert Putnam’s 1995 Journal of Democracy paper and the follow-up book, Bowling Alone, hypothesize that America has declining social capital.

Putnam believes in the power of local relationships: "The ...


The Revolt Against Radio: Postwar Media Criticism And The Struggle For Broadcast Reform, Victor Pickard Jan 2011

The Revolt Against Radio: Postwar Media Criticism And The Struggle For Broadcast Reform, Victor Pickard

Departmental Papers (ASC)

No abstract provided.


A Communication Model Of The Impact Of Presidential Candidate Character Traits On Vote Preference, Bruce W. Hardy Dec 2010

A Communication Model Of The Impact Of Presidential Candidate Character Traits On Vote Preference, Bruce W. Hardy

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation presents a communication model of the impact of candidate character traits on vote preference and outlines how the communication environment surrounding US presidential elections influences the selection of salient candidate character traits, how these traits are framed by mediated communication, and reports their influence on vote preference which is dependent on voters’ level of news media use. A conceptualization of traits and the theoretical basis for how and why they may play a role in vote preference is presented and suggests traits provide an easily accessible heuristic allowing citizens to make predictions for future behavior of a candidate ...


Pathways To Eliciting Aid: The Effects Of Visual Representations Of Human Suffering On Empathy And Help For People In Need, Xiaoxia Cao Aug 2010

Pathways To Eliciting Aid: The Effects Of Visual Representations Of Human Suffering On Empathy And Help For People In Need, Xiaoxia Cao

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation investigates how the media representation of a victim of a chronic problem can induce empathy and help for the victim group and whether taking the perspective of the victim is necessary for experiencing empathy for him or her. Three characteristics of media messages examined here are the overt emotional expressions, geographic proximity and sensory proximity (manifested via a picture of a victim’s suffering experience and facial close-ups used to frame the victim) of a victim. Two experiments were conducted to test the effects of these characteristics on the audience’s empathic concern, perspective taking, attitudes toward the ...


Pathways To Eliciting Aid: The Effects Of Visual Representations Of Human Suffering On Empathy And Help For People In Need, Xiaoxia Cao Jul 2010

Pathways To Eliciting Aid: The Effects Of Visual Representations Of Human Suffering On Empathy And Help For People In Need, Xiaoxia Cao

Dissertations (ASC)

This dissertation investigates how the media representation of a victim of a chronic problem can induce empathy and help for the victim group and whether taking the perspective of the victim is necessary for experiencing empathy for him or her. Three characteristics of media messages examined here are the overt emotional expressions, geographic proximity and sensory proximity (manifested via a picture of a victim’s suffering experience and facial close-ups used to frame the victim) of a victim. Two experiments were conducted to test the effects of these characteristics on the audience’s empathic concern, perspective taking, attitudes toward the ...


Segment-Making And Society-Making Media: What Is A Good Balance?, Joseph Turow Jan 2010

Segment-Making And Society-Making Media: What Is A Good Balance?, Joseph Turow

Departmental Papers (ASC)

From the introduction:

In an increasingly number of societies, it is commonplace to talk about the movement away from a broadly shared media system to a much more fragmented media system. All agree that media organizations still have—and are expanding—the capability to lead a substantial percentage of earth’s humans to focus on particular events or ideas. The Beijing Olympics comes to mind. At the same time, though, most observers note that public electronic media also have the capacity to reach out to smaller and smaller segments of populations. Part of the reason relates to the large number ...