Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year

Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Interpersonal and Small Group Communication

Global Brain Dynamics During Social Exclusion Predict Subsequent Behavioral Conformity, Nick Wasylyshyn, Brett H. Falk, Javier O. Garcia, Christopher N. Cascio, Matthew B. O'Donnell, C. R. Bingham, Bruce G. Simons-Morton, Jean M. Vettel, Emily B. Falk Feb 2018

Global Brain Dynamics During Social Exclusion Predict Subsequent Behavioral Conformity, Nick Wasylyshyn, Brett H. Falk, Javier O. Garcia, Christopher N. Cascio, Matthew B. O'Donnell, C. R. Bingham, Bruce G. Simons-Morton, Jean M. Vettel, Emily B. Falk

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Individuals react differently to social experiences; for example, people who are more sensitive to negative social experiences, such as being excluded, may be more likely to adapt their behavior to fit in with others. We examined whether functional brain connectivity during social exclusion in the fMRI scanner can be used to predict subsequent conformity to peer norms. Adolescent males (n = 57) completed a two-part study on teen driving risk: a social exclusion task (Cyberball) during an fMRI session and a subsequent driving simulator session in which they drove alone and in the presence of a peer who expressed risk-averse or ...


Individual Differences In Learning Social And Non-Social Network Structures, Steven Tompson, Ari E. Kahn, Emily B. Falk, Jean M. Vettel, Danielle S. Bassett Jan 2018

Individual Differences In Learning Social And Non-Social Network Structures, Steven Tompson, Ari E. Kahn, Emily B. Falk, Jean M. Vettel, Danielle S. Bassett

Departmental Papers (ASC)

How do people acquire knowledge about which individuals belong to different cliques or communities? And to what extent does this learning process differ from the process of learning higher-order information about complex associations between non-social bits of information? Here, we employ a paradigm in which the order of stimulus presentation forms temporal associations between the stimuli, collectively constituting a complex network. We examined individual differences in the ability to learn community structure of networks composed of social versus non-social stimuli. Although participants were able to learn community structure of both social and non-social networks, their performance in social network learning ...


Who Likes To Be Reachable? Availability Preferences, Weak Ties, And Bridging Social Capital, Penny Trieu, Joseph B. Bayer, Nicole B. Ellison, Sarita Schonebeck, Emily B. Falk Nov 2017

Who Likes To Be Reachable? Availability Preferences, Weak Ties, And Bridging Social Capital, Penny Trieu, Joseph B. Bayer, Nicole B. Ellison, Sarita Schonebeck, Emily B. Falk

Departmental Papers (ASC)

In this paper, we investigate how individual differences in availability preferences are related to (1) self-reported quality of interaction with strong and weak ties and (2) perceptions of bridging social capital. We employed experience sampling methods and collected data over the course of two weeks—combined with surveys at baseline and endpoint, from a random sample of college students (N = 154). We show that individuals who prefer to be more available to others report more rewarding interactions with weak ties. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the quality of weak tie interactions mediates a positive relationship between availability preferences and bridging social ...


The Influence Of Peer Behavior As A Function Of Social And Cultural Closeness: A Meta-Analysis Of Normative Influence On Adolescent Smoking Initiation And Continuation, Jiaying Liu, Siman Zhao, Xi Chen, Emily B. Falk, Dolores Albarracín Oct 2017

The Influence Of Peer Behavior As A Function Of Social And Cultural Closeness: A Meta-Analysis Of Normative Influence On Adolescent Smoking Initiation And Continuation, Jiaying Liu, Siman Zhao, Xi Chen, Emily B. Falk, Dolores Albarracín

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Although the influence of peers on adolescent smoking should vary depending on social dynamics, there is a lack of understanding of which elements are most crucial and how this dynamic unfolds for smoking initiation and continuation across areas of the world. The present meta-analysis included 75 studies yielding 237 effect sizes that examined associations between peers’ smoking and adolescents’ smoking initiation and continuation with longitudinal designs across 16 countries. Mixed-effects models with robust variance estimates were used to calculate weighted-mean Odds ratios. This work showed that having peers who smoke is associated with about twice the odds of adolescents beginning ...


Giving The Underdog A Leg Up: A Counternarrative Of Nonviolent Resistance Improves Sustained Third-Party Support Of A Disempowered Group, Emile Bruneau, Daniel Lane, Muniba Saleem Sep 2017

Giving The Underdog A Leg Up: A Counternarrative Of Nonviolent Resistance Improves Sustained Third-Party Support Of A Disempowered Group, Emile Bruneau, Daniel Lane, Muniba Saleem

Departmental Papers (ASC)

In the current work, we experimentally examined the effect of exposure to a narrative of nonviolent resistance on third-party attitudes toward and support for a disempowered group involved in asymmetric conflict. Across three experiments, we found that Americans exposed to a brief video about Palestinian nonviolent resistance consistently registered more favorable attitudes toward Palestinians than people who watched a film trailer either unrelated to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict or a trailer to a Palestinian-made film about sympathetic Palestinians violently opposing Israelis. Americans’ attitudes toward Palestinians and behavior supporting Palestinian collective action persisted weeks after exposure to nonviolent resistance and were ...


The Value Of Sharing Information: A Neural Account Of Information Transmission, Elisa C. Baek, Christin Scholz, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Emily B. Falk Jul 2017

The Value Of Sharing Information: A Neural Account Of Information Transmission, Elisa C. Baek, Christin Scholz, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Emily B. Falk

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Humans routinely share information with one another. What drives this behavior? We used neuroimaging to test an account of information selection and sharing that emphasizes inherent reward in self-reflection and connecting with other people. Participants underwent functional MRI while they considered personally reading and sharing New York Times articles. Activity in neural regions involved in positive valuation, self-related processing, and taking the perspective of others was significantly associated with decisions to select and share articles, and scaled with preferences to do so. Activity in all three sets of regions was greater when participants considered sharing articles with other people rather ...


Minding The Gap: Narrative Descriptions About Mental States Attenuate Parochial Empathy, Emile Bruneau, Mina Cikara, Rebecca Saxe Oct 2015

Minding The Gap: Narrative Descriptions About Mental States Attenuate Parochial Empathy, Emile Bruneau, Mina Cikara, Rebecca Saxe

Departmental Papers (ASC)

In three experiments, we examine parochial empathy (feeling more empathy for in-group than out-group members) across novel group boundaries, and test whether we can mitigate parochial empathy with brief narrative descriptions. In the absence of individuating information, participants consistently report more empathy for members of their own assigned group than a competitive out-group. However, individualized descriptions of in-group and out-group targets significantly reduce parochial empathy by interfering with encoding of targets’ group membership. Finally, the descriptions that most effectively decrease parochial empathy are those that describe targets’ mental states. These results support the role of individuating information in ameliorating parochial ...


Can Text Messages Increase Empathy And Prosocial Behavior? The Development And Initial Validation Of Text To Connect, Sara H. Konrath, Emily B. Falk, Andrea Fuhrel-Forbis, Mary Liu, James Swain, Richard Tolman, Rebecca Cunningham, Maureen Walton Sep 2015

Can Text Messages Increase Empathy And Prosocial Behavior? The Development And Initial Validation Of Text To Connect, Sara H. Konrath, Emily B. Falk, Andrea Fuhrel-Forbis, Mary Liu, James Swain, Richard Tolman, Rebecca Cunningham, Maureen Walton

Departmental Papers (ASC)

To what extent can simple mental exercises cause shifts in empathic habits? Can we use mobile technology to make people more empathic? It may depend on how empathy is measured. Scholars have identified a number of different facets and correlates of empathy. This study is among the first to take a comprehensive, multidimensional approach to empathy to determine how empathy training could affect these different facets and correlates. In doing so, we can learn more about empathy and its multifaceted nature. Participants (N = 90) were randomly assigned to receive either an empathy-building text message program (Text to Connect) or one ...


Experimental Effects Of Pre-Drive Arousal On Teenage Simulated Driving Performance In The Presence Of A Teenage Passenger, Bruce G. Simons-Morton, C. R. Bingham, Kaigang Li, Jean Slope, Anuj K. Pradhan, Emily B. Falk, Paul S. Albert Jan 2015

Experimental Effects Of Pre-Drive Arousal On Teenage Simulated Driving Performance In The Presence Of A Teenage Passenger, Bruce G. Simons-Morton, C. R. Bingham, Kaigang Li, Jean Slope, Anuj K. Pradhan, Emily B. Falk, Paul S. Albert

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Teenage passengers increase teenage driving risk, but this may be conditional on events and emotions immediately preceding driving. An experimental simulation study evaluated the effect of pre-drive arousal on risky driving in the presence of a confederate teenage passenger. In a two-by-two between-subjects design, participants were randomized to high or low pre-drive arousal and passenger present or not present conditions. Prior to the drive participants played the Nintendo Wii video game, Rock BandTM. In the high-arousal condition participants stood while playing high-energy Beatles songs; in the low arousal condition participants sat while playing low-energy Beatles songs. The manipulation produced ...


Where Are Opinion Leaders Leading Us?, Elihu Katz Jan 2015

Where Are Opinion Leaders Leading Us?, Elihu Katz

Departmental Papers (ASC)

No abstract provided.


The Power Of Being Heard: The Benefits Of 'Perspective-Giving' In The Context Of Intergroup Conflict, Emile Bruneau, Rebecca Saxe Jul 2012

The Power Of Being Heard: The Benefits Of 'Perspective-Giving' In The Context Of Intergroup Conflict, Emile Bruneau, Rebecca Saxe

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Although hundreds of dialogue programs geared towards conflict resolution are offered every year, there have been few scientific studies of their effectiveness. Across 2 studies we examined the effect of controlled, dyadic interactions on attitudes towards the ‘other’ in members of groups involved in ideological conflict. Study 1 involved Mexican immigrants and White Americans in Arizona, and Study 2 involved Israelis and Palestinians in the Middle East. Cross-group dyads interacted via video and text in a brief, structured, face-to-face exchange: one person was assigned to write about the difficulties of life in their society (‘perspective-giving’), and the second person was ...


Us And Them: Intergroup Failures Of Empathy, Mina Cikara, Emile Bruneau, Rebecca Saxe Jun 2011

Us And Them: Intergroup Failures Of Empathy, Mina Cikara, Emile Bruneau, Rebecca Saxe

Departmental Papers (ASC)

People are often motivated to increase others' positive experiences and to alleviate others' suffering. These tendencies to care about and help one another form the foundation of human society. When the target is an outgroup member, however, people may have powerful motivations not to care about or help that “other.” In such cases, empathic responses are rare and fragile; it is easy to disrupt the chain from perception of suffering to motivation to alleviate the suffering to actual helping. We highlight recent interdisciplinary research demonstrating that outgroup members' suffering elicits dampened empathic responses as compared to ingroup members' suffering. We ...


Segment-Making And Society-Making Media: What Is A Good Balance?, Joseph Turow Jan 2010

Segment-Making And Society-Making Media: What Is A Good Balance?, Joseph Turow

Departmental Papers (ASC)

From the introduction:

In an increasingly number of societies, it is commonplace to talk about the movement away from a broadly shared media system to a much more fragmented media system. All agree that media organizations still have—and are expanding—the capability to lead a substantial percentage of earth’s humans to focus on particular events or ideas. The Beijing Olympics comes to mind. At the same time, though, most observers note that public electronic media also have the capacity to reach out to smaller and smaller segments of populations. Part of the reason relates to the large number ...


Social Organizations As Reconstitutable Networks Of Conversation, Klaus Krippendorff Jan 2008

Social Organizations As Reconstitutable Networks Of Conversation, Klaus Krippendorff

Departmental Papers (ASC)

This essay intends to recover human agency from holistic, abstract, even oppressive conceptions of social organization, common in the social sciences, social systems theory in particular. To do so, I am taking the use of language as simultaneously accompanying the performance of and constructing reality (my version of social constructivism). The essay starts with a definition of human agency in terms of its linguistic manifestation. It then sketches several leading conceptions of social organization, their metaphorical origin and entailments. Finally, it contextualizes the use of these metaphors in conversation, which leads to the main thesis of this essay that the ...


Review Of The Book Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy Of Disaster In Chicago By E. Klinenberg, John L. Jackson Jr Mar 2003

Review Of The Book Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy Of Disaster In Chicago By E. Klinenberg, John L. Jackson Jr

Departmental Papers (ASC)

No abstract provided.


Youth And Popular Music: A Study In The Sociology Of Taste, John Johnstone, Elihu Katz May 1957

Youth And Popular Music: A Study In The Sociology Of Taste, John Johnstone, Elihu Katz

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Preferences in popular music among teen-age girls vary according to the neighborhood in which a girl lives and her relative popularity among her peers. Highly popular girls are shown to conform more closely than the less popular to the prevailing neighborhood norms in popular music. Musical tastes and preferences for particular songs and for particular disk jockeys are found to be anchored in relatively small groups of friends, suggesting that personal relations play an important role in musical fads and fashions.