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Full-Text Articles in Health Communication

Patient‐Defined Goals For The Treatment Of Severe Aortic Stenosis: A Qualitative Analysis, Megan Coylewright, Roseanne Palmer, Elizabeth S. O'Neill, John F. Robb, Terri Fried Jul 2016

Patient‐Defined Goals For The Treatment Of Severe Aortic Stenosis: A Qualitative Analysis, Megan Coylewright, Roseanne Palmer, Elizabeth S. O'Neill, John F. Robb, Terri Fried

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) at high risk for aortic valve replacement are a unique population with multiple treatment options, including medical therapy, surgical aortic valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Traditionally, in elderly populations, goals of treatment may favour quality of life over survival. Professional guidelines recommend that clinicians engage patients in shared decision making, a process that may lead to decisions more aligned with patient-defined goals of care. Goals of care for high-risk patients with AS are not well defined in the literature, and patient-reported barriers to shared decision making highlight the need for explicit ...


Measurement Challenges In Shared Decision Making: Putting The ‘Patient’ In Patient‐Reported Measures, Paul J. Barr, Glyn Elwyn Jan 2016

Measurement Challenges In Shared Decision Making: Putting The ‘Patient’ In Patient‐Reported Measures, Paul J. Barr, Glyn Elwyn

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Measuring clinicians' shared decision-making (SDM) performance is a key requirement given the intensity of policy interest in many developed countries - yet it remains one of the most difficult methodological challenges, which is a concern for many stakeholders. In this Viewpoint Article, we investigate the development of existing patient-reported measures (PRMs) of SDM identified in a recent review. We find that patients were involved in the development of only four of the 13 measures. This lack of patient involvement in PRM development is associated with two major threats to content validity, common to all 13 PRMs of SDM: (i) an assumption ...


Implementing Shared Decision-Making: Consider All The Consequences, Glyn Elwyn, Dominick L. Frosch, Sarah Kobrin Aug 2015

Implementing Shared Decision-Making: Consider All The Consequences, Glyn Elwyn, Dominick L. Frosch, Sarah Kobrin

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The ethical argument that shared decision-making is “the right” thing to do, however laudable, is unlikely to change how healthcare is organized, just as evidence alone will be an insufficient factor: practice change is governed by factors such as cost, profit margin, quality, and efficiency. It is helpful, therefore, when evaluating new approaches such as shared decision-making to conceptualize potential consequences in a way that is broad, long-term, and as relevant as possible to multiple stakeholders. Yet, so far, evaluation metrics for shared decision-making have been mostly focused on short-term outcomes, such as cognitive or affective consequences in patients. The ...


The Gas Cylinder, The Motorcycle And The Village Health Team Member: A Proof-Of-Concept Study For The Use Of The Microsystems Quality Improvement Approach To Strengthen The Routine Immunization System In Uganda, Dorothy A. Bazos, Lea R. Ayers Lafave, Gautham Suresh, Kevin C. Shannon, Fred Nuwaha, Mark E. Splaine Mar 2015

The Gas Cylinder, The Motorcycle And The Village Health Team Member: A Proof-Of-Concept Study For The Use Of The Microsystems Quality Improvement Approach To Strengthen The Routine Immunization System In Uganda, Dorothy A. Bazos, Lea R. Ayers Lafave, Gautham Suresh, Kevin C. Shannon, Fred Nuwaha, Mark E. Splaine

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Although global efforts to support routine immunization (RI) system strengthening have resulted in higher immunization rates, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the proportion of children receiving recommended DPT3 vaccines has stagnated at 80% for the past 3 years (WHO Fact sheet-Immunization coverage 2014, WHO, 2014). Meeting the WHO goal of 90% national DPT3 coverage may require locally based strategies to support conventional approaches. The Africa Routine Immunization Systems Essentials-System Innovation (ARISE-SI) initiative is a proof-of-concept study to assess the application of the Microsystems Quality Improvement Approach for generating local solutions to strengthen RI systems and reach those unreached ...


Validating Estimates Of Prevalence Of Non-Communicable Diseases Based On Household Surveys: The Symptomatic Diagnosis Study, Spencer L. James, Minerva Romero, Dolores Ramírez-Villalobos, Sara Gómez Jan 2015

Validating Estimates Of Prevalence Of Non-Communicable Diseases Based On Household Surveys: The Symptomatic Diagnosis Study, Spencer L. James, Minerva Romero, Dolores Ramírez-Villalobos, Sara Gómez

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Easy-to-collect epidemiological information is critical for the more accurate estimation of the prevalence and burden of different non-communicable diseases around the world. Current measurement is restricted by limitations in existing measurement systems in the developing world and the lack of biometry tests for non-communicable diseases. Diagnosis based on self-reported signs and symptoms (“Symptomatic Diagnosis,” or SD) analyzed with computer-based algorithms may be a promising method for collecting timely and reliable information on non-communicable disease prevalence. The objective of this study was to develop and assess the performance of a symptom-based questionnaire to estimate prevalence of non-communicable diseases in low-resource areas.


Assessments Of The Extent To Which Health‐Care Providers Involve Patients In Decision Making: A Systematic Review Of Studies Using The Option Instrument, Nicolas Couët, Sophie Desroches, Hubert Robitaille, Hugues Vaillancourt, Annie Leblanc, Stéphane Turcotte, Glyn Elwyn, France Légaré Jan 2015

Assessments Of The Extent To Which Health‐Care Providers Involve Patients In Decision Making: A Systematic Review Of Studies Using The Option Instrument, Nicolas Couët, Sophie Desroches, Hubert Robitaille, Hugues Vaillancourt, Annie Leblanc, Stéphane Turcotte, Glyn Elwyn, France Légaré

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Background: We have no clear overview of the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in the decision-making process during consultations. The Observing Patient Involvement in Decision Making instrument (OPTION) was designed to assess this. Objective: To systematically review studies that used the OPTION instrument to observe the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in decision making across a range of clinical contexts, including different health professions and lengths of consultation. We conducted online literature searches in multiple databases (2001-12) and gathered further data through networking.


Launching A Virtual Decision Lab: Development And Field-Testing Of A Web-Based Patient Decision Support Research Platform, Aubri S. Hoffman, Hilary A. Llewellyn-Thomas, Anna N. A. Tosteson, Annette M. Oconnor Dec 2014

Launching A Virtual Decision Lab: Development And Field-Testing Of A Web-Based Patient Decision Support Research Platform, Aubri S. Hoffman, Hilary A. Llewellyn-Thomas, Anna N. A. Tosteson, Annette M. Oconnor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Over 100 trials show that patient decision aids effectively improve patients’ information comprehension and values-based decision making. However, gaps remain in our understanding of several fundamental and applied questions, particularly related to the design of interactive, personalized decision aids. This paper describes an interdisciplinary development process for, and early field testing of, a web-based patient decision support research platform, or virtual decision lab, to address these questions.


Balancing The Presentation Of Information And Options In Patient Decision Aids: An Updated Review, Purva Abhyankar, Robert J. Volk, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Paulina Bravo, Angela Buchholz, Elissa Ozanne, Dale C. Vidal, Nananda Col, Peep Stalmeier Nov 2013

Balancing The Presentation Of Information And Options In Patient Decision Aids: An Updated Review, Purva Abhyankar, Robert J. Volk, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Paulina Bravo, Angela Buchholz, Elissa Ozanne, Dale C. Vidal, Nananda Col, Peep Stalmeier

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Standards for patient decision aids require that information and options be presented in a balanced manner; this requirement is based on the argument that balanced presentation is essential to foster informed decision making. If information is presented in an incomplete/non-neutral manner, it can stimulate cognitive biases that can unduly affect individuals’ knowledge, perceptions of risks and benefits, and, ultimately, preferences. However, there is little clarity about what constitutes balance, and how it can be determined and enhanced. We conducted a literature review to examine the theoretical and empirical evidence related to balancing the presentation of information and options.


The Drug Facts Box: Improving The Communication Of Prescription Drug Information, Lisa M. Schwartz, Steven Woloshin Aug 2013

The Drug Facts Box: Improving The Communication Of Prescription Drug Information, Lisa M. Schwartz, Steven Woloshin

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Communication about prescription drugs ought to be a paragon of public science communication. Unfortunately, it is not. Consumers see $4 billion of direct-to-consumer advertising annually, which typically fails to present data about how well drugs work. The professional label—the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) mechanism to get physicians information needed for appropriate prescribing—may also fail to present benefit data. FDA labeling guidance, in fact, suggests that industry omit bene


Influence Of Medical Journal Press Releases On The Quality Of Associated Newspaper Coverage: Retrospective Cohort Study, Lisa M. Schwartz, Steven Woloshin, Alice Andrews, Therese A. Stukel Jan 2012

Influence Of Medical Journal Press Releases On The Quality Of Associated Newspaper Coverage: Retrospective Cohort Study, Lisa M. Schwartz, Steven Woloshin, Alice Andrews, Therese A. Stukel

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Objective: To determine whether the quality of press releases issued by medical journals can influence the quality of associated newspaper stories.


Assessing Medicare Beneficiaries’ Strength‐Of‐Preference Scores For Health Care Options: How Engaging Does The Elicitation Technique Need To Be?, Trafford Crump, Hilary A. Llewellyn-Thomas Jul 2011

Assessing Medicare Beneficiaries’ Strength‐Of‐Preference Scores For Health Care Options: How Engaging Does The Elicitation Technique Need To Be?, Trafford Crump, Hilary A. Llewellyn-Thomas

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The objective was to determine if participants’ strength‐of‐preference scores for elective health care interventions at the end‐of‐life (EOL) elicited using a non‐engaging technique are affected by their prior use of an engaging elicitation technique.


Decision Quality Instrument For Treatment Of Hip And Knee Osteoarthritis: A Psychometric Evaluation, Karen R. Sepucha, Dawn Stacey, Catharine F. Clay, Yuchiao Chang Jul 2011

Decision Quality Instrument For Treatment Of Hip And Knee Osteoarthritis: A Psychometric Evaluation, Karen R. Sepucha, Dawn Stacey, Catharine F. Clay, Yuchiao Chang

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A high quality decision requires that patients who meet clinical criteria for surgery are informed about the options (including non-surgical alternatives) and receive treatments that match their goals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical sensibility of a patient self report instrument, to measure the quality of decisions about total joint replacement for knee or hip osteoarthritis.


Effect Of Seeing Tobacco Use In Films On Trying Smoking Among Adolescents: Cross Sectional Study, James D. Sargent, Michael L. Beach, Madeline A. Dalton, Leila A. Mott, Jennifer J. Tickle, M. Bridget Ahrens, Todd F. Heatherton Dec 2001

Effect Of Seeing Tobacco Use In Films On Trying Smoking Among Adolescents: Cross Sectional Study, James D. Sargent, Michael L. Beach, Madeline A. Dalton, Leila A. Mott, Jennifer J. Tickle, M. Bridget Ahrens, Todd F. Heatherton

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Objective: To test the hypothesis that greater exposure to smoking in films is associated with trying smoking among adolescents.