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Full-Text Articles in Health Communication

Mother–Daughter Communication About Sex: The Influence Of Authoritative Parenting Style, Natasha Askelson, Michelle Campo, Sandi Smith Jun 2012

Mother–Daughter Communication About Sex: The Influence Of Authoritative Parenting Style, Natasha Askelson, Michelle Campo, Sandi Smith

Michelle L. Campo

Parent–child communication about sex has been shown to delay sexual activity and increase contraceptive and condom use. The influence of authoritative parenting style and mothers' perception of daughters' risk on communication about sex was examined in this study. Mothers in a random sample (n = 283) with daughters aged 9–15 years were mailed surveys asking about communication with their daughters regarding 11 sex-related topics. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the influence of authoritative parenting style and mothers' perceptions of risk on the number of topics communicated about and age of the daughter at time of communication for ...


Mother–Daughter Communication About Sex: The Influence Of Authoritative Parenting Style, Michelle Campo, Natasha Askelson, Sandi Smith Jun 2012

Mother–Daughter Communication About Sex: The Influence Of Authoritative Parenting Style, Michelle Campo, Natasha Askelson, Sandi Smith

Michelle L. Campo

Parent–child communication about sex has been shown to delay sexual activity and increase contraceptive and condom use. The influence of authoritative parenting style and mothers' perception of daughters' risk on communication about sex was examined in this study. Mothers in a random sample (n = 283) with daughters aged 9–15 years were mailed surveys asking about communication with their daughters regarding 11 sex-related topics. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the influence of authoritative parenting style and mothers' perceptions of risk on the number of topics communicated about and age of the daughter at time of communication for ...


African American Women And Weight Loss: Disregarding Environmental Challenges, Michelle Campo, Teresa Mastin, Natasha Askelson Dec 2011

African American Women And Weight Loss: Disregarding Environmental Challenges, Michelle Campo, Teresa Mastin, Natasha Askelson

Michelle L. Campo

In the United States, almost 80% of African American women are either overweight or obese. In this study, 46 low-income African American women struggling with weight issues participated in structured interviews using a social cognitive theory framework. Participants shared their social cognitive theory related weight loss thoughts and their perceived weight loss obstacles. Results suggest that although participants’ primary weight-related obstacles were environment-based, for example, unsafe environments in which to engage in regular exercise, they more often offered individual-based solutions. The study concludes with a discussion of media advocacy as a tool that can be used to promote environmental solutions ...


Completely Isolated? Health Information Seeking Among Social Isolates, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson, Knute Carter Mar 2011

Completely Isolated? Health Information Seeking Among Social Isolates, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson, Knute Carter

Michelle L. Campo

To better target messages it is important to determine where people seek their health information. Interpersonal networks are a common way most people gather health information, but some people have limited networks. Using data from the 2004 General Social Survey (N = 984), we compared social isolates and nonisolates in their health information—seeking behaviors. Results indicate that those with limited social networks are less likely to use interpersonal communication to seek health information and are also less likely to use mediated channels. The results suggest that isolates may also be suffering from a health knowledge gap.


Unlocking The Condoms: The Effect On Sales And Theft., Michelle Campo, Daniel Ashwood, Karen Farris Dec 2010

Unlocking The Condoms: The Effect On Sales And Theft., Michelle Campo, Daniel Ashwood, Karen Farris

Michelle L. Campo

Community pharmacies may place condoms in locked displays or behind glass, thereby reducing access and consequent use. Objective: Quantify sales and theft of condoms when condoms were unlocked and removed from behind glass in grocery pharmacies Methods: Design. In this pilot study, condom displays were unlocked in selected pharmacies for three months. Participants. Eight grocery pharmacies in central Iowa agreed to participate. Intervention. Stores provided inventory at baseline, sales/theft thereafter in three monthly reports and sales for the same period one-year earlier. Outcome measures. Descriptive statistics quantified condom theft and sales. Number of pharmacies leaving condoms unlocked after the ...


Being Convincing : Talking To Others Persuasively /, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson, Mary Aquilino Dec 2010

Being Convincing : Talking To Others Persuasively /, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson, Mary Aquilino

Michelle L. Campo

No abstract provided.


The Secondhand Effects Of College Drinking: The Need For Media Relations, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson, Teresa Mastin Dec 2010

The Secondhand Effects Of College Drinking: The Need For Media Relations, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson, Teresa Mastin

Michelle L. Campo

Heavy episodic drinking can lead to significant harmful effects for the drinker and others. Rates of heavy alcohol use on college campuses have remained high, despite increased educational interventions. This study examines the coverage of the negative consequences of drinking among college students. This content analysis looks at coverage from1996-2006 in 32 major US newspapers. Of the total 255 articles, 209 covered at least one negative consequence of college drinking. Consequences were framed as individual in nature and did not acknowledge the impact on other individuals and institutions. Those related to damage to self were covered most often in newspapers ...


Using The Theory Of Planned Behavior To Predict Mothers’ Intentions To Vaccinate Their Daughters Against Hpv, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson, John Lowe May 2010

Using The Theory Of Planned Behavior To Predict Mothers’ Intentions To Vaccinate Their Daughters Against Hpv, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson, John Lowe

Michelle L. Campo

This study assessed mothers’ intentions to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Experience with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), beliefs about the vaccine encouraging sexual activity, and perception of daughters’ risk for HPV were also examined for a relationship with intention. A random sample of mothers in a rural, Midwestern state were mailed a survey with questions pertaining to the intention to vaccinate. Attitudes were the strongest predictor of mothers’ intentions to vaccinate, but intentions were not high. Subjective norms also influence intention. Mothers’ risk perceptions, experience with STIs, and beliefs about the ...


Caution, The Use Of Humor May Lead To Confusion: Evaluation Of A Video Podcast Of The Midwest Teen Sex Show, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson Dec 2009

Caution, The Use Of Humor May Lead To Confusion: Evaluation Of A Video Podcast Of The Midwest Teen Sex Show, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson

Michelle L. Campo

Web sites about sexual health lack the interactivity, humor, and “viral” nature required to attract young adults. The Midwest Teen Sex Show (www.midwestteensexshow.com) is an interactive, humor-based Web site that provides sexual health information to young adults. One episode from the Web site was shown to six focus groups of young women, ages 18–30. Women found it funny, but some were offended or confused. Women were unable to differentiate between facts and humor; however, women could identify the key messages. Most women reported they would think about it later, visit the Web site, and share it with ...


Preventing Unintended Pregnancies And Improving Contraceptive Use Among Young Adult Women In A Rural, Midwestern State: Health Promotion Implications, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson Dec 2009

Preventing Unintended Pregnancies And Improving Contraceptive Use Among Young Adult Women In A Rural, Midwestern State: Health Promotion Implications, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson

Michelle L. Campo

Despite high rates of unintended pregnancy among women aged 18 to 30 years, little research has been conducted to understand the factors associated with their contraceptive use. Eighteen focus groups were conducted with young adult women (N = 106) who were mostly white, non-Hispanic. Results suggested that contraceptive use was negatively affected by low contraceptive knowledge; use of alcohol; a lack of planning for sex; a misperception of the likelihood of pregnancy; forgetting to use contraceptives; and concerns about side effects, cost, and confidentiality. Women liked the peace of mind that using contraceptives gave them and the benefits of regular periods ...


Factors Related To Physicians' Willingness To Vaccinate Girls Against Hpv: The Importance Of Subjective Norms And Perceived Behavioral Control, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson, John Lowe, Leslie Dennis Dec 2009

Factors Related To Physicians' Willingness To Vaccinate Girls Against Hpv: The Importance Of Subjective Norms And Perceived Behavioral Control, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson, John Lowe, Leslie Dennis

Michelle L. Campo

This study assessed factors related to physicians' intentions to vaccinate patients against human papillomavirus. A random sample of physicians was surveyed. The survey questions focused on the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the relationship of theoretical constructs to intention to vaccinate. Of the 207 physicians who responded, intentions to vaccinate were very high (86.5%). On a scale of 1 to 7 (strongly disagree to strongly agree) physicians had positive attitudes toward the vaccine. Physicians reported the vaccine was a good idea (M = 6.65, SD = 0.79), beneficial (M = 6 ...


Using Evidence-Basedresearch To Redirectaconversation: Newspapers’ Coverage Of Strategies To Address College Binge Drinking, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson, Mary Slonske, Teresa Mastin Oct 2009

Using Evidence-Basedresearch To Redirectaconversation: Newspapers’ Coverage Of Strategies To Address College Binge Drinking, Michelle Campo, Natoshia Askelson, Mary Slonske, Teresa Mastin

Michelle L. Campo

This study examines selected newspapers’ coverage of college binge drinking while also serving as an example of evidence-based practices that can be of use to public relations practitioners and health care professionals working to draw attention to important factors that are not being addressed in either public or policy conversations related to this issue. We examine newspaper coverage in 32 newspapers from 1997 to 2006 to determine which strategies to address college binge drinking are being covered and which of those are evidence-based and implemented by colleges. The mix of individual versus environmental strategies was examined based on Social Cognitive ...


The Missing Role Of Parents: A Content Analysis Of Newspaper Coverage Of Parenting Practices And Communication Strategies For Addressing Binge Drinking, Michelle Campo, Natasha Askelson, Teresa Mastin, Mary Slonske Dec 2008

The Missing Role Of Parents: A Content Analysis Of Newspaper Coverage Of Parenting Practices And Communication Strategies For Addressing Binge Drinking, Michelle Campo, Natasha Askelson, Teresa Mastin, Mary Slonske

Michelle L. Campo

Parents can employ communication strategies to prevent alcohol use among college students. This investigation utilizes content analysis to examine the coverage of parent-related strategies in 32 newspapers over the last decade. Of the 255 articles related to college drinking, only 49 mentioned one or more parenting strategies. The most frequently mentioned strategies were parental notification of their child's problem behavior by college administrators and communicating with older children about alcohol. The strategies mentioned least were monitoring and staying connected with college-aged children and talking about the consequences of binge drinking. The minimal coverage suggests a need for the use ...


The Green Acres Effect: The Need For A New Colorectal Cancer Screening Campaign Tailored To Rural Audiences, Michelle Campo, N. Askelson, Tracy Rothsong Nov 2008

The Green Acres Effect: The Need For A New Colorectal Cancer Screening Campaign Tailored To Rural Audiences, Michelle Campo, N. Askelson, Tracy Rothsong

Michelle L. Campo

National health communication campaign developers have ignored rural audiences in campaign development and testing, despite the health disparities that exist for this group. Researchers in a rural Midwestern state tested the appropriateness of CDC's national colorectal cancer screening campaign, Screen for Life. Based on focus groups and a quasiexperimental design evaluation, researchers determined that the national campaign did not adequately address the needs of the rural audience. A new print and radio campaign was developed based on previous findings, grounded in social marketing and the health belief model. New tailored campaign materials were refined in focus groups. Final versions ...


Fact Or Wishful Thinking? Biased Expectations In I Think I Look Better When I'M Tanned, Michelle Campo, Samita Banerjee, Kathryn Greene Apr 2008

Fact Or Wishful Thinking? Biased Expectations In I Think I Look Better When I'M Tanned, Michelle Campo, Samita Banerjee, Kathryn Greene

Michelle L. Campo

Objective: To examine the impact of tanned female images on respondents' perceptions of attractiveness, healthiness, and height and weight estimations. Method: A 3 (light, medium, or dark tan) by 2 (male or female respondent) experimental design. Results: Only male respondents perceived the dark-tanned woman as more physically attractive and thinner than both light- and medium-tanned women. Men also perceived the dark-tanned woman as more interpersonally attractive and healthier than the medium-tanned woman. Conclusions: Campaigns targeted at males need to reduce the perceptions that tanned females are healthier, thinner, and more attractive. Educational efforts targeting females need to reduce attraction-based motivations.


Indoor Tanning And Problem Behavior, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Smita Banerjee, Kathryn Greene, Michelle Campo Feb 2008

Indoor Tanning And Problem Behavior, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Smita Banerjee, Kathryn Greene, Michelle Campo

Michelle L. Campo

Objective: The authors examined factors predicting college students' use of tanning beds. Participants and Methods: Undergraduate students (N = 745) at a large Northeastern university participated in the study by answering a survey measuring tanning behavior and other psychosocial variables, including sensation seeking, self-esteem, tanning image beliefs, and friends' tanning bed use. Results: All 3 systems from problem behavior theory predicted past tanning bed use and intention to use tanning beds. The authors observed a positive association between sensation seeking and intention to use tanning beds. Tanning image beliefs were positively associated with both past tanning behavior and intention to use ...


You Are What You Consume: The Role Of Media In Obesity, Michelle Campo, T. Mastin, N. Askelson Dec 2007

You Are What You Consume: The Role Of Media In Obesity, Michelle Campo, T. Mastin, N. Askelson

Michelle L. Campo

No abstract provided.


Smoking, But Not Smokers – Self-Labeling Among College Students Who Smoke Cigarettes., Michelle Campo, Arnold Levinson Jul 2007

Smoking, But Not Smokers – Self-Labeling Among College Students Who Smoke Cigarettes., Michelle Campo, Arnold Levinson

Michelle L. Campo

Cigarette smoking in college is often described as social smoking, but the term lacks definition and implicitly discounts dependence. We report on college students' use of the terms social smoker and smoker. Students who currently smoked cigarettes were asked whether they considered themselves smokers, and whether they smoked because they were social smokers. The survey was conducted during 1999–2004 at eight colleges; analysis was limited to 1,401 students aged 18–24 years. More than half of students (56.3%) denied being smokers (“deniers”) despite current smoking behavior. Half of deniers, and fewer than half of admitters, called themselves ...


Placing The Burden On The Individual: Overweight And Obesity In African American And Mainstream Women's Magazines, Michelle Campo, Teresa Mastin Feb 2007

Placing The Burden On The Individual: Overweight And Obesity In African American And Mainstream Women's Magazines, Michelle Campo, Teresa Mastin

Michelle L. Campo

One third of all U.S. adult women, and more than 75% of African American women, are overweight or obese. This study examined overweight and obesity editorial content (N = 406) in three mainstream and three African American women's magazines between 1984 and 2004. Content analysis was used to determine which strategies were suggested regarding diet, overweight, and obesity, which components of social cognitive theory were offered (behavior, person, or environment), and whether or not there were differences in the genres. The results suggest that although a wide range of strategies were being offered, the vast majority were behavioral changes ...


“I’M Glad You Feel Comfortable Enough To Tell Me That”: Action Research For Better Health Care For Women Who Partner With Women, Michelle Campo Dec 2006

“I’M Glad You Feel Comfortable Enough To Tell Me That”: Action Research For Better Health Care For Women Who Partner With Women, Michelle Campo

Michelle L. Campo

No abstract provided.


Conflicting Messages: Overweight And Obesity Advertisements And Articles In Black Magazines, Michelle Campo, Teresa Mastin Nov 2006

Conflicting Messages: Overweight And Obesity Advertisements And Articles In Black Magazines, Michelle Campo, Teresa Mastin

Michelle L. Campo

Three-quarters of U.S. Black women are overweight or obese, putting them at increased risk of multiple diseases, poorer quality of life, and a shorter life span. Media provide important normative information regarding overweight and obesity. This study examines Black women's magazines' food and non-alcoholic beverage advertisements and overweight and obesity editorial content to determine whether the products advertised and the articles' content models or inhibits healthy diet and physical activity as strategies to prevent and overcome overweight and obesity. Five hundred food and non-alcoholic beverage ads and 31 related articles printed in a sample of Ebony (n = 60 ...


Stepping Back From Social Norms Campaigns: Comparing Normative Influences To Other Predictors Of Health Behaviors, Michelle Campo, Kenzie Cameron Aug 2006

Stepping Back From Social Norms Campaigns: Comparing Normative Influences To Other Predictors Of Health Behaviors, Michelle Campo, Kenzie Cameron

Michelle L. Campo

Recent health campaigns on college campuses have used a social norms approach, which suggests that one's perceptions of others' attitudes and behaviors are the key components in attitude and behavior change. However, the efficacy of social norms campaigns has been mixed. This study was conducted to assess the relationships among sociodemographics, normative perceptions, and individual attitudes on 3 health behaviors. Students at 2 universities (N = 393) completed questionnaires assessing how these variables related to their consumption of alcohol, tobacco use, and exercise behaviors. Regressions indicated that each of these variables was associated with behavior, but varied independent variables emerged ...


Differential Effects Of Exposure To Social Norms Campaigns: A Cause For Concern, Michelle Campo, Kenzie Cameron Apr 2006

Differential Effects Of Exposure To Social Norms Campaigns: A Cause For Concern, Michelle Campo, Kenzie Cameron

Michelle L. Campo

College students' processing of alcohol social norms messages, related effects on normative judgments, attitudes toward their own behaviors, and perception of undergraduate attitudes were examined using expectancy violation theories and social norms marketing. Data were collected from 2 universities (N = 393). Following message exposure, the majority moved their normative judgments toward the statistic provided in the message. Slight attitude change occurred but not always in the desired direction. Those most likely to develop unhealthier attitudes drank more than those who developed healthier attitudes, consistent with psychological reactance to the messages. Therefore, the effects of social norms campaigns on those at ...


Framing Breastfeeding And Formula-Feeding Messages In Popular U.S. Magazines, Michelle Campo, Julie . Andsager Dec 2005

Framing Breastfeeding And Formula-Feeding Messages In Popular U.S. Magazines, Michelle Campo, Julie . Andsager

Michelle L. Campo

Media framing of infant feeding has the ability to influence knowledge and views of the barriers, benefits, and solutions inherent in breastfeeding or formula-feeding. This study examined how seven popular U.S. parenting, general women's, and African American magazines framed breastfeeding and formula-feeding messages to determine whether a sense-making approach was used and the extent to which visual images portrayed feeding practices. Analysis included 615 articles published from 1997 to 2003 that referred to infant feeding. Text and images were analyzed. The magazines provided more information on breastfeeding than formula feeding. Parenting magazines included more advice than barriers or ...


Prevalence And Profiling: Hazing Among College Students And Points Of Intervention, Michelle Campo, Gretchen Poulos, John Sipple Feb 2005

Prevalence And Profiling: Hazing Among College Students And Points Of Intervention, Michelle Campo, Gretchen Poulos, John Sipple

Michelle L. Campo

Objective: To examine university students' attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs related to hazing. Methods: A random and representative sample of students completed a web-based survey regarding team-building and initiation behaviors (N=736). Results: Thirty-six percent of the respondents participated in hazing. Greeks, males, varsity athletes, leaders, and upperclassmen were more likely to engage in hazing. Students who engaged in hazing were more likely to engage in positive team-building activities. Conclusions: Hazing is occurring on campus, although not always recognized as such by students. Various factors that would enable someone to stop a hazing situation are addressed.


Social Norms And Expectancy Violation Theories: Assessing The Effectiveness Of Health Communication Campaigns, Michelle Campo, Kenzie Cameron, Dominique Brossard Nov 2004

Social Norms And Expectancy Violation Theories: Assessing The Effectiveness Of Health Communication Campaigns, Michelle Campo, Kenzie Cameron, Dominique Brossard

Michelle L. Campo

College students' processing of alcohol, smoking, and exercise social norms messages, and related effects on judgments, attitudes toward one's own behaviors, and attitudes toward undergraduates' behaviors were examined using social norms marketing and Expectancy Violation Theory (EVT) (N=393). Receiving statistical social norms messages led to an expectancy violation of the perceived social norm (i.e., a discrepancy between the expected and actual statistic conveyed with a message). Consistent with Boster et al. (2000 ), the effect of the message discrepancy on attitudes was mediated by judgments. In accordance with social norms, when participants were provided with a statistic, the ...


Drinking, Alcohol Policy, And Attitudes Toward A Campus Riot, Michelle Campo, Stan Kaplowitz Aug 2004

Drinking, Alcohol Policy, And Attitudes Toward A Campus Riot, Michelle Campo, Stan Kaplowitz

Michelle L. Campo

Results from a survey of college students (N = 2,008) indicate that most disapproved of a major riot that had occurred on their campus but most also felt that the university was excessively restricting alcohol, and almost half of them enjoyed the riot. The major predictor of condoning the riot was objecting to restrictions against alcohol. However, objection to restrictions and enjoying the riot were primarily predicted by frequency of alcohol consumption. Males, Whites, and younger students were more likely to enjoy the riot than others.


Predicting And Explaining Public Opinion Regarding U.S. Slavery Reparations, Michelle Campo, Teresa Mastin, M. Frazer Mar 2004

Predicting And Explaining Public Opinion Regarding U.S. Slavery Reparations, Michelle Campo, Teresa Mastin, M. Frazer

Michelle L. Campo

Slavery reparations have long been a discussion topic within the African American community and press. The issue has begun to appear in mainstream press and was a topic at a Fall 2001 United Nation summit on race. Little is known about how Americans feel about slavery reparations, proposed forms of compensation, and how opinions compare to reparations already awarded to others such as Japanese Americans interned during World War II. The data for this study were obtained from a Fall 2001 poll conducted by a mid-sized southern university of state residents (N = 614). Data suggest that attitudes toward slavery reparations ...


Are Social Norms Campaigns Really Magic Bullets? Assessing The Effects Of Students' Misperceptions On Drinking Behavior, Michelle Campo, Dominique Brossard, S. Frazer, Timothy Marchell Sep 2003

Are Social Norms Campaigns Really Magic Bullets? Assessing The Effects Of Students' Misperceptions On Drinking Behavior, Michelle Campo, Dominique Brossard, S. Frazer, Timothy Marchell

Michelle L. Campo

In an attempt to curb excessive drinking on college campuses, many universities have turned to "social norms" marketing campaigns. Despite widespread acceptance among health educators, empirical results are clouded by measurement problems. This study, based on a random sample of 550 students, examined the effects of misperceptions of friends' and typical college students' drinking on one's drinking behavior. Results indicate that drinking behavior is positively related to perceptions of friends' drinking as suggested by the theory of planned behavior, which emphasizes subjective as opposed to social norms.


Advocating For Controversial Issues: The Effect Of Activism On Compliance‐Gaining Strategy Likelihood Of Use, Michelle Campo, Kenzie Cameron, Dominique Brossard Dec 2002

Advocating For Controversial Issues: The Effect Of Activism On Compliance‐Gaining Strategy Likelihood Of Use, Michelle Campo, Kenzie Cameron, Dominique Brossard

Michelle L. Campo

Previous research has demonstrated that compliance‐gaining strategies can he arrayed on an unidimensional continuum, anchored by positive, pro‐social strategies and negative, antisocial strategies (Hunter & Boster, 1987; Rolojf & Barnicott, 1978, 1979). Individual differences, including argumentativeness and verbal aggression (Boster & Levine, 1988), have been shown to affect one's ethical threshold. This ethical threshold is consistent with a Guttman simplex and determines both how many, as well as how antisocial, compliance‐gaining strategies individuals may consider using. Activists, who are highly involved and committed to their cause and who tend to be less verbally aggressive and more argumentative than the general public ...