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Full-Text Articles in Agricultural and Resource Economics

Optimal Investment To Control “Red Air Day” Episodes: Lessons From Northern Utah, Usa, Arthur Caplan, Ramjee Acharya Jan 2020

Optimal Investment To Control “Red Air Day” Episodes: Lessons From Northern Utah, Usa, Arthur Caplan, Ramjee Acharya

Arthur J. Caplan

We address the issue of optimal investment in “preventative capital” to mitigate episodic, mobile-source air pollution events by calibrating an endogenous-risk model with parameter estimates obtained from a unique dataset related to "red air day" episodes occurring during the winter months in Northern Utah. Our analysis demonstrates that, under a wide range of circumstances, the optimal steady-state level of preventative capital stock – raised through the issuance of a municipal “clean air bond” that provides foundational funding for more aggressive mitigation efforts – can meet the standard for PM2.5 concentrations with positive social net benefits. We estimate benefit-cost ratios ranging between ...


Control Of Episodic Air Pollution In Utah’S Wasatch Front Region Through Investment In Preventative Capital, Arthur Caplan, Ramjee Acharya Dec 2019

Control Of Episodic Air Pollution In Utah’S Wasatch Front Region Through Investment In Preventative Capital, Arthur Caplan, Ramjee Acharya

Arthur J. Caplan

We address the issue of optimal investment in “preventative capital” to mitigate episodic, mobile-source air pollution events in Utah’s Wasatch Front region. We calibrate Berry et al.'s (2015) endogenous-risk model using a unique dataset related to the region’s "red air day" episodes occurring over the past decade. Our analysis demonstrates that, under a wide range of circumstances, the optimal steady-state level of preventative capital stock – raised through the issuance of a municipal “clean air bond” that can be used to fund more aggressive mitigation efforts – meets the standard for PM2.5 concentrations with positive social net benefits ...


Science-Based Intensive Agriculture: Sustainability, Food Security, And The Role Of Technology, Jim Gaffney, James Bing, Patrick F. Byrne, Kenneth G. Cassman, Ignacio Ciampitti, Deborah Delmer, Jeffrey Habben, H. Renee Lafitte, Ulrika E. Lidstrom, Dana O. Porter, John E. Sawyer, Jeff Schussler, Tim Setter, Robert E. Sharp, Tony J. Vyn, David Warner Dec 2019

Science-Based Intensive Agriculture: Sustainability, Food Security, And The Role Of Technology, Jim Gaffney, James Bing, Patrick F. Byrne, Kenneth G. Cassman, Ignacio Ciampitti, Deborah Delmer, Jeffrey Habben, H. Renee Lafitte, Ulrika E. Lidstrom, Dana O. Porter, John E. Sawyer, Jeff Schussler, Tim Setter, Robert E. Sharp, Tony J. Vyn, David Warner

Agronomy Publications

Sustainable agriculture describes crop management approaches that address the interdependent goals of increasing or at least maintaining yield while protecting the environment, conserving natural resources, and slowing climate change. Numerous authors have espoused limiting synthetic fertilizer and pesticides and promoting organic agriculture (Lechenet et al., 2014; Martinez-Alcantara et al., 2016; Muller at al. 2017), less meat consumption (West et al., 2014; Poore and Nemecek, 2018; Springmann et al., 2018), or combinations of these strategies as viable solutions to achieve those goals, thereby improving agricultural sustainability.


Strips Cooperator Survey: 2018 Results, J. Gordon Arbuckle Oct 2019

Strips Cooperator Survey: 2018 Results, J. Gordon Arbuckle

J. Gordon Arbuckle

The STRIPS (Science-based Trials of Rowcrops Integrated with Prairie Strips) project has developed collaborative partnerships with more than 35 farmers and landowners who have integrated prairie strips into their farm landscapes. One of the STRIPS project’s guiding principles is to “create and maintain feedback loops for information sharing among team members, farmer/farm landowner adopters, and other stakeholders.” A major goal of these feedback loops is to learn from cooperators who have adopted prairie strips so project staff can help current (and future) cooperators to successfully establish and manage prairie strips.


Strips Cooperator Survey: 2017 Results, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr. Oct 2019

Strips Cooperator Survey: 2017 Results, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr.

J. Gordon Arbuckle

The STRIPS (Science-based Trials of Rowcrops Integrated with Prairie Strips) project has developed collaborative partnerships with more than 35 farmers and landowners who have integrated prairie strips into their farm landscapes. One of the STRIPS project’s guiding principles is to “create and maintain feedback loops for information sharing among team members, farmer/farm landowner adopters, and other stakeholders.” A major goal of these feedback loops is to learn from cooperators who have adopted prairie strips so project staff can help current (and future) cooperators to successfully establish and manage prairie strips.


Strips Cooperator Follow-On Survey: 2015 Results, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr. Oct 2019

Strips Cooperator Follow-On Survey: 2015 Results, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr.

J. Gordon Arbuckle

This survey was conducted to support the STRIPS project’s guiding principle to “create and maintain feedback loops for information sharing among team members, farmer/farm landowner adopters, and other stakeholders.” The overall purpose of the feedback loop is to learn from collaborators so project staff can help current (and future) collaborators to successfully establish and manage prairie strips. The purpose of the survey was to learn about collaborating landowners’ experiences with the establishment and management of prairie strips to help project staff understand what (1) positive and negative experiences and (2) information and technical assistance needs they have. The ...


Strips Cooperator Follow-On Survey: 2016 Results, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr. Oct 2019

Strips Cooperator Follow-On Survey: 2016 Results, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr.

J. Gordon Arbuckle

Over the last several years, the STRIPS (Science-based Trials of Rowcrops Integrated with Prairie Strips) project has developed collaborative partnerships with an increasing number of farmers and landowners who have integrated prairie strips into their farm landscapes. One of the STRIPS project’s guiding principles is to “create and maintain feedback loops for information sharing among team members, farmer/farm landowner adopters, and other stakeholders.” A major goal of these feedback loops is to learn from cooperators who have adopted prairie strips so project staff can help current (and future) cooperators to successfully establish and manage prairie strips.


Assessment Of Certified Crop Adviser Experience With And Knowledge Of Early And Mid-Season Soybean Diseases Caused By Oomycetes: 2015, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Nick Kalaitzandonakes, James Kaufman, Alison Robertson Oct 2019

Assessment Of Certified Crop Adviser Experience With And Knowledge Of Early And Mid-Season Soybean Diseases Caused By Oomycetes: 2015, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Nick Kalaitzandonakes, James Kaufman, Alison Robertson

J. Gordon Arbuckle

This report presents the results of a web-based survey of certified crop advisers (CCAs) conducted as part of the Integrated Management of Oomycete Diseases of Soybean and other Crop Plants Project funded by USDA-NIFA. The survey is part of a project-long effort to engage members of the Certified Crop Adviser program of the American Society of Agronomy and other crop advisers in educational and extension activities to improve their ability to accurately diagnose and manage soybean seedling and root diseases, particularly those caused by oomycetes. The report consists of three sections. This first section describes the survey’s objectives and ...


Investigating Opportunities For Enhancing Adoption Of Strategically Targeted Prairie Strips In Iowa, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr. Oct 2019

Investigating Opportunities For Enhancing Adoption Of Strategically Targeted Prairie Strips In Iowa, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr.

J. Gordon Arbuckle

It is increasingly recognized that agricultural policies and programs should strive to improve the multifunctionality and resiliency of agricultural systems by balancing crop and livestock production with the provision of ecosystem services, including soil protection, water retention and purification, pest control, and habitat (Pretty 2002; Palmer et al. 2004; Boody et al. 2005; Ruhl et al. 2007). Simultaneously, mounting evidence shows that the coordinated and targeted integration of perennial vegetation in row-cropped landscapes can provide both farmland conservation benefits and substantial increases in ecosystem services disproportionate to their spatial extent (Goldman et al. 2007; Secchi et al. 2008; Selman 2008 ...


Iowa Farmers And The Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy: 2015 Survey Results, Laurie Nowatzke, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr. Oct 2019

Iowa Farmers And The Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy: 2015 Survey Results, Laurie Nowatzke, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr.

J. Gordon Arbuckle

In 2013, the state of Iowa released the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy (NRS) (http:// www.nutrientstrategy.iastate.edu/). The NRS is a science and technology-based approach to guide actions that reduce the amount of nutrients delivered to Iowa waterways and the Gulf of Mexico. The NRS was developed through a collaboration between Iowa State University (ISU), the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship (IDALS), and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (IDNR), with support from the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The strategy outlines opportunities and recommendations for voluntary efforts to ...


Panel 3 Paper 3.1: Participatory Planning And Monitoring Of Protected Landscapes: A Case Study Of An Indigenous Rice Paddy Cultural Landscape In Taiwan, Kuang-Chung Lee Oct 2019

Panel 3 Paper 3.1: Participatory Planning And Monitoring Of Protected Landscapes: A Case Study Of An Indigenous Rice Paddy Cultural Landscape In Taiwan, Kuang-Chung Lee

Rural Heritage - Landscapes and Beyond / PATRIMOINE RURAL: Paysages et au-delà

Landscapes can be regarded as ‘a culture–nature link.’ Many examples of ‘living’ landscapes in the world are rich in natural and cultural values and have proven sustainable over centuries because of their maintenance by local communities. Satoyama, a traditional socio-ecological production landscape, provides a functional linkage between paddy fields and the associated environment with many ecosystem services. The idea of landscape conservation and paddy field revitalization was introduced into Taiwan’s amended Cultural Heritage Preservation Act in 2005 as a new legal instrument entitled ‘Cultural Landscape.’ To help stakeholders from governmental authorities and local communities apply this new instrument ...


Long-Run Impacts Of Trade Shocks And Export Competitiveness: Evidence From The U.S. Bse Event, Chen-Ti Chen, John M. Crespi, William Hahn, Lee L. Schulz, Fawzi Taha Oct 2019

Long-Run Impacts Of Trade Shocks And Export Competitiveness: Evidence From The U.S. Bse Event, Chen-Ti Chen, John M. Crespi, William Hahn, Lee L. Schulz, Fawzi Taha

John Crespi

This paper examines how comparative advantages of major beef exporters changed following the 2003 bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak (BSE), which significantly disrupted the U.S. beef trade until approximately April 2007. Using longitudinal data on beef export values and constructed revealed comparative advantage measures, we show that while some measure of the long-run impacts of BSE on U.S. beef export competitiveness have returned to pre-2003 levels, the U.S.’s comparative advantage has not. We also examine a hypothetical scenario of no BSE event in 2003 and predict what exporters’ competitiveness would have looked like. The authors discuss the ...


Long-Run Impacts Of Trade Shocks And Export Competitiveness: Evidence From The U.S. Bse Event, Chen-Ti Chen, John M. Crespi, William Hahn, Lee L. Schulz, Fawzi Taha Oct 2019

Long-Run Impacts Of Trade Shocks And Export Competitiveness: Evidence From The U.S. Bse Event, Chen-Ti Chen, John M. Crespi, William Hahn, Lee L. Schulz, Fawzi Taha

Lee Schulz

This paper examines how comparative advantages of major beef exporters changed following the 2003 bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak (BSE), which significantly disrupted the U.S. beef trade until approximately April 2007. Using longitudinal data on beef export values and constructed revealed comparative advantage measures, we show that while some measure of the long-run impacts of BSE on U.S. beef export competitiveness have returned to pre-2003 levels, the U.S.’s comparative advantage has not. We also examine a hypothetical scenario of no BSE event in 2003 and predict what exporters’ competitiveness would have looked like. The authors discuss the ...


Volatile Prices And Profi T Margins, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz Oct 2019

Volatile Prices And Profi T Margins, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz

Lee Schulz

THE CALENDAR year 2019 has been interesting for agricultural markets. We began the year with record supplies for all of Iowa’s major commodities. However, trade disputes have cast a cloud over growth in crop and livestock usage and weather events and foreign disease outbreaks have sparked quick reversals in commodity prices. Since the first of the year, corn prices have fluctuated by $1.10 per bushel, soybeans by $1.55 per bushel, hogs by $28 per hundredweight, and cattle by $16 per hundredweight. And we’re still only halfway through the year.


Community Forest In Liberia: The Interface Between Sustainable Charcoal Production And Deforestation, Amavie Clement Oct 2019

Community Forest In Liberia: The Interface Between Sustainable Charcoal Production And Deforestation, Amavie Clement

Capstone Collection

The available data establishes a direct correlation between charcoal production and forest degradation and deforestation in Liberia. Charcoal is the primary energy source for Liberians, especially in urban areas where the bulk of the population lives. It is expected to be the mainstay energy source for years to come because it is affordable, accessible, and convenient to use compared to other forms of energy (i.e. electricity and petroleum gas). However, the current model of charcoal production, based on indiscriminate felling of trees, poses a danger to the environment as it results in widespread forest degradation and deforestation. Therefore, any ...


Panel 1 Paper 1.3: Le Paysage Rural Patrimonial, Outil Et Projet Au Service De La Lutte Contre Le Réchauffement Climatique, Régis Ambroise Oct 2019

Panel 1 Paper 1.3: Le Paysage Rural Patrimonial, Outil Et Projet Au Service De La Lutte Contre Le Réchauffement Climatique, Régis Ambroise

Rural Heritage - Landscapes and Beyond / PATRIMOINE RURAL: Paysages et au-delà

Cette intervention fait référence au paragraphe de la résolution19GA 2017/30 du Conseil International des Monuments et des Sites indiquant que « la 19° Assemblée générale de l’ICOMOS… salue l’adoption de l’accord de Paris et encourage tous les membres de l’ICOMOS à renforcer leurs efforts pour appuyer sa mise en œuvre et identifier les réponses qui s’appuient sur le patrimoine ou les paysages culturels… ». Elle prend l’exemple de la façon dont les paysages de terrasses ont été abordés ces dernières années dans trois situations différentes : en France, dans le Guizhou en Chine et dans le ...


Innovative Collaboration To Further Community Self-Determination, Matthew Currie, Amaha Sellassie Oct 2019

Innovative Collaboration To Further Community Self-Determination, Matthew Currie, Amaha Sellassie

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

The built urban environment is the product of more than a century of policy decisions that have both intentionally discriminated and have had the effect of discriminating, against African Americas, immigrants, the work class, low income individuals and other undesirables. While more than fifty years have passed since the passage of civil rights legislation in the United States, individuals in today’s cities are living out our discriminatory legacy.

In Dayton, Ohio, a new movement has risen from the community to disrupt the legacy of de jure and de facto discrimination by the collaborative efforts of the impactive individuals, neighborhood ...


Augmenting Marine Food Production Through Fisheries Management And Mariculture, S M. Sharifuzzaman, M I. Golder, M. Shahadat Hossain Oct 2019

Augmenting Marine Food Production Through Fisheries Management And Mariculture, S M. Sharifuzzaman, M I. Golder, M. Shahadat Hossain

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

There is new aspiration of sustainable exploitation of marine resources and to achieve sustainable development goals (SDG 14) in recent years. In this context, this document delineates new scope of venturing into the blue economy relative to marine fisheries and mariculture. Potential interventions in marine fisheries include – (i) expansion of the commercial fishing area (beyond the 80 m depth) for harvesting high value fish species (such as tuna, lakkha), (ii) exploration for new fishing grounds and fisheries, (iii) value addition and reducing post-harvest losses, and (iv) assessment of fisheries stocks for estimation of potential yields and optimum sizes of harvest ...


Coming Stakes In The Ocean: Food Production, Shipping And Trade, Tourism, Ecosystem-Biodiversity, New Technologies And Climate Change Challenges In Bangladesh, Muhammad Abdur Rouf, Sk Mustafizur Rahman, Md Nazmul Ahsan Oct 2019

Coming Stakes In The Ocean: Food Production, Shipping And Trade, Tourism, Ecosystem-Biodiversity, New Technologies And Climate Change Challenges In Bangladesh, Muhammad Abdur Rouf, Sk Mustafizur Rahman, Md Nazmul Ahsan

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Blue economy is an emerging concept in all over the world where Bangladesh is not in exception. The blue economy of Bangladesh is subject to multiple interlinked activities. Among the major activities, food production, shipping and trade, tourism, ecosystem-biodiversity, new technologies and climate change challenges are the most promising sectors which are discussed in this chapter to project the present and future potential, constrains, ways to overcome in the context of the blue economy of Bangladesh following various published literature. The review has revealed that Bangladesh has enormous resources which have great potential to uplift the existing economy, improving livelihoods ...


Adult Food Security And The Relationship With Adverse Childhood Experiences Among Residents Of Appalachian North Carolina, Manan Roy, Erin Bouldin, Maggie Bennett, Adam Hege Sep 2019

Adult Food Security And The Relationship With Adverse Childhood Experiences Among Residents Of Appalachian North Carolina, Manan Roy, Erin Bouldin, Maggie Bennett, Adam Hege

Journal of Appalachian Health

Introduction: The Appalachian region has worse health outcomes than the remainder of the United States. These disparities are often linked to the underlying social and environmental determinants of health. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poor health outcomes across the lifespan and have a significant impact on future social determinants as an adult, including food security status.

Purpose: To explore the relationships between ACEs and food security among adults in the Appalachian counties of North Carolina and make comparisons with the rest of the state.

Methods: Researchers used North Carolina’s 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data; namely ...


What Drives Landowners’ Conservation Decisions? Evidence From Iowa, Wendiam Sawadgo, Wendong Zhang, Alejandro Plastina Sep 2019

What Drives Landowners’ Conservation Decisions? Evidence From Iowa, Wendiam Sawadgo, Wendong Zhang, Alejandro Plastina

Alejandro Plastina

Conservation practices such as no-till and cover crops have been shown to have on-and off-farm benefits. However, underinvestment may occur when benefits of a practice do not go to the provider. A commonly cited barrier to conservation-practice adoption in agriculture is farmland-rental arrangements where tenants may not reap the benefits of conservation investments, resulting in lower adoption rates on leased land than on owner-operated fields. This issue is especially important since more than 40% of US farmland and more than half of Midwestern farmland is now rented from others. This paper examines the factors driving landowners’ decisions to adopt four ...


What Drives Landowners’ Conservation Decisions? Evidence From Iowa, Wendiam Sawadgo, Wendong Zhang, Alejandro Plastina Sep 2019

What Drives Landowners’ Conservation Decisions? Evidence From Iowa, Wendiam Sawadgo, Wendong Zhang, Alejandro Plastina

Wendong Zhang

Conservation practices such as no-till and cover crops have been shown to have on-and off-farm benefits. However, underinvestment may occur when benefits of a practice do not go to the provider. A commonly cited barrier to conservation-practice adoption in agriculture is farmland-rental arrangements where tenants may not reap the benefits of conservation investments, resulting in lower adoption rates on leased land than on owner-operated fields. This issue is especially important since more than 40% of US farmland and more than half of Midwestern farmland is now rented from others. This paper examines the factors driving landowners’ decisions to adopt four ...


World’S Largest Pork Producer In Crisis: China’S African Swine Fever Outbreak, Yongtong Shao, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Yongjie Ji, Dermot J. Hayes Sep 2019

World’S Largest Pork Producer In Crisis: China’S African Swine Fever Outbreak, Yongtong Shao, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Yongjie Ji, Dermot J. Hayes

Wendong Zhang

AFTER SUFFERING a major blow from trade disruptions with China and Mexico, US pork producers are keeping close watch on African Swine Fever (ASF) in China and other countries. The βirst case of ASF in China was conβirmed August 2, 2018 in the northeastern city of Shenyang. According to our information, by the end of October 2018, there were 45 cases of ASF in China with 5,439 pigs infected and 3,841 pigs dead (download the ASF cases in China as an Excel βile ).


The Impact Of The 2018 Trade Disruptions On The Iowa Economy, Edward J. Balistreri, Chad E. Hart, Dermot J. Hayes, Minghao Li, Lee Schulz, David A. Swenson, Wendong Zhang, John M. Crespi Sep 2019

The Impact Of The 2018 Trade Disruptions On The Iowa Economy, Edward J. Balistreri, Chad E. Hart, Dermot J. Hayes, Minghao Li, Lee Schulz, David A. Swenson, Wendong Zhang, John M. Crespi

Wendong Zhang

In this analysis, we use historical trade patterns, revenue linkages, and recent futures market price changes to discern the 2018 tariffs’ near-term impacts on the state of Iowa. We use two distinct modeling techniques, and in each technique we make two distinct assumptions. First, we use partial-equilibrium modeling approaches that do not directly consider linkages among the markets and industries across the state of Iowa. In these approaches, two assumptions about price changes are invoked—either the price changes are based upon supply and demand elasticities or the price changes are based upon observations in the futures market. The partial ...


Lessons From Previous U.S.-China Trade Disputes, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Chad Hart Sep 2019

Lessons From Previous U.S.-China Trade Disputes, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Chad Hart

Wendong Zhang

TRADE ISSUES have recently erupted between the United States and China and the battle over newly announced tariffs has escalated quickly. At the beginning of 2018, the United States imposed tariffs on imported solar panels and washing machines, and China responded by initiating an anti-dumping investigation into US sorghum. In early March, President Trump announced steel and aluminum tariffs with China being one of the primary targets. Within two weeks, China responded by announcing a list of 128 US products that are the targets of retaliatory tariffs effective on April 2, 2018. The list included pork products and ethanol, which ...


China’S New Nationwide E10 Ethanol Mandate And Its Global Implications, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes, Riley Arthur, Tantao Yang, Xiudong Wang Sep 2019

China’S New Nationwide E10 Ethanol Mandate And Its Global Implications, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes, Riley Arthur, Tantao Yang, Xiudong Wang

Wendong Zhang

IN SEPTEMBER 2017, the Chinese government announced a new nationwide ethanol mandate (NEA 2017) that expands the mandatory use of E10 fuel (gasoline containing 10 percent ethanol) from 11 trial provinces to the entire country by 2020. This measure would require ethanol consumption in China, the largest motor vehicle market in the world, to at least quadruple within the next three years. For US producers, this recent development fuels interest in whether China is going to import ethanol and/or corn (the main feedstock for ethanol production in China) to meet the mandate.


African Swine Fever In China: An Update, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes, Yongjie Ji, Minghao Li, Tao Zlong Sep 2019

African Swine Fever In China: An Update, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes, Yongjie Ji, Minghao Li, Tao Zlong

Wendong Zhang

LAST NOVEMBER, we wrote an article (Shao et al. 2018) documenting the development of African Swine Fever (ASF) in China and its impacts on regional hog and pork prices. Since then, ASF has continued to ravage China’s hog industry with 62 new cases from November 1, 2018 to March 27, 2019, resulting in a total of 114 cases. The total inventory of hog factories with ASF outbreaks has increased from 61,214 to 319,726 (click here to see an animated map of ASF cases in China). The pace of the outbreaks has somewhat slowed down from more than ...


Four Reasons Why We Aren’T Likely To See A Replay Of The 1980’S Farm Crisis, Wendong Zhang Sep 2019

Four Reasons Why We Aren’T Likely To See A Replay Of The 1980’S Farm Crisis, Wendong Zhang

Wendong Zhang

T HERE ARE plenty of alarming signs indicating a possible farm crisis: current corn prices are half the 2013 peak level of US $7/bushel; farm income has declined for major commodities (corn, wheat, cattle), falling from the previous year to levels well below recent years; weak farm income and worsening credit conditions continue to trim farmland values, which are expected to trend lower in the months ahead, thus weakening the equity position of producers and the collateral value for lenders. Given the heightening farm βinancial crisis, many agricultural lenders, academics, and other stakeholders in the US farm sector worry ...


Can China’S Rural Land Policy Reforms Solve Its Farmland Dilemma?, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes Sep 2019

Can China’S Rural Land Policy Reforms Solve Its Farmland Dilemma?, Minghao Li, Wendong Zhang, Dermot J. Hayes

Wendong Zhang

THE SCARCITY of arable land is a deβining feature of Chinese agriculture (Zhang and Li 2018). In 2015, China fed 18.9 percent of the world’s population with only 8.5 percent of the world’s arable land. Furthermore, the limited agricultural land resource in China is distributed to 231 million households, resulting in an average farm size of only 0.96 acres per household (China Agricultural Development Report 2016), and even such small farms are usually scattered in several separate plots. Therefore, China faces two challenges: ( a ) preserving the quantity and quality of its arable land amid rapid ...


Aggregate Data Yields Biased Estimates Of Individual Voting Preferences, Corey Lang, Shanna Pearson-Merkowitz Sep 2019

Aggregate Data Yields Biased Estimates Of Individual Voting Preferences, Corey Lang, Shanna Pearson-Merkowitz

Corey Lang

Individual voting preferences are often estimated using aggregated voting data matched with census demographics. However, results from aggregate models may be biased due to two data issues that we examine in this paper: mismeasured voting population and omitted spatial variables. To assess bias, we use both Monte Carlo simulation and a case study regarding a statewide referendum for which we have collected aggregate data and individual exit poll data. We find large differences in regression estimates between aggregate and individual models, validate the two sources of bias, and conclude that using aggregate data could lead to incorrect assessment of efficiency ...