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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Lexington For All Ages: A Community Needs Assessment, Sue Berger, Jan Mutchler, Nidya Velasco Roldán, Ceara Somerville, Rebecca Mailman, Caitlin Coyle Nov 2019

Lexington For All Ages: A Community Needs Assessment, Sue Berger, Jan Mutchler, Nidya Velasco Roldán, Ceara Somerville, Rebecca Mailman, Caitlin Coyle

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

The Lexington for All Ages initiative is meant to ensure that Lexington is and remains a place where older adults can comfortably and safely age in place. This report describes research undertaken by the Center for Social & Demographic Research on Aging within the Gerontology Institute at the University of Massachusetts Boston, on behalf of the Lexington Department of Human Services, to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of Lexington’s residents age 50 and older. Structured around livability principles embedded in the World Health Organization’s Age-Friendly Community framework, the Lexington for All Ages initiative considers physical infrastructure as ...


Swampscott For All Ages: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler, Nidya Velasco, Sue Berger, Rebecca Mailman Oct 2019

Swampscott For All Ages: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler, Nidya Velasco, Sue Berger, Rebecca Mailman

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

By the year 2030, 35% of Swampscott residents will be age 60 and older. In response to this demographic shift as well as in response to the desire of most residents to remain living in their community, the resident leaders of Swampscott, with support of the Town, have embarked on the journey to become a more age friendly community. They call themselves the Swampscott for All Ages Committee. The Swampscott for All Ages initiative is meant to ensure that Swampscott is and remains a place where older adults can comfortably and safely age in place. It is a resident-led committee ...


Aging In The Town Of Weston: A Community Needs Assessment, Sue Berger, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler, Nidya Velasco Mar 2019

Aging In The Town Of Weston: A Community Needs Assessment, Sue Berger, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler, Nidya Velasco

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes research undertaken by the Center for Social & Demographic Research on Aging within the Gerontology Institute at the University of Massachusetts Boston, on behalf of the Weston Council on Aging, to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of Weston’s population of residents who are age 55 and older. The contents of this report are meant to inform the Weston Council on Aging, and organizations that work with and on behalf of older residents of Weston, for the purposes of planning and coordination of services, but also to build awareness about issues facing the Town of Weston ...


Easthampton Council On Aging Planning Study, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler, Ceara Somerville Oct 2018

Easthampton Council On Aging Planning Study, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler, Ceara Somerville

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes collaborative efforts undertaken by the City of Easthampton Council on Aging (ECOA) and the Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging (CSDRA), within the Gerontology Institute at the McCormack Graduate School, University of Massachusetts Boston. Beginning in Fall 2017, these organizations partnered to conduct a study to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of the City’s residents age 55 and older. During this assessment, multiple approaches were utilized to compile information that could be used to plan and implement current and future services. We examined data from the U.S. Census Bureau and from ...


Aging In Bedford: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Rebecca Mailman, Jan Mutchler Jun 2018

Aging In Bedford: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Rebecca Mailman, Jan Mutchler

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes research undertaken by the Center for Social & Demographic Research on Aging within the Gerontology Institute at the University of Massachusetts Boston, on behalf of the Bedford Council on Aging (COA), to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of Bedford’s population of residents who are age 55 and older. The contents of this report are meant to inform the Bedford COA, and other municipal entities, for the purposes of planning and coordination of services, but also to build awareness about issues facing the Town of Bedford’s senior residents.


Aging In Beverly, Massachusetts: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Claire Wickersham, Jan Mutchler May 2018

Aging In Beverly, Massachusetts: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Claire Wickersham, Jan Mutchler

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes research undertaken by the Center for Social & Demographic Research on Aging within the Gerontology Institute at the University of Massachusetts Boston, on behalf of the Beverly Council on Aging and Senior Community Center (hereto referred to as the Beverly Senior Center), to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of Beverly’s population of residents who are age 60 and older. The contents of this report are meant to inform the Beverly Senior Center, and organizations that work with and on behalf of older residents of Beverly, for the purposes of planning and coordination of services, but ...


Planning For An Age-Friendly Belmont, Jan Mutchler Mar 2018

Planning For An Age-Friendly Belmont, Jan Mutchler

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

Belmont is a primarily residential community of around 25,000 residents with a small commercial district. Public transit access to downtown Boston and neighboring Cambridge offers Belmont residents access to services, employment, and recreational activities outside of the town’s boundaries. With 22% of its population age 60 and older, Belmont is expecting to see an increase in the number of older residents in the coming years. Commissioned by the Belmont Council on Aging (COA), this report will serve to help the COA and Town to better understand Belmont’s current assets, potentials, and challenges and to plan for changing ...


Aging On Nantucket: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler Jan 2018

Aging On Nantucket: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes efforts undertaken by the Nantucket Center for Elder Affairs, Inc. (NCEA), in partnership with the Center for Social & Demographic Research on Aging within the Gerontology Institute at the University of Massachusetts Boston. The purpose of these efforts was to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of Nantucket’s older residents. The focus of this report is on the cohort of Nantucket’s residents age 60 and older. The contents of this report are intended to inform NCEA, the Saltmarsh Senior Center, the Council on Aging, the Town of Nantucket, and organizations that provide services to older ...


Latina Political Leadership In Massachusetts, Center For Women In Politics And Public Policy, University Of Massachusetts Boston Jun 2017

Latina Political Leadership In Massachusetts, Center For Women In Politics And Public Policy, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Publications from the Center for Women in Politics and Public Policy

This Fact Sheet offers an analysis of Latina leadership and political representation in the Massachusetts, as of the 2017.


Aging In Reading, Massachusetts: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler Jun 2017

Aging In Reading, Massachusetts: A Community Needs Assessment, Caitlin Coyle, Jan Mutchler

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes collaborative efforts undertaken by the Town of Reading’s Elder and Human Services Division and the Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging, within the Gerontology Institute at the McCormack Graduate School, University of Massachusetts Boston. During Spring 2017, these organizations partnered to conduct a study to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of the Town’s older resident population, with respect to living and aging in Reading.


The Silent Crisis Ii: A Follow-Up Analysis Of Latin@ Participation In City Government Boards, Commissions, And Executive Bodies In Boston And Chelsea, Massachusetts, James Jennings, Jen Douglas, Miren Uriarte Jun 2017

The Silent Crisis Ii: A Follow-Up Analysis Of Latin@ Participation In City Government Boards, Commissions, And Executive Bodies In Boston And Chelsea, Massachusetts, James Jennings, Jen Douglas, Miren Uriarte

Gastón Institute Publications

This report provides an update on the participation of Latin@s in city government in Chelsea and Boston. Since 2001 several studies have documented a severe underrepresentation of Latin@s in policy-making bodies in government institutions that affect their lives (e.g., Hardy-Fanta, 2002; Uriarte, Jennings, & Douglas, 2014). The Silent Crisis, the 2014 study (Uriarte et al., 2014) commissioned by the Greater Boston Latin@ Network, found significant under-representation of Latin@s in the city governments of Boston, Chelsea, and Somerville. In each of the three cities, the representation of Latin@s in the population far outpaced their role in the ...


Needs Assessment For Belchertown Council On Aging, Jan Mutchler, Caitlin Coyle, Ceara Somerville Feb 2017

Needs Assessment For Belchertown Council On Aging, Jan Mutchler, Caitlin Coyle, Ceara Somerville

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes research undertaken by the Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging within the Gerontology Institute at the University of Massachusetts Boston, on behalf of the Belchertown Council on Aging, to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of Belchertown’s mature population. The focus of this report is on two broad cohorts of Belchertown residents—those aged 60 and older, referred to here as “seniors” or “older adults,” and those age 50-59, who will be aging into the “senior” age range over the coming decade. The contents of this report are meant to inform the Town ...


The Future Of Aging In The Town Of Brewster: Brewster Council On Aging Needs Assessment Study, Jan E. Mutchler, Ceara Somerville, Maryam Khaniyan, Mai See Yang, Molly Evans Apr 2016

The Future Of Aging In The Town Of Brewster: Brewster Council On Aging Needs Assessment Study, Jan E. Mutchler, Ceara Somerville, Maryam Khaniyan, Mai See Yang, Molly Evans

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes efforts undertaken by the Town of Brewster Council on Aging, in partnership with the Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging within the Gerontology Institute at the University of Massachusetts Boston, to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of Brewster’s older population. The focus of this report is on two cohorts of Brewster’s residents — those aged 45 to 59, and the cohort of individuals who are currently aged 60 and over (“seniors”). The content of this report is intended to inform the Town of Brewster, the Brewster Council on Aging, and organizations that ...


The Future Of Aging In The Town Of Chatham: Chatham Council On Aging Needs Assessment Study, Jan E. Mutchler, Ceara Somerville, Maryam Khaniyan, Molly Evans Mar 2016

The Future Of Aging In The Town Of Chatham: Chatham Council On Aging Needs Assessment Study, Jan E. Mutchler, Ceara Somerville, Maryam Khaniyan, Molly Evans

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes efforts undertaken by the Town of Chatham Council on Aging (COA), in partnership with the Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging within the Gerontology Institute at the University of Massachusetts Boston, to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of Chatham’s older population. The focus of this report is on two cohorts of Chatham’s residents—those aged 50 to 59, and those individuals who are currently aged 60 and over. The content of this report is intended to inform the Town of Chatham, the Chatham Council on Aging, and organizations that provide services ...


Needs Assessment For The Topsfield Council On Aging, Jan E. Mutchler, Ceara Somerville Dec 2015

Needs Assessment For The Topsfield Council On Aging, Jan E. Mutchler, Ceara Somerville

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

The Town of Topsfield’s older population grew substantially during the last decade. Increases are expected to continue as the number of seniors increase moving forward, as well as the share of the Topsfield population they represent. In response to these demographic changes, a study was undertaken to generate and organize information on the older residents of Topsfield and the community organizations supporting their well-being. Special focus was placed on needs of older residents along with the capacity of the Topsfield COA to meet those needs. Methods used included description of existing data, key informant interviews, and focus groups aimed ...


Needs Assessment For Littleton Elder And Human Services And The Council On Aging, Jan E. Mutchler, Bernard A. Steinman, Ceara Somerville, Maryam Khaniyan, Mai See Yang Sep 2015

Needs Assessment For Littleton Elder And Human Services And The Council On Aging, Jan E. Mutchler, Bernard A. Steinman, Ceara Somerville, Maryam Khaniyan, Mai See Yang

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes efforts undertaken by the Town of Littleton Council on Aging, in partnership with the Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging within the Gerontology Institute at the University of Massachusetts Boston, to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of Littleton’s older population. The focus of this report was on two cohorts of Littleton residents—those aged 50 to 59 (referred to as “Boomers”), and the cohort of individuals who are currently aged 60 and over (“Seniors”). The content of this report is intended to inform the Town of Littleton, the Littleton Council on Aging ...


Aging In Barnstable: Striving For High Livability In A Cape Cod Community, Bernard A. Steinman, Ceara Somerville, Hayley Gleason, Maryam Khaniyan, Mai See Yang Sep 2015

Aging In Barnstable: Striving For High Livability In A Cape Cod Community, Bernard A. Steinman, Ceara Somerville, Hayley Gleason, Maryam Khaniyan, Mai See Yang

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes collaborative efforts undertaken by the Town of Barnstable Senior Services Division and the Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging, within the Gerontology Institute at the McCormack Graduate School, University of Massachusetts Boston. Beginning in Fall 2014, these organizations partnered to conduct a study to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of the Town’s older resident population, with respect to living and aging in Barnstable. The focus of this report was on two cohorts of Barnstable residents — those aged 50 to 59 (referred to as “Boomers”), and the cohort of individuals who are currently ...


Testimony On The Equal Pay Act [H. 1733/S. 983], Ann Bookman Jul 2015

Testimony On The Equal Pay Act [H. 1733/S. 983], Ann Bookman

Publications from the Center for Women in Politics and Public Policy

Testimony on the Equal Pay Act [H. 1733/S. 983] by Ann Bookman, PhD, delivered at the Massachusetts State House, 2015 July 21.


Organizational Study Of Information Technology, Law, And Purchasing Departments : City Of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston May 2015

Organizational Study Of Information Technology, Law, And Purchasing Departments : City Of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Edward J. Collins Center for Public Management Publications

The Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center for Public Management was hired by the City of Fitchburg to perform organizational studies of three departments, including the Information Technology (IT) Department, the Law Department, and the Purchasing Department. All three of the studies were to review the respective departments’ organizational structures, responsibilities, and practices with a goal of identifying areas of improvement that could result in improved operations and time and cost savings (IT and Purchasing) and areas in need of improvement (Law Department).

The Collins Center project team met with the directors of the three departments under review to understand their ...


Assessing Current And Future Needs Of Residents Aging In The Town Of Andover, Bernard A. Steinman, Ceara R. Somerville, Maryam Khaniyan, Hayley Gleason, Mai See Yang, Jan E. Mutchler Apr 2015

Assessing Current And Future Needs Of Residents Aging In The Town Of Andover, Bernard A. Steinman, Ceara R. Somerville, Maryam Khaniyan, Hayley Gleason, Mai See Yang, Jan E. Mutchler

Gerontology Institute Publications

This report describes the collaborative efforts undertaken by the Town of Andover Division of Elder Services and the Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging, within the McCormack Graduate School at the University of Massachusetts Boston. Beginning in Fall 2014, these organizations joined to conduct a needs assessment to investigate the needs, interests, preferences and opinions of the Town’s older resident population, with respect to aging in Andover. The focus of this report is on two cohorts of Andover residents—those who are age 50 to 59 (referred to as “Boomers”) and the cohort of individuals who are ...


Aging In Scituate: An Assessment Of Services And Programs For Our Community, Jan Mutchler, Hayley Gleason, Ceara Somerville, Maryam Khaniyan, Bernard A. Steinman Feb 2015

Aging In Scituate: An Assessment Of Services And Programs For Our Community, Jan Mutchler, Hayley Gleason, Ceara Somerville, Maryam Khaniyan, Bernard A. Steinman

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

This report describes collaborative efforts undertaken by the Town of Scituate and its Council on Aging (COA), and the Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging within the Gerontology Institute at the University of Massachusetts Boston. Beginning in Summer 2014, these organizations partnered to conduct a needs assessment study to investigate the needs, interests, preferences, and opinions of the Town’s older resident population, with respect to living and aging in Scituate. The focus of this report is on two cohorts of Scituate residents—those aged 45 to 59 (referred to as “Boomers”), and the cohort of individuals who ...


Five Year Strategic Plan For Economic Development: Prepared For The Town Of Winthrop, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston Nov 2014

Five Year Strategic Plan For Economic Development: Prepared For The Town Of Winthrop, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Edward J. Collins Center for Public Management Publications

In the spring of 2014, the Town of Winthrop hired the Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center for Public Management at the University of Massachusetts Boston to help develop a Strategic Plan for Economic Development. The Center’s project team began its work by carefully analyzing data in order to understand Winthrop’s current business environment, and to learn how it has changed over time. Multiple sources of information were used, including the Census Bureau’s Decennial Census, American Community Survey, and County Business Patterns, data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and Claritas retail leakage data. In addition, the project ...


Latina Political Leadership In Massachusetts, Center For Women In Politics And Public Policy, University Of Massachusetts Boston Sep 2014

Latina Political Leadership In Massachusetts, Center For Women In Politics And Public Policy, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Publications from the Center for Women in Politics and Public Policy

This Fact Sheet offers an analysis of Latina leadership and political representation in the Massachusetts, as of the 2014.


The Silent Crisis: Including Latinos And Why It Matters, Representation In Executive Positions, Boards, And Commissions In The City Governments Of Boston, Chelsea, And Somerville, Miren Uriarte, James Jennings, Jen Douglas Jun 2014

The Silent Crisis: Including Latinos And Why It Matters, Representation In Executive Positions, Boards, And Commissions In The City Governments Of Boston, Chelsea, And Somerville, Miren Uriarte, James Jennings, Jen Douglas

Human Services Faculty Publication Series

The Silent Crisis: Involving Latinos in Decision-Making & Why Latino Representation Matters provides a measure of the economic, social, and political inclusion of Latinos at mid-decade in three cities of the Commonwealth where about one fourth of the state’s Latino population lives. Often wrongly referred to as a “new population,” Latinos have been present in Massachusetts since the end of the 19th century, arriving in large numbers beginning in the 1960s and 1970s and growing to nearly 630,000 persons (9.6% of the population) by 2010. That same year, they accounted for 62.1% of the population of Chelsea, 17.5% of the population of Boston, and 10.6% of the population of Somerville.

The report focuses on reflective representation, that is, the type of representation that seeks to reflect the demography of a certain group or population. It defines representation of Latinos in executive positions in city government and among members of boards and commissions in relation to the representation of Latinos in the overall population of the cities. It identifies under-representation when the level of representation in government bodies fall below the proportion of Latinos in the population of each city. The report utilizes census data to describe the population of each city; each city’s publicly available data on specific executive positions and boards and commissions; and interviews conducted with government officials in the cities.

The report demonstrates that while the Latino presence in each of these cities has grown and become increasingly evident, the presence of Latinos in city government has not kept pace. Instead, in each city, we find a gap between the presence and growth of Latino communities and their representation in the halls of government.


Massachusetts Municipal Performance Management Program (Mpmp), Michael Ward Apr 2014

Massachusetts Municipal Performance Management Program (Mpmp), Michael Ward

Office of Community Partnerships Posters

The mission of the MPMP is to make the ongoing, systematic use of data, measures, and goals a permanent feature of Massachusetts municipal government, and to accelerate the sharing of ideas among Massachusetts municipalities.

Through a team of highly-skilled Performance Management Analysts, each working directly with a portfolio of cities and towns, the MPMP provides on-the-ground support to Massachusetts municipalities on all aspects of data and analysis.


Healthy Eating And Savvy Saving: An Evaluation Of Action For Boston Community Development’S Food Dollars Program For Low-Income Elders, Ann Bookman, Susan M. Phillips Mar 2014

Healthy Eating And Savvy Saving: An Evaluation Of Action For Boston Community Development’S Food Dollars Program For Low-Income Elders, Ann Bookman, Susan M. Phillips

Gerontology Institute Publications

This report is an evaluation of an innovative community-based intervention – the Food Dollars Program. Funded by the AARP Foundation, this program was designed and delivered by Action for Boston Community Development (ABCD) and their Elder Services staff in order to promote healthy eating and reduce food and economic insecurity among low-income elders in Boston. The impetus for creating this program arose from the challenges many low-income individuals face in purchasing and consuming healthy foods from the five food groups as recommended by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in their ChooseMyPlate model of healthy eating. The Food Dollars curriculum combines ...


The Massachusetts Fiscal System: Structure And Performance, Padraig O'Malley, Raymond G. Torto Feb 2014

The Massachusetts Fiscal System: Structure And Performance, Padraig O'Malley, Raymond G. Torto

Padraig O'Malley

On November 4, 1980 the citizens of Massachusetts, by a vote of 59% to 41%, resoundingly endorsed a tax reduction plan known as Proposition 2 1/2. All communities in the Commonwealth were faced with an immediate reduction in their local revenues due to the immediate cut in the excise tax that Proposition 2 1/2 called for, and up to 130 communities will have to implement a 15% reduction in their tax levies for FY 1982. Already there are protestations from many local officials that they cannot make the required tax cuts without severely reducing the level of local ...


Study On Investment In Water And Wastewater Infrastructure And Economic Development, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston Jan 2014

Study On Investment In Water And Wastewater Infrastructure And Economic Development, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Edward J. Collins Center for Public Management Publications

The Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center for Public Management in the John W. McCormack Graduate School of Policy and Global Studies at the University of Massachusetts Boston was tasked by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority Advisory Board (MWRAAB) with asking and answering a very fundamental question relating to public infrastructure: “What is the relationship between investment in water and wastewater infrastructure and economic growth?” To do so, Center staff not only researched the positive results of investing in infrastructure, but also took time to consider what failing to invest in adequate water and wastewater infrastructure might mean. Additionally, the Center ...


Transportation Needs Of Latinos In Pittsfield, Ma, Daniela Bravo, Aida Palencia, Chanel Fields, Luis Natal, Francisco Rodriguez, Patricia Guardado, Edna Dacosta, Zaida Ismatul, Melissa Correa, July Suarez, Joseli Alonzo, Andrea Ornelas, Phillip Granberry, María Idalí Torres Jan 2014

Transportation Needs Of Latinos In Pittsfield, Ma, Daniela Bravo, Aida Palencia, Chanel Fields, Luis Natal, Francisco Rodriguez, Patricia Guardado, Edna Dacosta, Zaida Ismatul, Melissa Correa, July Suarez, Joseli Alonzo, Andrea Ornelas, Phillip Granberry, María Idalí Torres

Gastón Institute Publications

Latinos in Pittsfield are a small but fast growing population. The most significant issue they face is related to transportation. Because the area's lack of population density, Berkshire County Regional Transportation Authority provides limited bus routes. In Massachusetts in 2012, 72% of the population drove to work, while in Berkshire County 86% did. Likewise, in Massachusetts, 9% used public transit but in Berkshire County only 2% did. Massachusetts has failed to enact a Safe Driving Bill, even though Sen. Patricia Jehlen and Rep. Tricia Farley-Bouvier have sponsored H.3285.


A Policy Brief: Massachusetts (T)Afdc Case Closings, October 1993-August 1997, Donna Friedman, Emily Douglas, Michelle Hayes, Mary Ann Allard Dec 2013

A Policy Brief: Massachusetts (T)Afdc Case Closings, October 1993-August 1997, Donna Friedman, Emily Douglas, Michelle Hayes, Mary Ann Allard

Donna Haig Friedman

When a DTA (Department of Transitional Assistance) worker assesses whether a family's (T)AFDC (Temporary Aid to Families with Dependent Children) case will be closed, s/he decides which one of 67 different codes best describes the reason cash benefits for the household will be stopped. To carry out the analyses, we sorted all of the 67 codes into clusters of codes that logically grouped together: Cluster I, Increased Income; Cluster H, Sanctions; Cluster III, Eligible Persons Moved; Cluster IV, Fraud; Cluster V, Client Request; Cluster VI, No Longer Eligible; Cluster VII, Other or Multiple Meanings. The Appendix displays ...