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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Students' Perceived Value Of The Community College Experience: A Mixed Methods Study, Robin A. Duncan Jan 2018

Students' Perceived Value Of The Community College Experience: A Mixed Methods Study, Robin A. Duncan

stu_scholar

The purpose of this study was to explore students’ perceived value of their community college experience and its relationship to other factors often related to student persistence in college, namely satisfaction, academic quality, service quality, and engagement. The research was guided by three focused questions: How do students describe and define perceived value of community college; what components emerge from exploratory factor analysis of items designed to measure perceived value; and how, if at all, is a student’s perception of the value of a community college experience different from related measures such as satisfaction, engagement, or quality? Data were ...


Addressing The Opioid Epidemic: North Andover Police Department, James Buckley Apr 2017

Addressing The Opioid Epidemic: North Andover Police Department, James Buckley

Honors Senior Capstone Projects

The opioid epidemic is not just a problem that affects major cities, as there is a growing market for heroin in suburban communities. North Andover saw a spike from only seven overdoses in 2015, to twenty-three possible overdoses in just the first nine and a half months of 2016, depicting evidence of how grave the problem really has become in the community. The epidemic is not an issue that can be delayed and gradually deliberated, as immediate action is required to treat individuals affected and heal the community as a whole. The heroin problem has reached North Andover and the ...


Upham’S Corner Main Street: Developing Ideas For Promoting Arts And Businesses In Upham’S Corner, Werner Kunz, Barbara Lewis Oct 2015

Upham’S Corner Main Street: Developing Ideas For Promoting Arts And Businesses In Upham’S Corner, Werner Kunz, Barbara Lewis

Barbara Lewis

Dorchester’s Upham’s Corner neighborhood is home to a diverse mix of neighborhood residents, many historical landmarks, and a commercial district. At one point, Upham’s Corner was one of the top five market hubs for New England. It was because of this market history that the Strand Theater was built as a community home, as a community connection, and as a network. UMass Boston’s College of Management undergraduate students have developed ideas for promoting the arts and bringing businesses to the Upham’s Corner neighborhood. Assistant Professor of Marketing, Werner Kunz, coordinated the project with students in ...


Organizational Study Of Information Technology, Law, And Purchasing Departments : City Of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston May 2015

Organizational Study Of Information Technology, Law, And Purchasing Departments : City Of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Edward J. Collins Center for Public Management Publications

The Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center for Public Management was hired by the City of Fitchburg to perform organizational studies of three departments, including the Information Technology (IT) Department, the Law Department, and the Purchasing Department. All three of the studies were to review the respective departments’ organizational structures, responsibilities, and practices with a goal of identifying areas of improvement that could result in improved operations and time and cost savings (IT and Purchasing) and areas in need of improvement (Law Department).

The Collins Center project team met with the directors of the three departments under review to understand their ...


Five Year Strategic Plan For Economic Development: Prepared For The Town Of Winthrop, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston Nov 2014

Five Year Strategic Plan For Economic Development: Prepared For The Town Of Winthrop, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Edward J. Collins Center for Public Management Publications

In the spring of 2014, the Town of Winthrop hired the Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center for Public Management at the University of Massachusetts Boston to help develop a Strategic Plan for Economic Development. The Center’s project team began its work by carefully analyzing data in order to understand Winthrop’s current business environment, and to learn how it has changed over time. Multiple sources of information were used, including the Census Bureau’s Decennial Census, American Community Survey, and County Business Patterns, data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and Claritas retail leakage data. In addition, the project ...


Creative Economies: Using Arts To Revitalize Post-Industrial Cities And Towns In Massachusetts, Anna Price Jul 2014

Creative Economies: Using Arts To Revitalize Post-Industrial Cities And Towns In Massachusetts, Anna Price

Honors College Theses

During my senior year in the Honors College at UMass Boston, I became involved in the yearlong Creative and Social Entrepreneurship Fellowship program. During this program, I interned alongside other UMass Boston students at a local creative non-profit organization, providing the staff with assistance as they worked towards achieving their goals. This internship was funded by the Creative Economy Fund (CE Fund) from the University of Massachusetts President’s Office. My involvement in this program sparked an interest in pursuing an Honors thesis investigating the CE Fund and how the awarded projects are benefitted by that fund.

After looking through ...


Reinforcing The Safety Net: A Collaborative Survey With The Massachusetts Nonprofit Network, Heather Macindoe, Lindsay Morgia, Erynn Herman Apr 2014

Reinforcing The Safety Net: A Collaborative Survey With The Massachusetts Nonprofit Network, Heather Macindoe, Lindsay Morgia, Erynn Herman

Office of Community Partnerships Posters

The more than 35,000 nonprofit organizations in Massachusetts employ 20% of the state’s workforce and serve as a vital part of the social safety net. Many of these organizations face challenges concerning fiscal sustainability. Funding often covers current services with little surplus to address organizational capacity issues. Successful public-nonprofit partnerships are key to building a resilient nonprofit sector. This study contributes to the nonprofit sector’s knowledge of how best to engage with policymakers at the state and local level.


Massachusetts Small Business Development Center Network: Boston Regional Office And Minority Business Center, Massachusetts Small Business Development Center Network, Boston Regional Office & Minority Business Center Apr 2014

Massachusetts Small Business Development Center Network: Boston Regional Office And Minority Business Center, Massachusetts Small Business Development Center Network, Boston Regional Office & Minority Business Center

Office of Community Partnerships Posters

Hosted by the College of Management, we are part of a statewide business assistance program providing FREE one-on-one counsel to entrepreneurs, seeking help with business growth, financing, loan assistance, strategic marketing and operational analysis. Our services are available to the public and members of the University of Massachusetts Boston community, including students, faculty, and staff. We also offer workshops on a variety of topics targeted to the needs of small business.


Welfare Reform: The View From New Hampshire And Massachusetts, Richard W. Hurd, Allen Thompson Oct 2013

Welfare Reform: The View From New Hampshire And Massachusetts, Richard W. Hurd, Allen Thompson

Richard W Hurd

As he promised during his election campaign, President Carter has proposed a major overhaul of the welfare system. Under the Better Jobs and Income Act, unveiled in August 1977, the major components of the current welfare system would be replaced by a program combining cash assistance and job opportunities. This paper evaluates the Carter proposal based on the experience under existing employment, training and welfare programs and then assesses its potential impact on the states of New Hampshire and Massachusetts. In the course of the discussion, we deal with the following questions: (1) Does the proposal effectively address the weaknesses ...


Commonwealth Compact Talent Network: A Resource For And About Talented Professionals Of Color In Massachusetts, Georgianna Melendez Apr 2013

Commonwealth Compact Talent Network: A Resource For And About Talented Professionals Of Color In Massachusetts, Georgianna Melendez

Office of Community Partnerships Posters

Commonwealth Compact seeks to increase the visibility of and access to professionals of color in Massachusetts. We seek to establish Massachusetts as a uniquely inclusive, honest, and supportive community of – and for – diverse people. We have created an online tool to establish this visible network. Our target audience for this tool includes employers and talent.


Upham’S Corner Main Street: Developing Ideas For Promoting Arts And Businesses In Upham’S Corner, Werner Kunz, Barbara Lewis, Upham's Corner Main Street Apr 2013

Upham’S Corner Main Street: Developing Ideas For Promoting Arts And Businesses In Upham’S Corner, Werner Kunz, Barbara Lewis, Upham's Corner Main Street

Office of Community Partnerships Posters

Dorchester’s Upham’s Corner neighborhood is home to a diverse mix of neighborhood residents, many historical landmarks, and a commercial district. At one point, Upham’s Corner was one of the top five market hubs for New England. It was because of this market history that the Strand Theater was built as a community home, as a community connection, and as a network. UMass Boston’s College of Management undergraduate students have developed ideas for promoting the arts and bringing businesses to the Upham’s Corner neighborhood. Assistant Professor of Marketing, Werner Kunz, coordinated the project with students in ...


Review Of Proposed Zoning Bylaw Amendments & Concept Plan For 129 Parker Street, Maynard, Ma, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston Mar 2013

Review Of Proposed Zoning Bylaw Amendments & Concept Plan For 129 Parker Street, Maynard, Ma, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Edward J. Collins Center for Public Management Publications

The Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center for Public Management was hired by the Town of Maynard to analyze the proposed amendment to the Neighborhood Business Overlay District (NBOD) of the Maynard Zoning Bylaw and associated concept plan for the property located at 129 Parker Street in Maynard. The bylaw amendment and concept plan have been proposed by Capital Group Properties, LLC, the developer of the site. Specifically, the Center was tasked with preparing the following materials:

  • Task 1 – Economic Development and Impact Study;
  • Task 2 – Traffic Peer Review and Analysis; and,
  • Task 3 – Recommendations on proposed bylaw amendment, concept plan ...


Climate Change Adaptation Chapter: Marshfield, Massachusetts, Joshua H. Chase, Jonathan G. Cooper, Rory Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Filipe Antunes Lima, Sally R. Miller, Toni Marie Pignatelli Feb 2013

Climate Change Adaptation Chapter: Marshfield, Massachusetts, Joshua H. Chase, Jonathan G. Cooper, Rory Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Filipe Antunes Lima, Sally R. Miller, Toni Marie Pignatelli

Sally Miller

Climate change, understood as a statistically significant variation in the mean state of the climate or its variability, is the greatest environmental challenge of this generation (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001). Marshfield is already being affected by changes in the climate that will have a profound effect on the town’s economy, public health, coastal resources, natural features, water systems, and public and private infrastructure. Adaptation strategies have been widely recognized as playing an important role in improving a community’s ability to respond to climate stressors by resisting damage and recovering quickly. Based on review of climate projections ...


The Impact Of Health Care Reform On Hospital And Preventive Care: Evidence From Massachusetts, Jonathan T. Kolstad, Amanda E. Kowalski Dec 2012

The Impact Of Health Care Reform On Hospital And Preventive Care: Evidence From Massachusetts, Jonathan T. Kolstad, Amanda E. Kowalski

Health Care Management Papers

In April 2006, Massachusetts passed legislation aimed at achieving near-universal health insurance coverage. The key features of this legislation were a model for national health reform, passed in March 2010. The reform gives us a novel opportunity to examine the impact of expansion to near-universal coverage state-wide. Among hospital discharges in Massachusetts, we find that the reform decreased uninsurance by 36% relative to its initial level and to other states. Reform affected utilization by decreasing length of stay, and the number of inpatient admissions originating from the emergency room. When we control for patient severity, we find evidence that preventable ...


Prelude To A Master Plan: Ware, Massachusetts, Belen Alfaro, Bruno Carneiro, Margaret Engesser, Kathryn E. Fox, Evadne R. Friedman, Timothy Inacio, Anita Lockesmith, Christina Mills, Stephanie Molden, Meagen Mulherin, Russell Pandres, Vinicius Pereira, Brian Reid, Pedro Soto, Jennifer Stromsten Oct 2012

Prelude To A Master Plan: Ware, Massachusetts, Belen Alfaro, Bruno Carneiro, Margaret Engesser, Kathryn E. Fox, Evadne R. Friedman, Timothy Inacio, Anita Lockesmith, Christina Mills, Stephanie Molden, Meagen Mulherin, Russell Pandres, Vinicius Pereira, Brian Reid, Pedro Soto, Jennifer Stromsten

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Studio and Student Research and Creative Activity

Prelude to a Master Plan offers ideas, recommendations, and a toolkit to help the town chart its own path towards that future. While the teams and individual students worked to ‘drill down’ into specific topic areas, the Studio defined three basic areas in order to think about how the various assets, challenges and ideas undermine or reinforce one another. The report is loosely organized in those terms: addressing the outlying rural areas and issues specific to these places, considering one of the key growth areas that has extended from town and the conflicts that arise from the many uses occurring ...


The Effect Of Unions On Productivity In The Public Sector: The Case Of Municipal Libraries, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Joshua L. Schwarz Aug 2012

The Effect Of Unions On Productivity In The Public Sector: The Case Of Municipal Libraries, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Joshua L. Schwarz

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] This paper represents our initial efforts at analyzing the effects of unions on productivity in the public sector. We first sketch an analytical framework that can be used to estimate these effects, focusing for expository purposes on municipal public libraries. We initially focus on libraries because considerable effort has been devoted to conceptualizing productivity measures for them and because of the availability of data to implement the framework. After discussing the analytical framework, we present preliminary estimtes of the effects of unions on productivity in public libraries based upon analyses of data from 71 municipal libraries in Massachusetts. We ...


Management Assessment Of The Public Works Department: City Of Lowell, Massachusetts, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston Jun 2012

Management Assessment Of The Public Works Department: City Of Lowell, Massachusetts, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Edward J. Collins Center for Public Management Publications

This report presents the results of the management assessment of the Lowell Public Works Department conducted by the University of Massachusetts Boston’s Collins Center for Public Management.

The project team conducted a comprehensive organization and management analysis of the Department's existing operations, service levels, infrostructure management, organizational structures and staffing levels. The analysis was to be fact-based and include all aspects of service provision by the Department.


The Rise Of Asian-Owned Businesses In Massachusetts: Data From The 2002 Economic Census Survey Of Business Owners, Michael Liu, Paul Watanabe Apr 2012

The Rise Of Asian-Owned Businesses In Massachusetts: Data From The 2002 Economic Census Survey Of Business Owners, Michael Liu, Paul Watanabe

Michael Liu

Asian-owned businesses are following a very rapid growth trajectory in Massachusetts. In fact, Asian-owned firms increased by 44 percent in Massachusetts from 1997 to 2002. This growth is nearly double the national gain of 24 percent for all Asian-owned firms in the United States. Moreover, during the same time period, the number of all firms in the state expanded by only five percent. Similar comparisons can be made when looking at sales and receipts and number of paid employees. From 1997-2002, Asian-owned businesses in Massachusetts experienced an increase in sales and receipts of 20 percent. This was over three times ...


Commonwealth Compact: Massachusetts Business School Collaborative, Robert Turner, Georgianna Meléndez Apr 2012

Commonwealth Compact: Massachusetts Business School Collaborative, Robert Turner, Georgianna Meléndez

Office of Community Partnerships Posters

Commonwealth Compact seeks to establish Massachusetts as a uniquely inclusive, honest, and supportive community of—and for—diverse people. The objectives of this program include acknowledging our mixed history in this effort, face squarely the challenges that still need to be overcome and understand that the rich promise of the region's growing diversity must be tapped fully if Massachusetts is to achieve its economic, civic, and social potential.


Commonwealth Compact: Merrimac Valley Collaborative, Robert Turner, Georgianna Meléndez Apr 2012

Commonwealth Compact: Merrimac Valley Collaborative, Robert Turner, Georgianna Meléndez

Office of Community Partnerships Posters

Commonwealth Compact seeks to establish Massachusetts as a uniquely inclusive, honest, and supportive community of—and for—diverse people. The objectives of this program include acknowledging our mixed history in this effort, face squarely the challenges that still need to be overcome and understand that the rich promise of the region's growing diversity must be tapped fully if Massachusetts is to achieve its economic, civic, and social potential.


Commonwealth Compact Talent Network: A Resource For And About Talented Professionals Of Color In Massachusetts, Robert Turner, Georgianna Meléndez Apr 2012

Commonwealth Compact Talent Network: A Resource For And About Talented Professionals Of Color In Massachusetts, Robert Turner, Georgianna Meléndez

Office of Community Partnerships Posters

Commonwealth Compact seeks to establish Massachusetts as a uniquely inclusive, honest, and supportive community of—and for—diverse people. To acknowledge our mixed history in this effort, and to face squarely the challenges that still need to be overcome, understanding that the rich promise of the region’s growing diversity must be tapped fully, if Massachusetts is to achieve its economic, civic, and social potential.


Film And Television Production In Massachusetts: The Beginning Of Hollywood East?, Pacey C. Foster, David Terkla Dec 2011

Film And Television Production In Massachusetts: The Beginning Of Hollywood East?, Pacey C. Foster, David Terkla

David G. Terkla

After declining in the 1990s (laubacher, 2006), the Massachusetts film and television industry reached a nadir with the closing of the Massachusetts film office in 2002. To revitalize this once-thriving local creative industry, in 2005 the state legislature passed a tax incentive plan that provided a bankable tax credit for qualifying motion picture and television productions in Massachusetts. As updated in 2007, the Massachusetts film tax credit (FTC) provides a refundable/transferrable tax credit for 25% of qualifying wage and non-wage production expenses and a sales tax exemption for qualifying in-state spending. Massachusetts joined, at the maximum, 43 other states ...


The Rise Of Asian-Owned Businesses In Massachusetts: Data From The 2002 Economic Census Survey Of Business Owners, Michael Liu, Paul Watanabe Oct 2011

The Rise Of Asian-Owned Businesses In Massachusetts: Data From The 2002 Economic Census Survey Of Business Owners, Michael Liu, Paul Watanabe

Paul Watanabe

Asian-owned businesses are following a very rapid growth trajectory in Massachusetts. In fact, Asian-owned firms increased by 44 percent in Massachusetts from 1997 to 2002. This growth is nearly double the national gain of 24 percent for all Asian-owned firms in the United States. Moreover, during the same time period, the number of all firms in the state expanded by only five percent. Similar comparisons can be made when looking at sales and receipts and number of paid employees. From 1997-2002, Asian-owned businesses in Massachusetts experienced an increase in sales and receipts of 20 percent. This was over three times ...


Film And Television Production In Massachusetts: The Beginning Of Hollywood East?, Pacey C. Foster, David Terkla Jan 2011

Film And Television Production In Massachusetts: The Beginning Of Hollywood East?, Pacey C. Foster, David Terkla

Economics Faculty Publication Series

After declining in the 1990s (laubacher, 2006), the Massachusetts film and television industry reached a nadir with the closing of the Massachusetts film office in 2002. To revitalize this once-thriving local creative industry, in 2005 the state legislature passed a tax incentive plan that provided a bankable tax credit for qualifying motion picture and television productions in Massachusetts. As updated in 2007, the Massachusetts film tax credit (FTC) provides a refundable/transferrable tax credit for 25% of qualifying wage and non-wage production expenses and a sales tax exemption for qualifying in-state spending. Massachusetts joined, at the maximum, 43 other states ...


Analysis Of The Administration Of Human Resources: Prepared For The Ipswich Town-School Coordination Committee, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston Oct 2010

Analysis Of The Administration Of Human Resources: Prepared For The Ipswich Town-School Coordination Committee, Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center For Public Management, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Edward J. Collins Center for Public Management Publications

The Town of Ipswich, acting for its Town-School Coordination Committee, contracted with the Edward J. Collins, Jr. Center for Public Management at the University of Massachusetts Boston to undertake a review of the Human Resources (HR) management, Recreation Department programming, and the Information Technology needs of the Town and School Department. The review was undertaken to assess how collaborative approaches might enhance the effectiveness of each of these municipal functions. The Collins Center has published a report on each of these topics. The overall Project Manager was Senior Associate Richard Kobayashi. The HR report was prepared by Collins Center Associate ...


The Utility Of Trouble: Leveling The Playing Field: Giving Municipal Officials The Tools To Moderate Health Insurance Costs, Robert L. Carey Feb 2010

The Utility Of Trouble: Leveling The Playing Field: Giving Municipal Officials The Tools To Moderate Health Insurance Costs, Robert L. Carey

Edward J. Collins Center for Public Management Publications

According to the research, Boston could have reduced its 2010 health premiums by between 15.6 and 17.1 percent, for a savings of between $41.4 and $45.4 million by joining the state’s Group Insurance Commission, more widely known as the GIC. The City is unable to join the GIC, however, without first receiving 70% union approval, according to state law. This requirement and the associated tradeoffs involved are a major barrier to municipal participation in the GIC. Several cities and towns including Boston have called for cities and towns to have the same ability as the ...


Changing Patterns Xvi: Mortgage Lending To Traditionally Underseved Borrowers & Neighborhoods In Boston, Greater Boston And Massachusetts, 2008, Jim Campen Jan 2010

Changing Patterns Xvi: Mortgage Lending To Traditionally Underseved Borrowers & Neighborhoods In Boston, Greater Boston And Massachusetts, 2008, Jim Campen

Gastón Institute Publications

This is the sixteenth in the annual series of Changing Patterns reports prepared for the Massachusetts Community & Banking Council (MCBC) by the present author. The series is aptly named: mortgage lending since 1990 has indeed been characterized by “changing patterns.” In recent years, the major focus of the series shifted from concern for fair access to credit for traditionally underserved borrowers and neighborhoods to concern for access to fair credit for these same borrowers and neighborhoods. This reflects the extent to which the problem of redlining had become overshadowed by the problem of reverse redlining, whereby areas that previously had difficulty getting any mortgage loans at all became specifically targeted for higher-cost mortgage loans.

This year’s report offers information on patterns of mortgage lending during 2008, a year when there was very little subprime lending. While the limited subprime lending that remains continues to show substantial racial and ethnic disparities, this most recently changed pattern shifts attention back toward the original problem of fair access to good loans for traditionally underserved borrowers and neighborhoods.

The report presents information for the city of Boston, for Greater Boston, and for Massachusetts, as well as for each of the state’s fourteen counties and each of its thirty-three largest cities and towns. The primary data source is federal Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data for 2008, supplemented by data on population and income from the U.S. Census Bureau and annual data on metropolitan area income levels from the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The report is restricted to first-lien loans for owner-occupied homes. It gives particular attention to higher-cost loans, identified in HMDA data as having annual percentage rates (APRs) at least three percentage points higher than the current interest rate on long-term U.S. Treasury bonds; these loans are referred to in this report as high-APR loans, or HALs.


Capital Mobility And Job Loss: Corporate Restructuring, Production Shifts, And Outsourcing, Stephanie Luce, Kate Bronfenbrenner Oct 2009

Capital Mobility And Job Loss: Corporate Restructuring, Production Shifts, And Outsourcing, Stephanie Luce, Kate Bronfenbrenner

Kate Bronfenbrenner

[Excerpt] This chapter examines the impact of corporate restructuring and global outsourcing on employment in the Commonwealth and the shifts in production from workplaces in Massachusetts to other countries. In particular we focus on global outsourcing, the shifting of work from Massachusetts offshore to countries in Europe and Asia, and nearshore to Canada and countries in Latin America. Given the huge media attention that outsourcing and nearshoring have garnered, and the increasing trend they represent toward corporate restructuring and capital mobility with lasting repercussions for workers, families, unions, and communities in the Commonwealth, it is important to assess their relative ...


Green Pond Harbor Management Plan (Draft), Urban Harbors Institute, University Of Massachusetts Boston Jul 2009

Green Pond Harbor Management Plan (Draft), Urban Harbors Institute, University Of Massachusetts Boston

Urban Harbors Institute Publications

Green Pond is one of a number of coastal ponds in Falmouth. It covers over 135 acres and is an important natural and recreational resource for the people of Falmouth and visitors. Most of the area around the pond is private residential property interspersed with a few commercial businesses and open space. As with other areas of Massachusetts, the tidelands around the pond fall within the jurisdiction of Chapter 91 (the Massachusetts Public Waterfront Act). Through Chapter 91, the Commonwealth seeks to preserve and protect the rights of the public, and to guarantee that private uses of tidelands and waterways ...


Controlling The Cost Of Municipal Health Insurance: Lessons From Springfield, Robert L. Carey May 2009

Controlling The Cost Of Municipal Health Insurance: Lessons From Springfield, Robert L. Carey

Edward J. Collins Center for Public Management Publications

The study finds that, by joining the Group Insurance Commission (GIC), Springfield cut increases in its health care costs an estimated $14 million to $18 million over two years. It saved an additional $5 million per year by requiring eligible municipal retirees to enroll in Medicare Part B as a precondition of receiving supplemental health coverage from the City. These two actions, together, reduced increases in the City’s health care costs an estimated 15-19% annually, on average, with savings growth each year due to compounding. Furthermore, the study estimates that if the GIC continues its past pattern of keeping ...