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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Physiology Of Social-Emotional Learning: Integrating Biomarkers Of Self-Regulation Into The Assessment And Implementation Of Programs, Martin E. Blank Oct 2019

The Physiology Of Social-Emotional Learning: Integrating Biomarkers Of Self-Regulation Into The Assessment And Implementation Of Programs, Martin E. Blank

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

In the last two decades, formalized social-emotional learning (SEL) programs in schools have proliferated in response to a staggering increase in mental, social, and emotional challenges for youth. SEL programs differ in their theoretical foundations, though there are commonalities among them. Self-regulation (SR) surfaces as an important pillar. Researchers have relied mostly on self-reporting and teacher questionnaires to measure the effectiveness of these programs to improve SR and other aspects of youth well-being, without explicitly considering the physiological effects of these interventions on the biomarkers of youth. By addressing this gap, program researchers, developers, and educators can reach their stated ...


Shift In The Suburbs: An Analysis Of Changing Vote Patterns In American Suburbs, 2000-2018, Jack D. Weisman Mar 2019

Shift In The Suburbs: An Analysis Of Changing Vote Patterns In American Suburbs, 2000-2018, Jack D. Weisman

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In the 2016 Presidential Election, the movement of well-off, highly-educated suburbs towards the Democratic Party was one of the most significant yet undercovered stories. In this paper, I analyze the political changes in suburbs around five major cities (Boston, Charleston (SC), Cleveland, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis) both in 2016 and in elections dating back to 2000. I find that between 2000 and 2014, municipalities close to core cities with high percentages of college graduates became slightly but significantly more Democratic, with much of this movement taking place around 2004 and 2006. Comparing 2016 to previous elections, I find that proximity ...


Family Legacies: Social Origins, Social Mobility, And Educational Outcomes In Immigrant And Native Families, Phoebe Ho Jan 2019

Family Legacies: Social Origins, Social Mobility, And Educational Outcomes In Immigrant And Native Families, Phoebe Ho

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

While it is widely accepted that parental education is associated with children’s educational outcomes, a resurgence of research on the persistence of inequalities across multiple generations and contexts underscores the need for a fuller understanding of family legacies. Growing evidence suggests that grandparental education and parental social origins are important sources of inequalities that have been overlooked. Though the intergenerational literature has shown weaker associations between family background and student outcomes in racial minority and immigrant families, little research has examined whether these findings hold when taking into account a more comprehensive view of family background. This research takes ...


Entrepreneurship In The Republic Of Moldova. Challenges And Recommendations., Cristina Pogorevici Jan 2019

Entrepreneurship In The Republic Of Moldova. Challenges And Recommendations., Cristina Pogorevici

Social Impact Research Experience (SIRE)

This paper aims to analyze the challenges of entrepreneurship in the Republic of Moldova, including the special regions of Transnistria and Gagauzia. The main methodology of data collection used throughout this paper is qualitative semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs, legislators, foundations, and investors in the various fields. Where relevant, data from the neighboring countries Romania and Ukraine will be used. Additionally, the research is supported by data, literature reviews and academic papers that provide a more macro-level perspective about the economic situation of Moldova.

The research is based on the hypothesis that Moldova’s human development index (HDI) could in fact ...


Unintended Consequences In Higher Education Finance Policy: Implications For Current Income-Share Agreement Legislative Efforts And Beyond, Patrick A. Zancolli Mar 2018

Unintended Consequences In Higher Education Finance Policy: Implications For Current Income-Share Agreement Legislative Efforts And Beyond, Patrick A. Zancolli

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Although the creation of a federal financial aid system in the United States has greatly expanded opportunity for students seeking postsecondary education, the higher education financing system faces a handful of problems in its current state. At the same time that the higher education financing system is facing these issues, an alternative to traditional student loans known as income-share agreements (ISAs) is gaining attention. There is currently a lack of federal legislation that provides a national framework for ISA providers and students to work within. Policymakers are considering this situation and attempting to address it in a way that properly ...


Three Essays On Family, Gender, And Educational Change Across Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Luca Maria Pesando Jan 2018

Three Essays On Family, Gender, And Educational Change Across Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Luca Maria Pesando

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Over the past half century, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have undergone profound transformations in the realm of the family, accompanied by shifts in gender norms and practices, and dramatic increases in schooling. Rising educational attainment has in turn been a by-product of micro-level behavioral changes on the part of families, alongside macro-level socio-structural factors such as industrialization, urbanization, and targeted educational policies. This dissertation advances the field of social demography by exploring the interrelations between family, gender, and educational dynamics across LMICs. Although the three essays represent self-contained articles, they all trace linkages between these three dimensions with a ...


Intentions Lost In Translation: An Ethnographic Examination Of Recognition Of Adolescent Cultural Capital, Rita Harvey Jan 2018

Intentions Lost In Translation: An Ethnographic Examination Of Recognition Of Adolescent Cultural Capital, Rita Harvey

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Cultural capital is largely conceptualized as high-status (or “dominant”) knowledge and practices that yield a return or benefit for those who enact these forms of capital. Literature in this field has produced a rich understanding of how cultural capital is transferred from one generation to the next, yet there is little understanding of the micro-interactions in which gatekeepers recognize and acknowledge these forms of cultural capital. This dissertation project aims to deepen our understanding of cultural capital through an investigation of the micro-interactional moments in which gatekeepers “read” adolescent cultural capital “bids”. Situated in the context of the educational experiences ...


Before Black Boys Are Criminalized?: Race, Boyhood, And School Discipline In Early Childhood, Calvin Rashaud Zimmermann Jan 2018

Before Black Boys Are Criminalized?: Race, Boyhood, And School Discipline In Early Childhood, Calvin Rashaud Zimmermann

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The image of the “criminal” black male is one that shapes the social experiences of black males in U.S. society. The racialized and gendered representation of black males as criminal, primarily through the depiction of the “thug,” functions to justify various forms of social marginalization including disproportionate school suspension, mass incarceration, and even death. Research and policy often describe the source of these problems as a product of black males’ culturally deviant behaviors, and thus, minimize the role of race and racism in producing these outcomes. Thus, social and educational discourse frequently depict black males as the source of ...


The Impact Of Extended Reproductive Time Horizons: Evidence From Israel's Expansion Of Access To Ivf, Naomi Gershoni, Corinne Low Dec 2017

The Impact Of Extended Reproductive Time Horizons: Evidence From Israel's Expansion Of Access To Ivf, Naomi Gershoni, Corinne Low

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Women’s time-limited fertility window, compared to men’s longer period of fecundity, could be a key constraint shaping the gender gap in career choices and hence outcomes. Israel’s 1994 policy change to make in vitro fertilization free provides a natural experiment for how fertility time horizons impact women’s investment choices. We find that following the policy change women marry later, complete more college education, achieve more post-college education, and have better labor market outcomes. Additionally, we find the “penalty” in spousal quality for women who get married after thirty substantially dissipates. This suggests that persistent labor market ...


Teacher Attitudes Towards Performance-Based Compensation Reform: A Case Study Of The Aldine School District, Natalie Gould Nov 2017

Teacher Attitudes Towards Performance-Based Compensation Reform: A Case Study Of The Aldine School District, Natalie Gould

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


What Does It Mean To Become An Adult?: When Everyone Else Goes To College: The Work-Bound Youth In Korea, Hyejeong Jo Oct 2017

What Does It Mean To Become An Adult?: When Everyone Else Goes To College: The Work-Bound Youth In Korea, Hyejeong Jo

Korean Millennials Research Briefs

No abstract provided.


Multi-Method Evaluation Of A Point-Of-Use Water Filtration And Education Program In Rural Guatemala, Caroline Vines Oct 2017

Multi-Method Evaluation Of A Point-Of-Use Water Filtration And Education Program In Rural Guatemala, Caroline Vines

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

No abstract provided.


Health And Hygiene School Program Initiative For Adolescents In Dhaka, Bangladesh, Iris Van Werven Oct 2017

Health And Hygiene School Program Initiative For Adolescents In Dhaka, Bangladesh, Iris Van Werven

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The level of knowledge on personal health and hygiene within the Bangladeshi society is limited. Poor hygiene and health practices restricts the socioeconomic, psycho logical and health well being of adolescents, especially girls. This case-study focuses on a health and hygiene school program initiative from two train­ers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. To create a comprehensive overview of the methods and activities of the trainers, interviews were conduct ­ ed with the trainers, materials and reports were reviewed, and one school was visited. The trainers organized interactive and participa­tory classroom sessions, providing adolescents with information ranging from basic hygiene to the ...


Saving The World The Right Way: Altruistic Education, Supakorn Laohasongkram Aug 2017

Saving The World The Right Way: Altruistic Education, Supakorn Laohasongkram

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Intelligence and passion are not enough for humans to become all that they can be. Hitler and the Nazis too had a lot of intelligence and passion. But what they did not have is the wisdom of how to use their intelligence and passion for the good of mankind. Nevertheless, the question of developing how we, humans, ought to use our intelligence and passion is often neglected in modernity when compared with the obsession we have of increasing our grit and wit. This obsession reflects the current state of education whereby the function of education today is often cheapened to ...


The Contribution Of Differences In Adiposity To Educational Disparities In Mortality In The United States, Yana Vierboom Jun 2017

The Contribution Of Differences In Adiposity To Educational Disparities In Mortality In The United States, Yana Vierboom

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Background: There are large differences in life expectancy by educational attainment in the United States. Previous research has found obesity’s contribution to these differences to be small. Those findings may be sensitive to how obesity is estimated. Methods: This analysis uses discrete time logistic regressions with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), pooled from 1988-1994 and 1999-2010, to estimate the contribution of differences in adiposity, or body fat, to educational differences in mortality. I show that results depend upon the measure of adiposity used: body mass index (BMI) at survey or lifetime maximum BMI. Results ...


Living And Teaching Well-Being: An Application Plan For A Professional Certificate In Applied Positive Education At The Shawnee Institute, Carolyn Gray, Henry Narwhal, Rosie Jaye, Supakorn Laohasongkram May 2017

Living And Teaching Well-Being: An Application Plan For A Professional Certificate In Applied Positive Education At The Shawnee Institute, Carolyn Gray, Henry Narwhal, Rosie Jaye, Supakorn Laohasongkram

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

Modern education is largely focused on academic achievement, yet recent research has called into question whether academic learning is enough to foster and support mental and physical health across the lifespan. Mounting interest in more well-balanced educational approaches that integrate academic learning and character education have inspired the emergence of a new field called positive education. Despite a growing demand, comprehensive training in positive education remains limited. The Shawnee Institute, a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of positive education, aims to fill this void by launching a professional certificate in applied positive education. The following paper presents a tailored ...


Building Resilience In Mba Students: Bouncing Back And Forward Through Challenges, Denitsa Marinova Jan 2017

Building Resilience In Mba Students: Bouncing Back And Forward Through Challenges, Denitsa Marinova

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The raison d'être for MBA programs is to prepare students to lead and manage effectively in the real world. An overview of the unique challenges awaiting MBAs, however, reveals a blind spot in business education: It doesn’t necessarily prepare MBA students to operate effectively in the VUCA (volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous) world of today. This paper suggests that resilience training can help fill the void by enhancing the capacity of MBAs to bounce back and forward through and despite adversity. The objective of the paper is to propose a conceptual design of an evidence-based, relevant, and applicable ...


In The Eye Of The Selector: Ancient-Style Prose Anthologies In Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) China, Timothy Robert Clifford Jan 2017

In The Eye Of The Selector: Ancient-Style Prose Anthologies In Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) China, Timothy Robert Clifford

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The rapid growth of woodblock printing in sixteenth-century China not only transformed wenzhang (“literature”) as a category of knowledge, it also transformed the communities in which knowledge of wenzhang circulated. Twentieth-century scholarship described this event as an expansion of the non-elite reading public coinciding with the ascent of vernacular fiction and performance literature over stagnant classical forms. Because this narrative was designed to serve as a native genealogy for the New Literature Movement, it overlooked the crucial role of guwen (“ancient-style prose,” a term which denoted the everyday style of classical prose used in both preparing for the civil service ...


Diverging Paths: Three Essays On The Transitions Of Working-Class Young People In South Korea, Hyejeong Jo Jan 2017

Diverging Paths: Three Essays On The Transitions Of Working-Class Young People In South Korea, Hyejeong Jo

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Despite the egalitarian ideal of “college-for-all,” research shows that working-class young people remain disadvantaged in the transition to college and work. However, while some experience upward mobility, most go to work. Yet, scholars have paid scant attention to these variant pathways to adulthood within the working-class young individuals. Particularly, they have not fully recognized varying roles that teachers play in the transition of working-class students to college and work. Moreover, working-class young people’s understanding of the transition to adulthood has been discussed only insufficiently in the literature. Therefore, this dissertation, consist of three independent but complementary essays, investigates various ...


Due Distinction: Elite Student Status Hierarchies In China, Yi-Lin Chiang Jan 2017

Due Distinction: Elite Student Status Hierarchies In China, Yi-Lin Chiang

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

How do students sort each other into different status groups in school? Research primarily conducted in the United States conceptualizes student status hierarchies as multidimensional systems. Scholars portray multidimensional status systems as exclusionary, constructed by and in the best interests of high status students, and disconnected from adult society. However, these theories are less useful for understanding a unidimensional status hierarchy that determines student status based on a single dimension. This study challenges several assumptions based on multidimensional status hierarchies about status hierarchies by providing insights into how unidimensional status hierarchies are constructed, maintained, and justified. Data for this study ...


Channeling The River: Using Positive Psychology To Prevent Cultural Helplessness, As Applied To African-American Law Students, Dwayne Allen Thomas Aug 2016

Channeling The River: Using Positive Psychology To Prevent Cultural Helplessness, As Applied To African-American Law Students, Dwayne Allen Thomas

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Helplessness deficits are characterized by an organism’s failure to escape escapable situations after exposure to aversive stimuli. It has recently been learned that helplessness is the mammalian default protective response, and that it is subdued as mammals learn to control their environment. Human helplessness responses are mediated by our ability to think; explanations for adverse stimuli that tend toward the individual’s inability to control a stimulus can cause a person to exhibit helplessness deficits. This paper proposes a theory of cultural helplessness, positing that information and beliefs spread through cultural transmission can provide individuals with automatic explanations, which ...


Teaching Well-Being Increases Academic Performance: Evidence From Bhutan, Mexico, And Peru, Alejandro Adler Jan 2016

Teaching Well-Being Increases Academic Performance: Evidence From Bhutan, Mexico, And Peru, Alejandro Adler

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Can well-being be taught at a large scale, and should it be taught in schools? Does teaching well-being improve academic performance? In Study 1, 18 secondary schools (n=8,385 students) in Bhutan were randomly assigned to a treatment group (k=11) or a control group (k=7). The treatment schools received an intervention targeting ten non-academic well-being skills. Study 2 was a replication study at a larger scale in 70 secondary schools (m = 68,762 students) in Mexico. The schools were randomly assigned to a treatment group (j = 35) or a control group (j = 35). Study 3 was the ...


Supply-Side Education: Race, Inequality, And The Rise Of The Punitive Education State, Daniel Stephen Moak Jan 2016

Supply-Side Education: Race, Inequality, And The Rise Of The Punitive Education State, Daniel Stephen Moak

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The 1930s were dominated by an understanding that unemployment and inequality were primarily the result of structural failures of the market economy. However, the unraveling of New Deal liberalism throughout the 1940s and 1950s shifted ideological understandings of problems like unemployment, poverty and racial inequality to explanations focused on individual deficiencies. This development had dramatic consequences for federal education policy. Buttressed by a coalition of civil rights groups and educational organizations pushing for federal involvement in education, Democratic policymakers turned towards education as a cheaper and more effective replacement to earlier redistributive taxation and full employment policies. The success of ...


The Role Of Higher Education In Linguistic Change, Hilary Prichard Jan 2016

The Role Of Higher Education In Linguistic Change, Hilary Prichard

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation examines the interaction between a social variable, higher education, and the linguistic variables which constitute local dialects. It draws on literature in both sociolinguistics and the sociology of education to propose a reformulation of the education variable which recognizes the ways in which the social meaning of education has changed over time. Two case studies are presented which examine the effect this new education variable has in ongoing local sound changes. The first uses data from the Philadelphia Neighborhood Corpus to study the extent to which Philadelphians with differing educational backgrounds have maintained local dialect features over the ...


Vulnerability, Trust And The Accompaniment Of Educational Development In Nicaragua, Matthew James Tarditi Jan 2016

Vulnerability, Trust And The Accompaniment Of Educational Development In Nicaragua, Matthew James Tarditi

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Asymmetrical power relations, imposition and hierarchy characterize much of the field of development. Design and decisions are often dominated by the few as programs determine what is best for the local communities they seek to assist (Cooke & Kothari, 2001). The multiply wounded nation of Nicaragua is no exception to the norm, and the country has a long history of outside intervention by non-governmental and governmental organizations seeking to distribute materials or empower communities. Originally founded through a partnership between the University of Pennsylvania's Graduate School of Education and a Nicaragua Corporate Social Responsibility Division, the Digital Seeds Program strives ...


The Effects Of An Ngo Development Project On The Rural Community Of Tarkwa Bremen In Western Ghana, Richard Stack Jan 2016

The Effects Of An Ngo Development Project On The Rural Community Of Tarkwa Bremen In Western Ghana, Richard Stack

Social Impact Research Experience (SIRE)

Very little research exists on the effects of NGO development projects on small African communities, as organisations often do not perform the basic research necessary at the beginning of a project to assess their effectiveness over time. This paper’s purpose is to provide a baseline of economic conditions and cultural practices within the community of Tarkwa Breman, a village in Western Ghana, prior to the initiation of a development project by the Tarkwa Breman Community Alliance (TBCA) to allow future research to examine its effectiveness and comment on the likelihood of the project being successfully self-funded. Given TBCA’s ...


Heralds Of Duty: The Sephardic Italian Jewish Theological Seminary Of Sabato Morais, Arthur Kiron May 2015

Heralds Of Duty: The Sephardic Italian Jewish Theological Seminary Of Sabato Morais, Arthur Kiron

Scholarship at Penn Libraries

The institutional history of the Jewish Theological Seminary has mostly been told in relation to the emergence of the Conservative movement of Judaism in the United States and in relation to the Jüdisch-Theologisches Seminar after which it was named, founded by Zecharias Frankel in 1854. The biography and religious outlook of the first president of the Jewish Theological Seminary, a Sephardic Italian Jew named Sabato Morais (1823-1897), are mined as sources for exploring an alternative account. This essay argues for ideological and institutional discontinuity between the Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS), founded in 1886 and the re-organized seminary incorporated under the ...


Neither Here Nor There: Education, Citizenship, And The Failed Integration Of North Korean Defectors In South Korea, Joyce J. Kim Mar 2015

Neither Here Nor There: Education, Citizenship, And The Failed Integration Of North Korean Defectors In South Korea, Joyce J. Kim

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Despite sharing a cultural and historical background with South Koreans, North Korean defectors have difficulty integrating within South Korean society. This paper seeks to address the factors in South Korean society that make integration difficult for defectors. Specifically, what is the relationship between education and the formation of values and attitudes of South Koreans towards North Korean defectors?

This study argues that North Korean defectors cannot successfully integrate into South Korean society because 1) South Korean cultural attitudes embrace the hanminjok ideology that makes it difficult for defectors to acquire cultural citizenship and 2) the South Korean social- efficiency education ...


Development, Value, And Education In India's Digital Age, Arjun Shankar Jan 2015

Development, Value, And Education In India's Digital Age, Arjun Shankar

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This ethnography is an attempt to show the particular relationships between globalization, development, digitality, and urban-rural change as they are re-articulated in the actions and interactions between several groups – NGO personnel, teachers, students – living, working, and studying within educational spaces in South Karnataka, in regions in and around Bangalore city. My intervention, to put it simply, is to show how the condition of development in India, and specifically education-as-development, has changed in the contemporary global digital moment, and I identify the new concerns of each of these groups – how they sought to develop themselves and Others – in the wake of ...


Black Semiosis: Young Liberian Transnationals Mediating Black Subjectivity And Black Heterogeneity, Krystal A. Smalls Jan 2015

Black Semiosis: Young Liberian Transnationals Mediating Black Subjectivity And Black Heterogeneity, Krystal A. Smalls

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

From the colonization of the “Dark Continent,” to the global industry that turned black bodies into chattel, to the total absence of modern Africa from most American public school curricula, to superfluous representations of African primitivity in mainstream media, to the unflinching state-sanctioned murders of unarmed black people in the Americas, antiblackness and anti-black racism have been part and parcel to modernity, swathing centuries and continents, and seeping into the tiny spaces and moments that constitute social reality for most black-identified human beings. The daily living and theorizing of a small group of twenty-something young people from Liberia provide the ...