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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Transforming Through Power: Teachers And The Negotiation Of Authority In Schools, Madhu Narayanan Sep 2019

Transforming Through Power: Teachers And The Negotiation Of Authority In Schools, Madhu Narayanan

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Schools are unique institutions where structural and cultural dynamics shape the actions of humans. Teachers work within structures of power to establish themselves as legitimate figures of authority worthy of the right to command respect. Such efforts are complicated by the multi-faceted and swirling relationships of power that exist everywhere in schools, defining and guiding individuals. In this study, I interview and observe the practice of seven secondary teachers working in New York City public schools. All in their third year of teaching, they were at an interesting time in their development, not novice teachers and not quite veteran. Using ...


Class Matters: School Affluence And Other Predictors Of Attainment For Wealthy And Poor Students, Alison Brockhouse Sep 2019

Class Matters: School Affluence And Other Predictors Of Attainment For Wealthy And Poor Students, Alison Brockhouse

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Public schools in the United States are becoming increasingly segregated by socioeconomic status. Though the educational consequences of socioeconomic segregation are well researched, segregation is often ignored or exacerbated by education reform. To learn more about the wider implications of socioeconomic segregation, this study utilizes theoretical frameworks derived from Max Weber’s theory of social stratification to analyze over 10,000 students’ experiences from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Education Longitudinal Study (ELS) 2002, 2004, and 2012 waves of data collection. More specifically, this research explores the impact of attending an affluent high school on long-term educational attainment ...


Cs + Sociology: Using Big Data To Identify And Understand Educational Inequality In America ( 2), Joseph Cleary, Elin Waring Jun 2019

Cs + Sociology: Using Big Data To Identify And Understand Educational Inequality In America ( 2), Joseph Cleary, Elin Waring

Open Educational Resources

This lesson is connected to but can be used independently of "Using Big Data to Identify and Understand Educational Inequality in America (1)"

Students will develop CS skills and behaviors including but not limited to: learning what an API is, learning how to access and utilize data on an API, and developing their R coding skills and knowledge. Students will also learn basic, but important, sociological principles such as how poverty is related to educational opportunities in America (and how this relationship varies between and among states). Although prior knowledge of CS and sociology is helpful, neither is necessary for ...


Cs + Sociology: Using Big Data To Identify And Understand Educational Inequality In America (1), Joseph Cleary, Elin Waring Jun 2019

Cs + Sociology: Using Big Data To Identify And Understand Educational Inequality In America (1), Joseph Cleary, Elin Waring

Open Educational Resources

This is the first of two lessons/labs for teaching and learning of computer science and sociology. Either and be used on their own or they can be used in sequence, in which case this should be used first.

Students will develop CS skills and behaviors including but not limited to: learning what an API is, learning how to access and utilize data on an API, and developing their R coding skills and knowledge. Students will also learn basic, but important, sociological principles such as how poverty is related to educational opportunities in America. Although prior knowledge of CS and ...


The Influences Of Education, Antisocial Behavior, And Involvement In The Criminal Justice System On Adult Legal Understanding, Lily Alpers, Mark Fondacaro May 2019

The Influences Of Education, Antisocial Behavior, And Involvement In The Criminal Justice System On Adult Legal Understanding, Lily Alpers, Mark Fondacaro

Student Theses

The current study examined the legal understanding and decision-making capacities of young adults compared to older adults. Furthermore, the current study examined these two age groups on the basis of a history of criminal justice involvement, antisocial behavior, and education level, in order to determine whether these variables also affect legal understanding and decision-making. One hundred and one subjects participated in this study, grouped by age into younger adults (18-34 years old) and older adults (35 years and older). The results of the current study found that participants with the lowest levels of education performed more poorly on the measure ...


Adults Formerly In Foster Care Narrate Schooling Experiences, Danielle Walker May 2019

Adults Formerly In Foster Care Narrate Schooling Experiences, Danielle Walker

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Roughly 400,000 children are in foster care in the United States (Lash, 2017, p. 5). These youth are less likely to graduate high school than their non-foster peers (Barnow et al., 2015). While several barriers contribute to the poor educational outcomes for children in foster care, research has noted that the label “foster child” is associated with negative connotations and differential teacher treatment (Altshuler, 2003; Finkelstein, Wamsley, & Miranda, 2002). In spite of such observations, little research has emphasized the perspectives of those in foster care. To fill this gap, this qualitative study posed the following question: How do adults ...


The Equal Right To Sing: The American Zeitgeist And Its Implications For Music Education, Youngeun Kim Feb 2019

The Equal Right To Sing: The American Zeitgeist And Its Implications For Music Education, Youngeun Kim

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

According to music educators and proponents of arts education, music education in U.S. public schools seems to be in jeopardy. This thesis brings attention to several issues in current music education. It is a case study of music education in New York City public elementary schools. First, it shows that music education is not equally distributed to all students in the public-school system and is especially unequal among elementary schools. Next, it investigates possible causes for this inequality, from the current system’s limitations to more fundamental causes including the cultural perception of music among the U.S. public ...


Finding The Public: Models Of Interaction Between Curatorial And Education Departments In Three American Encyclopedic Museums, Liam Sweeney Feb 2019

Finding The Public: Models Of Interaction Between Curatorial And Education Departments In Three American Encyclopedic Museums, Liam Sweeney

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Curatorial and education departments have coexisted for the last half century in American art museums, and have often had differing attitudes about who the museum is for and how best to convey the current and historical meaning of the works they display. This results from trends and transformations in the field, which have recently yielded an increased attention on broadening the definition of the public that the museum serves. This thesis examines interactions between curatorial and education departments in three encyclopedic art museums across the United States, in order to better understand how meaningful collaboration can be fostered between these ...


Kinder Carnage, Talib Visram Dec 2018

Kinder Carnage, Talib Visram

Capstones

In the wake of school shootings, including Parkland, states and school districts have scrambled to protect against threats. But faced with no federal focus on gun control and little funding, schools have to make tough safety choices. Some have adopted novelty security gadgets; others have discussed arming teachers and even giving children tools to defend themselves. To some, this is the ideal solution; the answer to violence is more violence. And so, some schools are starting to resemble military camps. With reporting from a security conference in Florida, and a military camp for kids in Kentucky, this story takes a ...


Educational Attainment Of Immigrant Students In The United States: Generational Struggle Towards Success, Robin Das Sep 2018

Educational Attainment Of Immigrant Students In The United States: Generational Struggle Towards Success, Robin Das

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Known as the land of opportunities, United States has always been a key attraction to outside world as the place where people can live up to their potential dreams. People migrate from far lands to settle down and find the missing link that was absent in their native country. Among numerous reasons, financial inefficiency and social and political insecurity at homeland, new immigration policies in the US, expectation of a better socio-economic lifestyle and a secure and prosperous future for their children are some key reasons why immigrants move out of their motherland and travel to America. They hope and ...


Translating Research As An Approach To Enhance Science Engagement, Michelle T. Juarez, Chloe M. Kenet Aug 2018

Translating Research As An Approach To Enhance Science Engagement, Michelle T. Juarez, Chloe M. Kenet

Publications and Research

The impact of research depends on the effective communication of discoveries. Scientific writing is the primary tool for the dissemination of research, and is an important skill that biomedical trainees have to develop. Despite its importance, scientific writing is not part of the mainstream curriculum. One strategy used to teach scientific writing is holding a journal club style discussion of primary research literature that the students are asked to read. However, this activity can result in a passive learning experience and limit the development of trainees’ scientific writing skills. In order to improve trainees’ written communication skills, we tested an ...


Do Homebuyers Care About Good Grades? Evaluating The Effect Of Nyc School Accountability Program On Housing Values, John I. Campagna May 2018

Do Homebuyers Care About Good Grades? Evaluating The Effect Of Nyc School Accountability Program On Housing Values, John I. Campagna

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This paper looks at the effect of the New York City school accountability grades on the residential property market. Grades by themselves are found to have some effect on residential property market, but the inclusion of test scores along with grades diminishes the strength of their effect.


Education And Civil Conflict: The Negative Effects Of Intolerant Curricula In Kosovo, Pakistan, And Sudan, Nicholas A. Jaspers Jan 2018

Education And Civil Conflict: The Negative Effects Of Intolerant Curricula In Kosovo, Pakistan, And Sudan, Nicholas A. Jaspers

Dissertations and Theses

Education has long been used as a tool for national identity formation and social cohesion. However, in diverse communities across the globe, the question must be asked: are educational institutions creating citizens with a narrow view of “us vs. them” or an identity built on multiculturalism and acceptance? Through past research, it is obvious that education has either acted as an instigator or mitigator of civil conflict, though to what extent is still largely unknown. In this thesis, I argue that both the extent and quality of education in a country can instigate or, at least, exacerbate the outbreak of ...


Effectiveness Of Social Work Reentry Programs At Preventing Recidivism, Daniel C. Grijalva Dec 2017

Effectiveness Of Social Work Reentry Programs At Preventing Recidivism, Daniel C. Grijalva

Publications and Research

Each year in the United States, thousands of individuals are released from prisons and must reintegrate into society. Ensuring these individuals obtain adequate employment upon release is key to keeping them from returning to the penal system. This paper examines different social work programs that attempt to secure employment for ex-offenders. This paper reviews the obstacles these programs face and considers how social workers can improve the effectiveness of these programs at preventing recidivism. This paper acknowledges that some of these programs have achieved moderate success in preventing recidivism but recognizes the need to research current programs’ methodologies so that ...


Could Reducing Compulsory Years Of Schooling In A Developing Country Be Beneficial?, Dina Al Ajmi Aug 2017

Could Reducing Compulsory Years Of Schooling In A Developing Country Be Beneficial?, Dina Al Ajmi

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Towards the end of the 1980s Egypt introduced an educational policy aimed at reducing the years of compulsory primary schooling from six years to five years. This reduced the overall compulsory years of schooling from nine years to eight years. This paper will examine the educational and labor outcomes of this policy change differentiated by urban and rural areas using the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS) 2006 and 2012 rounds. Regressions estimated in this paper differentiated between the urban and rural populations. The results suggested that the effect on the rural community was much larger than the effect on ...


Diplomas Vs Incarceration: Does Intersectionality Affect Black Men And Women Differently?, Chelsie Burchett Jun 2017

Diplomas Vs Incarceration: Does Intersectionality Affect Black Men And Women Differently?, Chelsie Burchett

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Racial minorities are disproportionately imprisoned or sent to jail for reasons including racial profiling, unfair drug laws, and a biased judicial system. Black men are often subject to unwarranted searches and stop-and-frisks. These are meant to protect neighborhoods from criminal activity, when in fact they are often used to target people of color in destitute neighborhoods. Some scholars argue that a lot of differential treatment towards Black men stems from automatic thought processes, or implicit biases on the part of law enforcement officers. These are seen as unconscious and instilled by societal stigmas, rather than the result of careful deliberations ...


Culture And Class In Marginalized Minority Educational Attainment, Alan R. Takeall Jun 2017

Culture And Class In Marginalized Minority Educational Attainment, Alan R. Takeall

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Using a national sample of Black and Latino high school students, I ask: What is the relative impact of demographic factors, aspirations, adherence to an ideology of achievement, and sociocultural capital on future educational attainment? Additionally, how do poor students compare to their non-poor counterparts on these measures? Employing the Educational Longitudinal Study (2002 & 2012) and multivariate statistical techniques, this dissertation examines the role of cultural and other factors on the educational attainment of Black and Latino students and then explores the role of poverty on those outcomes.

In recent years educational reform efforts have placed considerable emphasis on reorienting ...


What Does Silence = Now? An Analysis Of Past And Present Discourse Surrounding Hiv/Aids, Emily A. Moner May 2017

What Does Silence = Now? An Analysis Of Past And Present Discourse Surrounding Hiv/Aids, Emily A. Moner

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This essay examines how the HIV/AIDS epidemic was first addressed in the context of politics, media and the general public and subsequently how that compares to the ways in which it’s currently being discussed using popular forms of communication such as Facebook, Twitter and other forms of social media.


How Does Child Participation In Early Head Start Programs Affect Their Mother’S Employment And Educational Attainment?, Pamela Barcelona May 2017

How Does Child Participation In Early Head Start Programs Affect Their Mother’S Employment And Educational Attainment?, Pamela Barcelona

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Early Head Start (EHS) was established in 1994 to provide assistance to families in need. Mothers receiving services are more likely to attend high school and job training than mothers who don't receive them. Mothers in EHS are also more likely to have part-time employment than mothers who are not.


Going Beyond The Existing Consensus: The Use Of Games In International Relations Education, Michael Lee, Zachary C. Shirkey Apr 2017

Going Beyond The Existing Consensus: The Use Of Games In International Relations Education, Michael Lee, Zachary C. Shirkey

Publications and Research

Despite the popularity of using games to teach international relations, few works directly assess their effectiveness. Furthermore, it is unclear if games help all students equally, or if certain students are more likely to benefit than others. Finally, how closely the game must mirror the concept being taught to be an effective pedagogical tool has received scant attention. We address these points by discussing the use of an updated version of the classic American election game, Consensus, to help illustrate the role of domestic political coalitions in an international political economy course. Assessing the performance of 39 students via a ...


The Technocratic Politics Of The Common Core State Standards In History, Kate Duguid Feb 2017

The Technocratic Politics Of The Common Core State Standards In History, Kate Duguid

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This paper shows that the explicit aims of the American educational standards for public schools, the Common Core State Standards to teach history to create “college and career ready” students, marks a shift from preparing students for political participation to preparing them for market participation. I trace the intellectual and pedagogical origins of the Common Core’s pretense of technocratic apolitical values back through the previous two major American curricular reform efforts. In the first section I discuss the origins and development of the National History Standards and show how Cold War anxiety prompted a shift in evaluating students as ...


The Cuny-Shanghai Library Faculty Exchange Program: Participants Remember, Reflect, And Reshape, Sheau-Yueh J. Chao, Beth Evans, Ryan Phillips, Mark Aaron Polger, Beth Posner, Ellen Sexton Jan 2017

The Cuny-Shanghai Library Faculty Exchange Program: Participants Remember, Reflect, And Reshape, Sheau-Yueh J. Chao, Beth Evans, Ryan Phillips, Mark Aaron Polger, Beth Posner, Ellen Sexton

Publications and Research

This chapter recounts the outcomes and experiences of six American librarians who participated in an international librarian exchange program that ran from spring 2010 through fall 2011. The exchange brought together the City University of New York (CUNY) and two universities in Shanghai, China: Shanghai University (SU) and Shanghai Normal University (SNU). The program was inspired, in part, by recognition of the diversity of CUNY’s student body and growing awareness of the increasing globalization of information and education. For the Chinese librarians, the exchange offered an opportunity to learn from the West and showcase their own innovations. The traveling ...


Flipping The Classroom In Business And Education One-Shot Sessions: A Research Study, Madeline Cohen, Jennifer Poggiali, Alison Lehner-Quam, Robin Wright, Rebecca K. West Dec 2016

Flipping The Classroom In Business And Education One-Shot Sessions: A Research Study, Madeline Cohen, Jennifer Poggiali, Alison Lehner-Quam, Robin Wright, Rebecca K. West

Publications and Research

In response to the challenge of maximising the effectiveness of one-shot information literacy (IL) sessions, library faculty at Lehman College experimented with the flipped classroom model. This research paper reports the results of a multi-semester quantitative study of the flipped classroom in business management and education one-shot sessions. Researchers explored two research questions: Do students in a flipped session demonstrate greater knowledge before their session than students in a control session? and Do flipped and control students demonstrate significant, positive improvement in knowledge after their session? The researchers used pre- and post-tests to evaluate two crucial aspects of the flipped ...


Community Schools: A Public Health Opportunity, Catherine Diamond Sep 2016

Community Schools: A Public Health Opportunity, Catherine Diamond

Dissertations and Theses

Community schools link students, families, and communities to educate children and strengthen neighborhoods. They have become a popular model for education in many U.S. cities in part because they build on community assets and address multiple determinants of educational disadvantage. Since community schools seek to have an impact on populations, not just the students enrolled, they provide an opportunity to improve community health. It has been proposed that community schools influence the health and education of the area residents through three pathways: building trust, establishing norms, and linking people to networks and services. However, no research has been published ...


Cognitive And Affective Aspects Of Personality And Academic Procrastination: The Role Of Personal Agency, Flow, And Executive Function, Marc Graff Sep 2016

Cognitive And Affective Aspects Of Personality And Academic Procrastination: The Role Of Personal Agency, Flow, And Executive Function, Marc Graff

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Academic procrastination is a prevalent issue that affects school-related and other experiences of many students, with some studies identifying as many as a third of college students sampled as‘severe’ procrastinators. This study investigated some of the factors previous studies have identified as potential contributors to procrastinating in the academic arena. In defining procrastination as a self-regulation issue, it is proposed that distinct executive function processes play a role in one’s efforts at academic task engagement and completion and resisting the tendency to procrastinate on these tasks. It is also proposed that the frequency with which one experiences ‘flow ...


Modes Of Mindfulness: Prophetic Critique And Integral Emergence, David Forbes Jun 2016

Modes Of Mindfulness: Prophetic Critique And Integral Emergence, David Forbes

Publications and Research

As mindfulness becomes more secular and popular, there are more arguments about its purpose and use value. Because of its disparate uses, many proponents of any one side often talk past each other and miss their mark. This paper employs an integral meta-theory that accounts for subjective, inter-subjective, objective, interobjective, and developmental perspectives on mindfulness. This helps categorize modes of mindfulness in order to clarify their purposes and functions within a society characterized by neoliberal principles and structures. It adopts the standpoint of a prophetic critique similar to those critiques of McMindfulness and insists on the inseparability of both universal ...


Essays In Labor And Development Economics, Stephen Daniel O'Connell Jun 2016

Essays In Labor And Development Economics, Stephen Daniel O'Connell

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is comprised of two chapters that investigate the long-term effects of a quota policy for women in local government in India.

In the first chapter, "Political Inclusion and Educational Investment," I investigate whether political empowerment can affect the human capital investment decisions of children. By using exogenous variation in the implementation of the policy, nationally-representative survey data allow me to estimate effects on educational enrollment in a geographic discontinuity design using adjacent areas on either side of a state border as counterfactuals receiving different levels of exposure to the quota policy.

In this paper, I find a sizable ...


Bullying And Human Capital Accumulation: Evidence From The National Longitudinal Survey Of Youth, 1997, Jessica Lum May 2016

Bullying And Human Capital Accumulation: Evidence From The National Longitudinal Survey Of Youth, 1997, Jessica Lum

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 (NLSY97) is used to study the effect of bullying on human capital accumulation. Findings suggest that adolescent bullying has a significant and negative impact on the highest educational level attained, as well as income earned as an adult.


The Importance Of The Prioritization Of Human Development Through Governmental Policies, Barbara Marie Fertitta Jan 2016

The Importance Of The Prioritization Of Human Development Through Governmental Policies, Barbara Marie Fertitta

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis examines the prioritization of human development through governmental policies. Education and gender equality are two of the most fundamental indicators of human development that have far reaching impacts on other human development indicators. This thesis uses the case studies of Ghana and Pakistan to compare and contrast how each respective government has prioritized different aspects of human development and the impact it has had on their country as well as their security. I propose that higher levels of human development increase levels of security and that when there is low physical security, human development levels are also low ...


Health, Education And Children’S Rights: A Comparability Analysis Of Kenya And Brazil, Charlette Lopez Jan 2016

Health, Education And Children’S Rights: A Comparability Analysis Of Kenya And Brazil, Charlette Lopez

Dissertations and Theses

Developing adequate health care and education systems has been an ongoing struggle for the governments of both Kenya and Brazil. Despite moderate improvements in health and education statistics for both of these countries, there is clear evidence that these states will have to be actively engaged in order to overcome the challenges that lie ahead. Kenya and Brazil may differ in geographical location, history, culture, and socioeconomic status, but both countries are congruent in the challenges they face to provide sufficient access to quality health care and educational resources to the upcoming generations of children who are being failed by ...