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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

When Do Papers Matter? An Institutional Analysis Of Undocumented Life In The United States, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2012

When Do Papers Matter? An Institutional Analysis Of Undocumented Life In The United States, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

This article assesses how two key institutions differentially shape immigrants’ relationship to their rights in American society. We draw on over 200 in-depth interviews to argue that there is a stark difference between how schools encourage undocumented youth to view themselves as equal members of US society and how undocumented workers are marginalized in the workplace. We find that even as schools track and stratify students, they also foster a culture of meritocracy between documented and undocumented youth. Schools ultimately render immigration status irrelevant as undocumented youth learn to navigate the primary institution of this stage of their lives. Conversely ...


Vernon Briggs: Real-World Labor Economist, William P. Curington Jan 2010

Vernon Briggs: Real-World Labor Economist, William P. Curington

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Vernon Briggs stepped into a wastebasket and launched my career as a labor economist. In the spring of 1969, I was sleepwalking through the undergraduate economics program at the University of Texas and sitting in Dr. Briggs’s labor economics class. He was vigorously making a point when his misstep off the small classroom stage produced a roar of laughter but did not break his train of thought. He woke me up; I thought, “Man, I want to be as passionate about my life’s work as this guy.


The Many Facets Of Economic Mobility, Gary S. Fields Jan 2006

The Many Facets Of Economic Mobility, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The main point of this chapter is to show that the different indices used in the mobility literature are not measures of the same underlying conceptual entity. In elementary statistics, students are taught that the mean and median are both measures of central tendency but they are different measures of central tendency; the variance and Gini coefficient are measures of dispersion but they are different measures of dispersion; and central tendency and dispersion are fundamentally different concepts from one another. In much the same way, this chapter maintains that the different mobility indices in common use are measuring fundamentally ...


George Brooks: A Personal Reminiscence, David B. Lipsky Jan 2001

George Brooks: A Personal Reminiscence, David B. Lipsky

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In 1961, George joined the faculty of the School of Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) at Cornell and Sara was appointed to a position in the School's extension division. George hadn't done much college-level teaching when he joined the ILR School faculty. He quickly established himself as one of the School's most popular and influential instructors. George was certainly an engaging and entertaining lecturer, but it was not only his platform skills that made him so popular with students. Cornell students — especially those who were part of the 1960s generation — were drawn to George's unorthodox ...


My Life And Economics, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Apr 1999

My Life And Economics, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Age 51 is a bit early to be writing a retrospective about one's career as an economist and one's life. This is especially true for me since I am not on track to win a Nobel Prize, to be admitted to the National Academy of Science, or even to be elected a Fellow of the Econometric Society. Nonetheless, as I write this essay during the fall of 1997, I look back on the 28 years I have spent as a PhD economist and see a record of accomplishment of which I am proud and a number of ...


Do Teachers’ Race, Gender, And Ethnicity Matter? Evidence From The National Education Longitudinal Study Of 1988, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Daniel D. Goldhaber, Dominic J. Brewer Apr 1995

Do Teachers’ Race, Gender, And Ethnicity Matter? Evidence From The National Education Longitudinal Study Of 1988, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Daniel D. Goldhaber, Dominic J. Brewer

Articles and Chapters

Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS), the authors find that the match between teachers' race, gender, and ethnicity and those of their students had little association with how much the students learned, but in several instances it seems to have been a significant determinant of teachers' subjective evaluations of their students. For example, test scores of white female students in mathematics and science did not increase more rapidly when the teacher was a white woman than when the teacher was a white man, but white female teachers evaluated their white female students more highly than ...


Role Models In Education (Symposium Introduction), Ronald G. Ehrenberg Apr 1995

Role Models In Education (Symposium Introduction), Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

It is our hope that by assembling these papers in one place, the Review will contribute to future policy debate on the importance of role models in education. Moreover, the papers' findings may have even broader importance. In many respects, the relationship between teachers and students can be viewed as analogous to the relationship between supervisors and employees. If the race, gender, and ethnicity of teachers "matter," so may the race, gender, and ethnicity of supervisors in the employment relationship. These papers thus suggest analogous types of research that could be profitably undertaken that relate to the employment relationship.


Policy Dilemmas In Urban Education: Addressing The Needs Of Poor, At-Risk Children, Jeffrey A. Raffel, William Lowe Boyd, Vernon M. Briggs, Eugene E. Eubanks, Roberto Fernandez Jan 1992

Policy Dilemmas In Urban Education: Addressing The Needs Of Poor, At-Risk Children, Jeffrey A. Raffel, William Lowe Boyd, Vernon M. Briggs, Eugene E. Eubanks, Roberto Fernandez

Articles and Chapters

The changing demographic face of the nation's cities has placed tremendous burdens on urban schools. No consensus on solving the problems of urban education exists. Successful policy alternatives should be: (1) comprehensive {i.e., deal with urban problems beyond education, such as health status and poverty), (2) supported by adequate resources, (3) universal and targeted (i.e., focused on children), (4) value-based (i.e., promoting the value of education), (5) community-based, and (6) research-based. Policy alternatives that will improve urban education include those that (1) reaffirm programs that work (i.e., Head Start), (2) reallocate resources to students in ...


On Estimating The Effects Of Increased Aid To Education, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Richard P. Chaykowski Jan 1988

On Estimating The Effects Of Increased Aid To Education, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Richard P. Chaykowski

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The 1983 report, A Nation at Risk, of the National Commission on Excellence in Education decried the state of public education in the United States and suggested a number of reforms. Among their recommendations was increased federal aid for education. The view was that this would lead to desirable outcomes such as reduced class sizes and higher teacher salaries, with the latter aiding in the recruitment and retention of high-quality teachers.

Somewhat surprisingly, previous research on the economics of education provides us with very few insights about what the effects of such proposals might be. For example, while there ...


Planning Education For Economic Development, Gary S. Fields Apr 1986

Planning Education For Economic Development, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This paper presents the most important approaches to the economics of education. Three topics are developed:

  1. The logic of economic analysis of educational planning
  2. Three approaches to educational planning
  3. Evaluating the social rate-of-return approach in a developing country context.


The Social Security Student Benefit Program And Family Decisions, Ronald G. Ehrenberg May 1984

The Social Security Student Benefit Program And Family Decisions, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

In 1965 Congress established the Social Security Student Benefit Program which provided benefits for children of deceased, disabled or retired workers, who were enrolled in college full—time and were not married, up until the semester they turned age 22. The program grew to be a major financial aid program; at its peak in FY 81 it represented about 20% of all federal outlays on student assistance for higher education. The program was terminated for students newly entering college as of May 1, 1982.

Somewhat surprisingly, in contrast to the debate that accompanies most social programs, debate over the student ...


Educational Progress And Economic Development, Gary S. Fields Jan 1982

Educational Progress And Economic Development, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Many development agencies seek to channel economic assistance to those less-developed countries (LDCs) and activities that will help the poor to achieve a better life (this phraseology is from the U.S. Foreign Assistance Act as amended in 1975). Education is an important indicator of countries' performance. This chapter examines the suitability of alternative education indicators as guides for planning and evaluating countries' progress and commitment toward increasing the participation of the poor in development.


Education And Income Distribution In Developing Countries: A Review Of The Literature, Gary S. Fields Jul 1980

Education And Income Distribution In Developing Countries: A Review Of The Literature, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This paper is a survey of the available literature on education and income distribution in developing countries. Education may affect the distribution of income in a variety of ways: by raising the level of income; by changing, for better or worse, the dispersion of income; by opening up new opportunities for the children of the poor and thereby serving as a vehicle for social mobility and/or, by limiting participation to the children of the well-to-do, transmitting intergenerational inequality; by offering greater access to favored segments of the population (boys, city-dwellers, certain racial groups); by rewarding differently the education ...


Assessing Progress Toward Greater Equality Of Income Distribution, Gary S. Fields Jan 1980

Assessing Progress Toward Greater Equality Of Income Distribution, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Income distribution is only one indicator of economic well-being useful in gauging improvements in the economic position of the poor; change in income distribution, appropriately conceived and measured, is as good a criterion as any for assessing progress toward the alleviation of poverty. Income is intimately bound up with a family's command over economic resources. Rising modern-sector employment or reduced infant mortality might be suggestive of improvements in the economic position of the poor; gains in real income among low-income groups provide direct evidence that poverty is being alleviated.

This chapter answers the following questions:

What are the ...


Labor Studies Credit And Degree Programs: A Growth Sector Of Higher Education, Lois S. Gray May 1976

Labor Studies Credit And Degree Programs: A Growth Sector Of Higher Education, Lois S. Gray

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In a time of generally declining economic activity, labor studies for college credit is a flourishing enterprise. While college enrollments are dropping, budgets being cut back, and new or marginal programs disappearing, labor studies degree programs are expanding. Why? What accounts for this new movement in higher education?


[Review Of The Book Discrimination In Labor Markets], Ronald G. Ehrenberg Sep 1974

[Review Of The Book Discrimination In Labor Markets], Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In sum, I consider Discrimination in Labor Markets a fine volume. Anyone who has the slightest interest in the analysis of labor-market discrimination should seriously contemplate purchasing it. The relatively nontechnical nature of the papers will appeal to a wide range of readers, and the book should quickly find its way onto reading lists for undergraduate and graduate courses that discuss the economics of discrimination.


The Allocation Of Resources To Education In Less Developed Countries, Gary S. Fields Apr 1973

The Allocation Of Resources To Education In Less Developed Countries, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In the last few years, many less developed countries have suddenly and apparently to their surprise found themselves with too many (relative to the absorptive capacity of their economies) rather than too few workers with intermediate educational attainments. Yet, even as surpluses of educated workers grow larger and larger, the school systems continue to expand and the people continue to demand education. Elsewhere, we have sought to understand the persistence of a high demand for education in countries characterized by a substantial surplus of educated labor. In this paper, we construct a political model of the allocation of resources ...


Toward A Model Of Education And Labor Markets In Labor Surplus Economies, Gary S. Fields Jan 1973

Toward A Model Of Education And Labor Markets In Labor Surplus Economies, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This model is intended to describe the essential relationships between the demand for and supply of education and the demand for and supply of educated workers. The terms "education" and "training" will be used interchangeably throughout, since the proposed model is a general one designed to apply both to traditional education and to specialized training for such occupations as agricultural and veterinary workers, teachers, the skilled trades, and the like. The terms "educated," "trained," and "skilled" will also be used synonymously.

If the model is to be meaningful, it must possess two basic characteristics. First, it must be consistent ...


The Private Demand For Education In Relation To Labor Market Conditions In Less Developed Countries, Gary S. Fields Oct 1972

The Private Demand For Education In Relation To Labor Market Conditions In Less Developed Countries, Gary S. Fields

Working Papers

[Excerpt] In this paper, we construct a model of the demand for education in relation to labor market conditions in less developed countries to try to understand why a high demand for education might be expected to persist in countries characterized by a substantial surplus of educated labor. It might be argued that the continued demand for education merely reflects the failure of citizens to adjust their behavior to current labor market conditions. This position implies that the demand for education will fall, perhaps drastically, as expectations come into line with reality. However, in contrast to this position, we demonstrate ...


Private And Social Returns To Education In Labour Surplus Economies, Gary S. Fields Jan 1972

Private And Social Returns To Education In Labour Surplus Economies, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The purpose of this paper is to consider the cost-benefit criterion for resource allocation in labour surplus economies calling particular attention to the contrasts with full employment economies. The specific plan is as follows. Section 1 reviews the debate over the applicability of cost-benefit analysis to problems of investment in education. Section 2 draws two important distinctions which are not always clear to educational planners and enumerates the likely benefits, both private and social, from education. Section 3 considers the case of full employment economies. Section 4 looks at the private returns to education in labour surplus economies in ...


National Manpower Policy, Vernon M. Briggs Jr Jan 1971

National Manpower Policy, Vernon M. Briggs Jr

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In terms of governmental concern for the operation of the labor market, the 1960's has been called the era of the manpower revolution. During this decade the United States constructed the foundation for a national manpower policy. Although the evolution of this policy has been piecemeal and at times more hortative than substantive, it represents a significant departure from past attitudes regarding society's responsibilities to its members.