Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2013

Latin America

Discipline
Institution
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 22 of 22

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Food Sovereignty: An Alternative Paradigm For Poverty Reduction And Biodiversity Conservation In Latin America, M Jahi Chappell, Hannah Wittman, Christopher M. Bacon, Bruce G. Ferguson, Luis García Barrios, Raúl García Barrios, Daniel Jaffee, Jefferson Lima, V. Ernesto Méndez,, Helda Morales, Lorena Soto-Pinto, John Vandermeer, Ivette Perfecto Nov 2013

Food Sovereignty: An Alternative Paradigm For Poverty Reduction And Biodiversity Conservation In Latin America, M Jahi Chappell, Hannah Wittman, Christopher M. Bacon, Bruce G. Ferguson, Luis García Barrios, Raúl García Barrios, Daniel Jaffee, Jefferson Lima, V. Ernesto Méndez,, Helda Morales, Lorena Soto-Pinto, John Vandermeer, Ivette Perfecto

Environmental Studies and Sciences

Strong feedback between global biodiversity loss and persistent, extreme rural poverty are major challenges in the face of concurrent food, energy, and environmental crises. This paper examines the role of industrial agricultural intensification and market integration as exogenous socio-ecological drivers of biodiversity loss and poverty traps in Latin America. We then analyze the potential of a food sovereignty framework, based on protecting the viability of a diverse agroecological matrix while supporting rural livelihoods and global food production. We review several successful examples of this approach, including ecological land reform in Brazil, agroforestry, milpa, and the uses of wild varieties in ...


A Comparative History Of Aids In Latin America: Brazil And Cuba, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

A Comparative History Of Aids In Latin America: Brazil And Cuba, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

According to a joint report of the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization in September 2002 there were approximately 1.4 million HIV+ people in Latin America, and a further 420,000 HIV+ people in the Caribbean. The number of infections had increased by nearly 10% from the previous year in Latin America, and 16% in the Caribbean. While striking, these figures may obscure the diversity of the HIV epidemic in the region. Latin America has a varied pattern of infections, which means that the experience of Bolivia, Ecuador and Mexico is quite different from that of ...


Book Review Of, La Patria: Politics And The Armed Forces In Latin America, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

Book Review Of, La Patria: Politics And The Armed Forces In Latin America, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

Reviews the book "For La Patria: Politics and the Armed Forces in Latin America," by Brian Loveman.


War And Hiv In Latin America, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

War And Hiv In Latin America, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

Conflict has shaped the HIV pandemic from its inception, from the spread of HIV-1 in Central Africa, to the diffusion of HIV-2 from Portuguese Africa to the globe. At the same time, the relationship between HIV and conflict has been non-linear and poorly understood. Nancy Mock and her colleagues have been almost the only scholars to propose a model to understand this relationship. Their work suggests that several key variables (such as the time scale of the conflict, the characteristics of the parties involved, and the geographic scale of the fighting) explain wide variations in how warfare appears to have ...


Book Review Of, The Politics And History Of Aids Treatment In Brazil In Latin American Politics And Society, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

Book Review Of, The Politics And History Of Aids Treatment In Brazil In Latin American Politics And Society, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

Reviews the book "The Politics and History of AIDS Treatment in Brazil," by Amy Nunn


Book Review Of, Tribute Of Blood: Army, Honor, Race, And Nation In Brazil, 1864-1945, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

Book Review Of, Tribute Of Blood: Army, Honor, Race, And Nation In Brazil, 1864-1945, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

Reviews the non-fiction book "The Tribute of Blood: Army, Honor, Race, and Nation in Brazil, 1864-1945," by Peter M. Beattie.


Book Review Of, Nazis And Good Neighbors: The United States’ Campaign Against The Germans Of Latin America In World War Two, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

Book Review Of, Nazis And Good Neighbors: The United States’ Campaign Against The Germans Of Latin America In World War Two, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

Reviews the book "Nazis & Good Neighbors: The United States Campaign Against the Germans of Latin America in World War II," by Max Paul Friedman.


Latin-America, Mauricio E. Novoa Oct 2013

Latin-America, Mauricio E. Novoa

Student Publications

A poem describing the Prince George's County and Montgomery County Latin American communities in Maryland.


¿Del Mar Quién Es Dueño? Artisanal Fisheries, Tourism Development, And The Struggles Over Access To Marine Resources In Playa Gigante, Nicaragua, Nikolai Alexander Alvarado Jun 2013

¿Del Mar Quién Es Dueño? Artisanal Fisheries, Tourism Development, And The Struggles Over Access To Marine Resources In Playa Gigante, Nicaragua, Nikolai Alexander Alvarado

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In post-revolutionary Nicaragua tourism development has been embraced as a way to inject foreign exchange into an ailing economy. Despite rapid growth of the sector, particularly along Nicaragua's southwestern Pacific coast, little attention has been given to the impacts of this development on local producers. This research focuses on the tourism development taking place in the fishing community of Playa Gigante and its impacts on artisanal fisheries. Additionally, I focus on the struggles over access to marine resources, especially with creation of La Anciana Marine Protected Area (MPA), a marine conservation corridor being pushed forth by the largest resort ...


The Democracy Cluster Classification Index, Mihaiela R. Gugiu, Miguel Centellas May 2013

The Democracy Cluster Classification Index, Mihaiela R. Gugiu, Miguel Centellas

Miguel Centellas

Using hierarchical cluster analysis, a new measure of democracy, the DCC index, is proposed and constructed from five popular indices of democracy (Freedom House, Polity IV, Vanhanen's index of democratization, Cheibub et al.'s index of democracy and dictatorship, and the Cingranelli-Richards index of electoral self-determination). The DCC was used to classify the regime types for twenty-four countries in the Americas and thirty-nine countries in Europe over a thirty-year period. The results indicated that democracy is a latent class variable. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were conducted for the five existing democracy indices as well as the newly proposed Unified ...


Indigenous Women, The State, And Policy Change: Evidence From Bolivia, 1994-2012, Melissa Camille Buice May 2013

Indigenous Women, The State, And Policy Change: Evidence From Bolivia, 1994-2012, Melissa Camille Buice

Doctoral Dissertations

In Bolivia, indigenous women have contributed to President Morales’ and MAS (Movement Toward Socialism) electoral victories and are exercising an emerging influence on the government’s decisions on policy. This contrasts with their experiences with failed policy efforts prior to the early 2000s, which presents an interesting puzzle for social movement theories. These theories argue that the language of repertoires and framing processes, resources of social movements, along with structural opportunities are important causes of social movement success. Research on social movement outcomes is needed to understand indigenous women’s changing relationship with society and the government. As indigenous women ...


China And The New Triangular Relationships In The Americas: China And The Future Of Us-Mexico Relations, Enrique Dussel Peters, Adrian H. Hearn, Harley Shaiken May 2013

China And The New Triangular Relationships In The Americas: China And The Future Of Us-Mexico Relations, Enrique Dussel Peters, Adrian H. Hearn, Harley Shaiken

Center for Latin American Studies Publications

This book advances the concept of “triangular relationships” by analyzing benefits and conflicts within US-Mexico-China relations as Chinas´ influence increases. The contributors examine this phenomenon from economic, political, and social perspectives. China´s deepening impact in the Americas suggests that triangular relation-ships, such as those examined in this volume, will necessarily weigh more heavily into other fields of research in the future.


Robin Hood Or Villain: The Social Constructions Of Pablo Escobar, Jenna Bowley May 2013

Robin Hood Or Villain: The Social Constructions Of Pablo Escobar, Jenna Bowley

Honors College

Pablo Escobar was a Colombian drug lord and leader of the Medellin Cartel which at one point controlled as much as 80% of the international cocaine trade. He is famous for waging war against the Colombian government in his campaign to outlaw extradition of criminals to the United State and ordering the assassination of countless individuals, including police officers, journalists, and high ranking officials and politicians. He is also well known for investing large sums of his fortune in charitable public works, including the construction of schools, sports fields and housing developments for the urban poor. While U.S. and ...


The Presence Of Coups D'État Within Revolutions: Effects On Population Health, Rose E. Facchini May 2013

The Presence Of Coups D'État Within Revolutions: Effects On Population Health, Rose E. Facchini

Master's Theses

The present study is a comparative approach to revolutions and their effect on population health during the post-conflict period. Specifically, it attempts to determine whether revolutions that are accompanied by a coup d'état have a significant negative impact on post-revolution population health. Degree of revolutionary violence, governmental structures, and pre-revolution health systems is of particular interest as relevant variables. The study focuses on the Latin American countries of Nicaragua and Chile due to their similar region and timeframe. The revolutions and accompanying coup d'état in both of these countries do not demonstrate different patterns on public health in ...


The Effects Of Fdi And Aid On Development In Latin America, Jesse Michael Mezera Apr 2013

The Effects Of Fdi And Aid On Development In Latin America, Jesse Michael Mezera

Undergraduate Student Scholarship – History

This paper, assuming a positive correlation between aid and FDI given to countries, will look to measure whether the aid given to Latin America has been effective in creating development. In order to measure development, development must first be defined in a way that will allow for concrete indicators of development. Using these seven criteria as a guide this paper will look to use data collected by studies of Latin America in these seven areas to gain a measure of how development has progressed over the last fifteen years. Once this information has been compiled, it will be compared against ...


Familia E Inmigración: Discovering Biblican Immigration Narratives That Speak To Today's Latin American Immigrant Families In Chicago, Mckenzie Fritch Apr 2013

Familia E Inmigración: Discovering Biblican Immigration Narratives That Speak To Today's Latin American Immigrant Families In Chicago, Mckenzie Fritch

Honors Program Projects

This qualitative study sought to gain insight into the motivations, challenges, and behavior patterns of Latin American immigrant families in the Chicago, Illinois area, and can be divided into two parts: research and application. Research was collected by conducting focus group interviews with immigrant parents and children at three Nazarene Hispanic churches in and around Chicago. Questions were asked about the families’ reasons for immigrating and their stories of entry and arrival, but the interviews maintained a particular focus on the changes each family experienced while living in the United States. This study was especially interested to learn about communication ...


The Paraguay Reader, Robert Andrew Nickson, Peter Lambert Jan 2013

The Paraguay Reader, Robert Andrew Nickson, Peter Lambert

Robert Andrew Nickson

Paraguay has long been seen as one of the forgotten corners of the globe, a place that slips beneath the radar of most diplomats, academics, journalists, and tourists in Latin America. Paraguay is a country defined not so much by association as by isolation. The renowned Paraguayan writer Augusto Roa Bastos famously remarked that Paraguay’s landlocked isolation made it like an island surrounded by land. Yet Paraguay is developing and globalizing fast. It is a major exporter of electricity, soy, and beef; its economy grew by 14 percent in 2010, the second fastest in the world; and it has ...


Social Policy And Redistribution: Chile And Uruguay, Jennifer Pribble, Evelyn Huber Jan 2013

Social Policy And Redistribution: Chile And Uruguay, Jennifer Pribble, Evelyn Huber

Political Science Faculty Publications

In this chapter we ask two questions: First, we ask whether these governments, exemplifying best-case scenarios in Latin America, have embarked on a viable path toward a sustainable social democratic welfare state. Second, we ask whether and why they differ in their approaches and progress on this path, paying close attention to how the parties' organizational characteristics influence this variation. In their introduction, Levitsky and Roberts classify the left parties in Chile and Uruguay as an "institutionalized partisan Left," distinguished between an "electoral-professional" Left and a "mass-organic" Left. Uruguay's FA is an example of a mass-organic left party, while ...


South Of The Border: Immigration Attitudes In Latin America, Duncan F. Lawrence Jan 2013

South Of The Border: Immigration Attitudes In Latin America, Duncan F. Lawrence

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation develops a greater understanding of immigration attitudes through four essays focused on an important migration hub, Latin America. Each essay either develops existing scholarship by providing highly specified empirical tests of important theoretical debates or utilizes an alternative framework to approach the analysis of immigration attitudes. The first essay (Chapter 2) addresses a long standing theoretical and empirical debate concerning the role of economic self-interest and education in shaping immigration attitudes. I demonstrate that concern over labor competition is not an important factor influencing immigration attitudes in Latin America and that education increases tolerance of foreigners. Chapter 3 ...


Mobilization After Repression: Reconsidering The Role Of Testimonies And Exiles In Post-War El Salvador, Angela Elena Fillingim Jan 2013

Mobilization After Repression: Reconsidering The Role Of Testimonies And Exiles In Post-War El Salvador, Angela Elena Fillingim

Societies Without Borders

During the civil war in El Salvador, the Salvadoran military engaged in the systematic disappearance of youth and facilitated their adoptions. Presently Found, a Salvadoran human rights NGO, works to reunite these youth with their surviving biological families. However, a key difference between Found and other similar organizations, is that the former was established in the post-war context. Through a case study of Found, and placed in comparative light with a similar phenomenon in Argentina, I will show that traditional mobilization strategies face new obstacles in a post-war context. Specifically, while Found engaged in many of the same movement tactics ...


Elected Kings With The Name Of Presidents. On The Origins Of Presidentialism In The United States And Latin America, Josep M. Colomer Dec 2012

Elected Kings With The Name Of Presidents. On The Origins Of Presidentialism In The United States And Latin America, Josep M. Colomer

Josep M. Colomer

The leaders of the independence in the Americas chose their institutions in a context of high territorial tensions, which moved them to create a potential anchor in the figure of a powerful central executive. Presidential regimes were endogenously shaped as elected monarchies by rulers who were army chiefs. The military-presidential nexus is not accidental, but constitutive and substantial. Some legacies of those choices include the frequency of military rulers as chief executives and long-standing attempts at life appointments or indefinite reelections by incumbent presidents.


Exclusionary Vs. Inclusionary Populism: Comparing The Contemporary Europe And Latin America, Cas Mudde, Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser Dec 2012

Exclusionary Vs. Inclusionary Populism: Comparing The Contemporary Europe And Latin America, Cas Mudde, Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser

Cas Mudde

Although there is a lively academic debate about contemporary populism in Europe and Latin America, almost no cross-regional research exists on this topic. This article aims to fill this gap by showing that a minimal and ideological definition of populism permits us to analyse current expressions of populism in both regions. Moreover, based on a comparison of four prototypical cases (FN/Le Pen and FPÖ/Haider in Europe and PSUV/Chávez and MAS/Morales in Latin America), we show that it is possible to identify two regional subtypes of populism: exclusionary populism in Europe and inclusionary populism in Latin America.