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2013

Gender

Theses/Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Microfinance: A Tool For Financial Access, Poverty Alleviation Or Gender Empowerment ? - Empirical Findings From Pakistan, Ghazal Mir Zulfiqar Dec 2013

Microfinance: A Tool For Financial Access, Poverty Alleviation Or Gender Empowerment ? - Empirical Findings From Pakistan, Ghazal Mir Zulfiqar

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

In just 30 years microfinance has transformed from a credit-based rural development scheme that has claimed to reduce poverty and empower poor women, to a $70 billion financial industry. In the process, the traditional NGO-led model has given way to commercialized institutions, resulting in an increased emphasis on profitmaking. This has also led to confusion in the sector around its mission: is it to alleviate poverty and empower poor women or simply to provide the "unbanked" with access to formal sources of finance? This research considers the main debates in microfinance with regard to its mission and presents empirical evidence ...


"For A Future Tomorrow": The Figured Worlds Of Schoolgirls In Kono, Sierra Leone, Jordene Hale Dec 2013

"For A Future Tomorrow": The Figured Worlds Of Schoolgirls In Kono, Sierra Leone, Jordene Hale

Doctoral Dissertations

Current research in Sub-Sahara Africa suggests that young women face challenges in accessing and completing schooling, due among other things to gender related school based violence (Bruce & Hallman, 2008; Dunne, Humphreys, & Leach, 2006; Lloyd, Kaufman, & Hewett, 2000). These studies, while valuable in providing documentation on school enrollment and school leaving, do not explore the motivational framework where young women remain in school.

The purpose of this dissertation is to trace how schoolgirls’ identities or “figured worlds” (Gee, 2011) are co-constructed in particular contexts by the same cohort of schoolgirls, their teachers, households, and communities through an ethnographic case study conducted over a period of three years from 2010 to 2013 in Kono, Sierra Leone. The unit of analysis is the experience of the individual schoolgirls rendered in detailed portraits. The central research question addressed is: What are the ‘figured worlds’ that these schoolgirls inhabit that compels them, in the face of overwhelming odds, to commit to schooling? What is the role of “imagined communities” for these schoolgirls (Anderson, 1991; Kanno & Norton, 2003)? Further, how do the schoolgirls utilize the liminal space of schooling (Switzer, 2010)? Employing the portraiture methodology (Lawrence-Lightfoot & Hoffman Davis, 1997) this research focuses on three schoolgirls, their communities, and their relationships with the researcher. This research analyzes how for schoolgirls in sub-Sahara Africa, the figured worlds of schoolgirls, is an identity that despite the physical risk, economic loss, and unlikely career success, becomes compelling. This ...


Accounting For Gender In International Refugee Law: A Close Reading Of The Unhcr Gender Guidelines And The Discursive Construction Of Gender As An Identity, Johanna N. Tvedt Dec 2013

Accounting For Gender In International Refugee Law: A Close Reading Of The Unhcr Gender Guidelines And The Discursive Construction Of Gender As An Identity, Johanna N. Tvedt

Master's Theses

This thesis conducts a close reading of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees’ “Guidelines on International Protection: Gender-Related Persecution within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees” – a document that explains how legal definitions of refugee status might take into account gender issues. In it, I investigate the relationship between gender identity and the refugee status to understand how gender is constructed in relation to other terms or identity categories that determine whether an individual will be granted asylum. Performing a close reading of this ...


Gay, Straight, Or Slightly Bent? The Interaction Of Leader Sexual Orientation And Gender On Leadership Evaluations, Fred George Macoukji Dec 2013

Gay, Straight, Or Slightly Bent? The Interaction Of Leader Sexual Orientation And Gender On Leadership Evaluations, Fred George Macoukji

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Existing research has shown that gender stereotypes regarding characteristics of men and women influence others' perceptions of their fit with organizational roles, including leadership roles (cf. Eagly & Karau, 2002). However, little research has examined stereotypes regarding other demographic characteristics (e.g., race, sexual orientation) and how they may interact with gender stereotypes to influence leadership evaluations. The current study examined whether leader gender and sexual orientation interact to influence subordinates' evaluations of leader effectiveness, likability, and boss desirability using an experimental design. In addition to examining whether leader gender and sexual orientation interacted to predict leader evaluations, the present ...


Becoming The Best Mom Or The Best Doctor? Gender Inequality And Medical Students’ Specialty Choice, Casey L. Lawson Dec 2013

Becoming The Best Mom Or The Best Doctor? Gender Inequality And Medical Students’ Specialty Choice, Casey L. Lawson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In anticipation of an expected national shortage of primary care physicians, 24 medical students from the East Tennessee State University Quillen College of Medicine were selected through a snowball sample and participated in in-depth interviews. A major aim of the study was to explore the social and economic factors influencing students’ specialty choice and career interests. Students’ perceptions of “rural” environments, student debt, professional obligations, specialties, and preceptorship experiences were analyzed. Students’ gender heavily influenced their feelings about choosing a medical specialty, as did their stereotypes of physicians in particular medical fields. The thesis concludes with recommendations for challenging negative ...


"You're Looking Good": Compliment Or Harassment?, David B. Mcmillan Dec 2013

"You're Looking Good": Compliment Or Harassment?, David B. Mcmillan

All Theses and Dissertations

Whether an individual perceives an appearance compliment in the workplace as sexual harassment may depend on a number of factors such as the gender and/or status of the complimenter. Three hundred eighty-three (130 males, 253 females) participants completed an online survey in which they read and rated six different hypothetical vignettes imagining themselves as the recipient of an appearance compliment from a male superior, subordinate, and peer, as well as a female in each of those three status positions. Participants also filled out the Big Five Inventory (BFI; see John, Naumann, & Soto, 2008) in order to assess how personality may influence harassment perceptions. Females perceived opposite-sex appearance compliments as more harassing than males did (p < .001, d = 1.33), and males perceived same-sex compliments as more harassing than females did (p < .001, d = 0.85). Appearance compliments from those in the three status positions were also perceived differently (p < .001, np2 = .29) with compliments from superiors perceived as more harassing than from peers (p < .001) and subordinates (p < .001), and subordinates perceived as more harassing than peers (p < .001). Three of the Big Five personality factors (Conscientiousness, b = 9.93, p < .001; Neuroticism, b = 9.46, p < .001; and Openness, b = -5.04, p = .04) were predictive of harassment perceptions (R2 = .087, p < .001). Based on these findings, it is recommended that males and those in superior status positions avoid giving appearance compliments in the workplace.


Adolescents’ Definitions Of Cheating In Romantic Relationships, Jerika C. Norona Dec 2013

Adolescents’ Definitions Of Cheating In Romantic Relationships, Jerika C. Norona

Masters Theses

Cheating is a common occurrence in dating relationships. However, less is known about cheating in adolescence, a time when many individuals first experience romantic relationships. An important initial step for research is examining how adolescents define cheating in their romantic relationships. The present study used Thematic Analysis, a qualitative analytic method, to explore adolescents’ definitions of cheating and how these definitions might differ across age and gender. Furthermore, the present study examined patterns that emerged within definitions. Results indicate that definitions of cheating included a range of behaviors, such as engaging in physical activity, romantic/intimate involvement, spending time with ...


The Perceived Level Of Enjoyment In Sports Violence: An Experiment Examining How Sports Commentary, Fanship, And Gender Affect Viewer Emotions, Sarah Vineyard Dec 2013

The Perceived Level Of Enjoyment In Sports Violence: An Experiment Examining How Sports Commentary, Fanship, And Gender Affect Viewer Emotions, Sarah Vineyard

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This investigation examines if the independent variables of sports commentary, fanship, and gender affect the viewer's level of perceived enjoyment while watching sports violence through televised professional football and hockey clips. Previous studies have found that these three variables contribute most to a viewer's level of perceived enjoyment. This study aimed to test to see if that was still true, while taking into account new rules regarding violence by the National Football League and the National Hockey League. This thesis addresses all variables in one study, which something past research has failed to do.

Perhaps the most significant ...


Women And The Second Estate In 16th Century Zambezia: Gendered Powers, A 'Puppet' African Queen And Succession In Vakaranga Society, 1500-1700, George G. Levin Nov 2013

Women And The Second Estate In 16th Century Zambezia: Gendered Powers, A 'Puppet' African Queen And Succession In Vakaranga Society, 1500-1700, George G. Levin

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Women in vaKaranga society of the 15th to 17th centuries have been portrayed as oppressed by an "extremely patriarchal" system, but the reality, while still fitting the simple classification of a 'patriarchal' monarchy, indicates quite a bit more negotiation of gendered powers than women, as a class, experienced in the Mediterranean or East Asia. The vaKaranga were the architects of Great Zimbabwe, the capital of a growing state, colonizing their cousins of the Zambezi river, which their Kusi-Mashariki Bantu forefathers had traversed southward a millennium before. Civil war had (apparently) split one nation into two states, Mutapa (Monomotapa) and Khami ...


The Perceived Role Of Biological Father Contact In The Self-Estem Development Of Young African American Women : An Exploratory Study, Kendra R. Archer Sep 2013

The Perceived Role Of Biological Father Contact In The Self-Estem Development Of Young African American Women : An Exploratory Study, Kendra R. Archer

Theses, Dissertations, and Projects

This qualitative study was designed to explore how young self-identified women of African American and African descent describe the connection between their father-daughter relationships and their self-esteem development. This exploratory study presents findings and narratives from the perspectives of 14 self-identified women of African American and African descent between the ages of 22- 30 who had face-to face contact with their biological fathers for at least five years throughout their lives. It was expected that the African American women in this study would speak to their experiences of paternal love or rejection in ways, which were tied positively or negatively ...


An Autoethnographical Tapestry Of Feminist Reflection On My Journey Of A Fitness Model Physique, Stephanie A. Paplinskie Aug 2013

An Autoethnographical Tapestry Of Feminist Reflection On My Journey Of A Fitness Model Physique, Stephanie A. Paplinskie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Weight training and fitness competitions are increasingly popular activities for many women seeking an aesthetically fit body. This thesis entails a critical reflection of the various factors surrounding my personal decision to partake in body sculpting, examining how these factors parallel the experience of other women in the fitness industry. Using a feminist theoretical framework and autoethnography, a history of feminist theory is incorporated to demonstrate some of the various perspectives surrounding women bodies. Two challenges for women are discussed in this paper: i) the fear of fat, and how it is connected to a woman’s initial decision to ...


Climate Change And Human Rights: A Case Study Of Vulnerability And Adaptation In Coastal Communities In Lagos, Nigeria., Idowu M. Ajibade Aug 2013

Climate Change And Human Rights: A Case Study Of Vulnerability And Adaptation In Coastal Communities In Lagos, Nigeria., Idowu M. Ajibade

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lagos, Nigeria is one the world’s megacities at risk from climate change. Communities along the coast have been hit hard by floods, storm surges, and rising seas, due to the city’s geographic location, inadequate infrastructures, and poor urban governance. These factors together with social inequality have been known to shape vulnerability to climatic hazards but less understood is the role of human rights.

The objective of this thesis is to develop a grounded understanding of the links between human rights and the vulnerability of people to climate change impacts (i.e. floods and storm surges). The study combined ...


Gender And Party Stereotypes In The Evaluation Of U.S. Senate Candidates, Rebecca Madelyn Shafer Aug 2013

Gender And Party Stereotypes In The Evaluation Of U.S. Senate Candidates, Rebecca Madelyn Shafer

Doctoral Dissertations

In the United States, there has been a gradual increase of women elected to office, yet women are still drastically underrepresented at every level. One potential obstacle to the electoral success of women is the propensity of voters to stereotype candidates based on their gender. However, voters also stereotype political candidates based on their party affiliation. Therefore, it is important to understand how stereotypes regarding the Republican and Democratic Parties may interact with stereotypes concerning men and women.

While experimental research has been utilized extensively to test the effect of gender stereotypes on candidate evaluations; almost all of this research ...


Vice In The Veil Of Justice: Embedding Race And Gender In Frontier Tourism, Daniel Richard Maher Aug 2013

Vice In The Veil Of Justice: Embedding Race And Gender In Frontier Tourism, Daniel Richard Maher

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation analyzes how "frontier" discourses in Fort Smith, Arkansas simultaneously constitute mythological narratives that elide the deleterious effects of imperialism, racism, and sexism, while they operate as marketing schemes in the wager that they will attract cultural heritage tourists. It examines material exhibits and interpretive history programs at locations including the Fort Smith National Historic Site, Fort Smith Museum of History, Miss Laura's Visitor's Center, and the Clayton House; in texts such as the 1898 book by Samuel Harman whose title forever branded Fort Smith as Hell on the Border; in the subsequent branding and marketing derived ...


The Relationship Between Sex-Typing And Help-Seeking Behaviors In Adults, Joshua Juvrud Aug 2013

The Relationship Between Sex-Typing And Help-Seeking Behaviors In Adults, Joshua Juvrud

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The process of expressing what is masculine promotes attitudes and behaviors that can discourage men from seeking help, contributing to numerous health issues in males. The purpose of this study was to explore how personally endorsed gender stereotypes vs. gender stereotyped attitudes impacted help-seeking behavior. In the current study, female and male adults completed challenging puzzle tasks, recalled previous health help-seeking behavior, and completed sex-typed measures. Females utilized personally endorsed gender stereotypes more during the puzzle tasks, while males utilized both personally endorsed gender stereotypes as well as gender stereotyped attitudes. When males recalled health-related events, however, personally endorsed feminine ...


Pragmatic Transfer Of Compliment Responses Among Chinese Esl Lds Missionaries, Courtney Price Bodily Jun 2013

Pragmatic Transfer Of Compliment Responses Among Chinese Esl Lds Missionaries, Courtney Price Bodily

All Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the pragmatic transfer Chinese Latter-day Saint (LDS) missionaries speaking English display when responding to compliments in English conversations. Previous studies have shown that native American English speakers have a higher rate of compliment acceptance in their compliment response (CR) strategies. While, native Chinese speakers have a higher rate of denial in their CRs (. A common research question is whether or not CR strategies transfer from a Chinese English speaker's first language (L1) into their English conversations. To measure this, 40 missionaries from the LDS church participated in naturalized role plays. Half were native Chinese (10 male ...


Gender Discrimination In The Workforce, Natalie Hays, Katherine Morrow Jun 2013

Gender Discrimination In The Workforce, Natalie Hays, Katherine Morrow

Social Sciences

No abstract provided.


Personal And Professional Expectations Of Students At California Polytechnic State University Based On Socialization Of Gender Norms In Education, Marisa Wishart Jun 2013

Personal And Professional Expectations Of Students At California Polytechnic State University Based On Socialization Of Gender Norms In Education, Marisa Wishart

Social Sciences

Two hundred and one students from California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo completed a one page survey regarding their role models and expectations for life after graduation in order to gain insight on the gender differences that are present within the student community. The results were analyzed using cross tabulations in IBM SPSS and supported the hypotheses (1) traditional gender roles, such as men as the provider and women as the domestic caretaker, will be reflected by survey respondents, and (2) due to a lack of female role models for women in professional fields, women are less likely than ...


The Organic Beauty Industry: A Gendered Economic Review, Brianna D. Connelly Jun 2013

The Organic Beauty Industry: A Gendered Economic Review, Brianna D. Connelly

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Organic beauty has grown to a $6 billion dollar industry supplying consumers with products that align with unique social consumption preferences. This thesis explores the historical economic perspective of the traditional beauty industry and the development of the organic beauty industry. Capitalism influenced the traditional beauty industry during the pursuit for profits that lead to jeopardizing customer and environmental safety. Consumers responded to this behavior by founding an organic beauty industry that not only considered social issues, but negated gendered beauty standards in the process. Organic product efficacy has emerged as an issue that must be dealt with by regulation ...


Closer To Nature: Exploring Environmental Summer Camp Experience Through Ethnographic Fiction, Courtney Morgan Schofield Jun 2013

Closer To Nature: Exploring Environmental Summer Camp Experience Through Ethnographic Fiction, Courtney Morgan Schofield

Master's Theses

This thesis explores the experiences of counselors and campers at environmentally-themed summer camps through the medium of ethnographic fiction. Research was conducted by examining the experiences and influences of two separate summer camps, the Midwest Nature Center Camp and Midwest Zoo Camp. Drawing on traditional ethnographic research methods, I explore the environmental messages emphasized during camp, the myriad of relationships individuals have with nature, and the impact of gender on the summer camp experience. Yet, while this thesis is based on ethnographic research, an emphasis is placed on the presentation of the information. By examining the way anthropology has been ...


A Discursive Analysis Of A Pregnancy Center: How Pregnant Women Are Encouraged To Develop A Sense Of Self-Worth And Emotional Wellbeing Through The Use Of Rhetoric And Imagery, Jessica Postma Jun 2013

A Discursive Analysis Of A Pregnancy Center: How Pregnant Women Are Encouraged To Develop A Sense Of Self-Worth And Emotional Wellbeing Through The Use Of Rhetoric And Imagery, Jessica Postma

Master's Theses

This study presents and alternative approach to how pregnancy is interpreted in western society and how settings such as a pregnancy center both challenges and reinforces these social standards. The promotion of abstinence, the aversion to abortion, notions of truth and morality, religious narratives, and the standard of care are all integral components to this analysis of pregnancy, language, and culture.


Running To Lose: Gender Stereotypes In Memoirs By Geraldine Ferraro Pat Schroeder And Nancy Pelosi, Meredith Fierro Jun 2013

Running To Lose: Gender Stereotypes In Memoirs By Geraldine Ferraro Pat Schroeder And Nancy Pelosi, Meredith Fierro

Honors Theses

Over the last three decades, scholars have studied the impact of gender stereotypes on voter choice. Significant scholarship has found that gender stereotypes impact how voters evaluate candidates, with preference given to candidates who possess "masculine" qualities. I examine the memoirs of female politicians to evaluate how candidates themselves contribute to their image as “feminine” or “masculine.” After examining the memoirs of Geraldine Ferraro, Pat Schroeder and Nancy Pelosi, I argue that these politician-authors intentionally present a feminine image of themselves. In order to understand why they emphasize their femininity, I turn to the theories of Simone de Beauvoir and ...


The Association Of Gender, Rumination, And Depression On The Wais-Iv Working Memory Index, Audrey Ashton File May 2013

The Association Of Gender, Rumination, And Depression On The Wais-Iv Working Memory Index, Audrey Ashton File

Masters Theses

Due to the prevalence of depression in college students and associated functional and cognitive impairment, a developing body of research is exploring factors that may negatively impact cognitive efficiency. Recent research has highlighted rumination as one variable that may reduce cognitive efficiency and exacerbate depression. This study examined the impact of rumination and gender on working memory in depressed (n = 29) and non-depressed undergraduates, (n =68) by examining performance on the Working Memory Index (WMI) of the WAIS-IV. Prior to WMI subtests, participants were randomly assigned to a rumination or distraction condition. After controlling for pre-experimental rumination, test anxiety, mathematics ...


Masculine Gender Role Stress And Shame Proneness As Serial Mediators In The Relation Between Intimate Partner Aggression Victimization And Psychological Symptom Status In Men, Sarah Elizabeth Mauck May 2013

Masculine Gender Role Stress And Shame Proneness As Serial Mediators In The Relation Between Intimate Partner Aggression Victimization And Psychological Symptom Status In Men, Sarah Elizabeth Mauck

Masters Theses

The current study examined the indirect effect of male intimate partner aggression victimization on psychological symptom status through masculine gender role stress (MGRS) and shame proneness operating as serial mediators. Male college students (N = 74) completed self-report measures of intimate partner aggression, psychological symptoms, MGRS, and shame proneness. Results indicated a significant indirect effect of physical victimization on psychological symptom status through MGRS and shame proneness operating in sequence; results showed no significant indirect effect for psychological victimization. These results suggest that, perhaps, physical victimization creates increased MGRS, which, in turn, leads to greater shame proneness, which, likewise, produces increased ...


Narrative Framing Of U.S. Military Females In Combat: Inclusion Versus Resistance, James Scott Herford May 2013

Narrative Framing Of U.S. Military Females In Combat: Inclusion Versus Resistance, James Scott Herford

Theses and Dissertations

This study utilizes discursive data to examine how the strategic use of narratives inform policies that shape women's participation in military service overall and more specific, the current controversy over exclusion of women from participation in combat roles within the U.S. military. Specifically, I examine popular military newspapers, blogs and the Department of Defense 2012 Report regarding policies and regulations of female service members. In this study, I provide a sociological analysis of current military-cultural narratives and the institutional narrative discussing women's participation in combat roles in order to provide evidence of the current threat to the ...


Abnormal Sexual Assault Situations And Its Influence On Rape Myth Acceptance, Amber Carlson Apr 2013

Abnormal Sexual Assault Situations And Its Influence On Rape Myth Acceptance, Amber Carlson

Honors Theses and Capstones

The crime of rape, unwanted sexual contact, is a heavily researched topic in the sociological field. The majority of research, however, has revolved around incidences of stranger rape and the typical gender combination of male offender and female victim. The updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale was created to measure the level of participants agree with the typical rape myths of: she asked for it, he didn’t mean to, it wasn’t really rape, and she lied. This research study was designed to test the influence of gender in rape situations and how this affects the acceptance of rape ...


Colorful Colorado : The Relationship Between Demographics And The Changing Political Color Of Colorado., Leslie Forbes Apr 2013

Colorful Colorado : The Relationship Between Demographics And The Changing Political Color Of Colorado., Leslie Forbes

Geography & the Environment Graduate Student Capstones

This research will address the individual relationships between five demographic variables and the changing political color of Colorado (from a “red” state to a “blue” state). The variables addressed are age, education, income, gender, and the Hispanic[1] population growth. Building on recent literature reviews for Colorado’s political trends, I will attempt to show the relationships of the five variables and voting behavior. This data will then be statistically analyzed through Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to determine what relationship strength, weak or strong, exists between the demographic variables. My goal for this research is to determine which of the ...


Perpetuating Pms: What Supports The Stereotype?, Brianna Buhaly Apr 2013

Perpetuating Pms: What Supports The Stereotype?, Brianna Buhaly

Scripps Senior Theses

This study investigated how the problematic construct of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is sustained and perpetuated in our culture. A main effect of gender priming on the number of PMS symptoms recalled from a description suggests that priming activates relevant stereotypes, leading to selective attention to stereotype-consistent information, reinforcing the held stereotypes. An interaction between gender priming and type of description (a woman experiencing PMS, a woman experiencing headaches, or a man experiencing headaches) on the number of pathological conditions ascribed to the woman or man described was found. This suggests that gender priming has a restrictive effect on pathologizing, but ...


Effects Of Teacher Gender On Screening For Social, Emotional, And Behavioral Concerns For A Middle School Population, Susan E. Hardman Mar 2013

Effects Of Teacher Gender On Screening For Social, Emotional, And Behavioral Concerns For A Middle School Population, Susan E. Hardman

All Theses and Dissertations

Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) often experience serious educational difficulties and negative outcomes (Gresham, MacMillan, & Bocian, 1996; Landrum, Tankersley, & Kauffman, 2003; Rock, Fessler, & Church, 1997). School-wide screening to identify students with social, emotional, and behavioral concerns (SEB) allows school personnel to identify at-risk students and connect them with needed resources. Some students appear to be identified disproportionally, with male students identified as at-risk more frequently then female students (Young, Sabbah, Young, Reiser, & Richardson, 2009). There are many possible factors that could contribute to this disproportionate identification. Since screening for EBD is often based on teacher nominations, teacher gender is one factor that ...


The Impact Of Perpetrator Gender On Child Protective Services Sexual Abuse Cases: A National Picture, David Axlyn Mcleod Feb 2013

The Impact Of Perpetrator Gender On Child Protective Services Sexual Abuse Cases: A National Picture, David Axlyn Mcleod

Theses and Dissertations

Child sexual assault is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States with some research suggesting up to one fifth of our nations children being victimized before reaching adulthood. Research has suggested females could be responsible for up to 20% of child sexual abuse cases, and at the same time only represent only 1% of sexual offenders incarcerated the US. This creates a situation where a large group of relatively under-researched offenders are evading detection. Numerous calls for further research have been made, but relatively few studies have had the ability to shed significant light on this phenomenon on ...