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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Women's Inheritance Rights And Intergenerational Transmission Of Resources In India, Klaus Deininger, Aparajita Goyal, Hari Nagarajan Dec 2013

Women's Inheritance Rights And Intergenerational Transmission Of Resources In India, Klaus Deininger, Aparajita Goyal, Hari Nagarajan

Aparajita Goyal

We use inheritance patterns over three generations of individuals to assess the impact of changes in the Hindu Succession Act that grant daughters equal coparcenary birth rights in joint family property that were denied to daughters in the past. We show that the amendment significantly increased daughters’ likelihood to inherit land, but that even after the amendment, substantial bias persists. Our results also indicate a robust increase in educational attainment of daughters, suggesting an alternative channel of wealth transfer.


Gender Role Identity And Attitudes Toward Feminism, Paige W. Toller, Elizabeth A. Suter, Todd C. Trautman Nov 2013

Gender Role Identity And Attitudes Toward Feminism, Paige W. Toller, Elizabeth A. Suter, Todd C. Trautman

Paige W. Toller

In this study we examined relationships among gender role identity, support for feminism, nontraditional gender roles, and willingness to consider oneself a feminist in a sample of college students (N D 301). For female participants, we found positive relationships among higher masculinity on the PAQ (Personal Attributes Questionnaire), nontraditional attitudes toward gender roles, and the combined SRAI (Sex Role Attitudinal Inventory). A negative correlation was also found between lower scores on the PAQ masculinity–femininity index and the combined SRAI in women. For male participants, we found positive relationships among high femininity on the SIS (Sexual Identity Scale), willingness to ...


Phil 130: Dimensions Of Diversity (Fall 2013), Dylan Kissane Oct 2013

Phil 130: Dimensions Of Diversity (Fall 2013), Dylan Kissane

Dylan Kissane

No abstract provided.


Juki Girls: Gender, Globalization, And The Stigma Of Garment Factory Work, Caitrin Lynch Sep 2013

Juki Girls: Gender, Globalization, And The Stigma Of Garment Factory Work, Caitrin Lynch

Caitrin Lynch

The Sri Lanka Reader is a sweeping introduction to the epic history of the island nation located just off the southern tip of India. The island’s recorded history of more than two and a half millennia encompasses waves of immigration from the South Asian subcontinent, the formation of Sinhala Buddhist and Tamil Hindu civilizations, the arrival of Arab Muslim traders, and European colonization by the Portuguese, then the Dutch, and finally the British. Selected texts depict perceptions of the country’s multiple linguistic and religious communities, as well as its political travails after independence in 1948, especially the ethnic ...


An Interactive Exploration Of Gender And Engineering: Unpacking The Experience, Debbie Chachra, Lynn Stein, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski, Caitrin Lynch, Yevgeniya Zastavker Sep 2013

An Interactive Exploration Of Gender And Engineering: Unpacking The Experience, Debbie Chachra, Lynn Stein, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski, Caitrin Lynch, Yevgeniya Zastavker

Alisha L. Sarang-Sieminski

The engineering student experience is understood to differ for male and female students; gendered interactions affect the development of academic and professional role confidence, as well as engineering identity. The purpose of this session is twofold. First, we aim to introduce participants to concepts of gender schemas, privilege, and identity using a range of interactive activities, including brainstorming and structured discussion. Second, we intend to share information about and obtain feedback on a Gender Discussion Exploration Kit, which the participants will be encouraged to review, use, and share at their home institutions.


Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily Hannum, Peggy Kong, Yuping Zhang Sep 2013

Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily Hannum, Peggy Kong, Yuping Zhang

Yuping Zhang

In this paper, we investigate the gender gap in education in rural northwest China. We first discuss parental perceptions of abilities and appropriate roles for girls and boys; parental concerns about old-age support; and parental perceptions of different labor market outcomes for girls' and boys' education. We then investigate gender disparities in investments in children, children's performance at school, and children's subsequent attainment. We analyze a survey of nine to twelve year-old children and their families conducted in rural Gansu Province in the year 2000, along with follow-up information about subsequent educational attainment collected seven years later. We ...


Are Women Really More Risk-Averse Than Men? A Re-Analysis Of The Literature Using Expanded Methods, Julie Nelson Aug 2013

Are Women Really More Risk-Averse Than Men? A Re-Analysis Of The Literature Using Expanded Methods, Julie Nelson

Julie A. Nelson

While a substantial literature in economics and finance has concluded that “women are more risk averse than men,” this conclusion merits investigation. After briefly clarifying the difference between making generalizations about groups, on the one hand, and making valid inferences from samples, on the other, this essay suggests improvements to how economists communicate our research results. Supplementing findings of statistical significance with quantitative measures of both substantive difference (Cohen's d, a measure in common use in non-­‐Economics literatures) and of substantive overlap (the Index of Similarity, newly proposed here) adds important nuance to the discussion of sex differences ...


Women's Pay In Australia, Great Britain And The United States: Commentary, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jul 2013

Women's Pay In Australia, Great Britain And The United States: Commentary, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] My reaction to this paper is mixed. On the one hand, it represents one of the few serious efforts I know of to place discussions about comparable worth in a comparative perspective and to bring evidence from other countries' experiences into the debate about policy in the United States. For this the authors should be resoundingly applauded. On the other hand, I am left with the feeling that they have not pushed their empirical analyses as hard as they might have, and because of this, in places they may have drawn some inappropriate conclusions. My discussion will elaborate on ...


Necktie Nightmare: Narrating Gender In Contemporary Japan, Vera C. Mackie Jul 2013

Necktie Nightmare: Narrating Gender In Contemporary Japan, Vera C. Mackie

Vera Mackie

...the thing I hated most of all was the necktie.When I wore a necktie, there was just no doubt that I was a man.The image was of a salaryman! The mainstay of the house! The symbol of manhood! These are the words of Nomachi Mineko in the autobiographical account of her transition from male to female. The book (adapted from a blog) appeared in late 2006 under the title O-kama dakedo OL yattemasu (I'm Queer But I'm An Office Lady). The book's publication coincided with a range of mainstream representations of trans-gendered lives - in television ...


The Gender Fault-Line, Ayako Kano, Vera C. Mackie Jul 2013

The Gender Fault-Line, Ayako Kano, Vera C. Mackie

Vera Mackie

The economic, demographic and environmental shocks of recent years that have so profoundly shaped contemporary Japanese society have distinctive gendered dimensions. The economic reality has shifted, but social expectations about the roles of men and women have been slower to change. Meanwhile, the demographic crisis is placing considerable burden on families and revealing the attendant risk of the ‘care deficit’ — in the home and in the face of disaster.


Phil 130: Dimensions Of Diversity (Summer 2013), Dylan Kissane Jul 2013

Phil 130: Dimensions Of Diversity (Summer 2013), Dylan Kissane

Dylan Kissane

No abstract provided.


Marriage, Parenthood, And Labor Outcomes For Women And Men, Yuping Zhang, Emily C. Hannum Jun 2013

Marriage, Parenthood, And Labor Outcomes For Women And Men, Yuping Zhang, Emily C. Hannum

Emily C. Hannum

With analysis of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, we argue that, in both rural and urban areas, female disadvantage in wage employment and earnings needs to be reconceptualized as being concentrated among those who are experiencing family-work conflict: wives and mothers.


Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A Diverse Population, Nancy Kropf, Stacey Kolomer Jun 2013

Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A Diverse Population, Nancy Kropf, Stacey Kolomer

Nancy P. Kropf

The number of grandparents who are raising grandchildren has risen dramatically as the result of several social trends. Within this article, diversity aspects of this population are explored including characteristics of the grandparents and grandchildren. In addition, support groups, the primary intervention for custodial grandparents, are overviewed with specific attention to models that have relevance for subpopulations of care providers. Finally, child welfare and kinship care policies are examined and critiqued from a diversity perspective.


Would Women Leaders Have Prevented The Global Financial Crisis? Teaching Critical Thinking By Questioning A Question, Julie Nelson Jun 2013

Would Women Leaders Have Prevented The Global Financial Crisis? Teaching Critical Thinking By Questioning A Question, Julie Nelson

Julie A. Nelson

Would having more women in leadership have prevented the financial crisis? This question, raised in the popular media, can make effective fodder for teaching critical thinking within courses such as gender and economics, money and financial institutions, pluralist economics, or behavioural economics. While the question, as posed, demands an answer of 'Yes - sex differences in traits are important' or 'No - gender is irrelevant', students can be encouraged to question the question itself. The first part of this essay briefly reviews literature on the sameness-versus-difference debate, noting that the belief in exaggerated behavioural differences between men and women is not, in ...


Do Retail Firms Favor Female Managers? Evidence From Survey Data In Developing Countries, Mohammad Amin, Asif Islam May 2013

Do Retail Firms Favor Female Managers? Evidence From Survey Data In Developing Countries, Mohammad Amin, Asif Islam

Mohammad Amin

Using firm-level data for 87 developing countries, the paper analyzes how the likelihood of a firm having female vs. male top manager varies across sectors. The service sector is often considered to be more favorable towards women compared with men vis-à-vis the manufacturing sector. While our results confirm a significantly higher presence of female managers in services vs. manufacturing, the result is entirely driven by the retail firms with little contribution from other service sectors such as wholesale, construction and other services. We also find that the higher presence of female managers in the retail sector vs. manufacturing is much ...


Gender Disparities: A Medical Detoxification Program, Alberto Coustasse, Karan P. Singh, Sue G. Lurie, Yu-Sheng Lin, Claudia S. Coggin, Fernando Trevino May 2013

Gender Disparities: A Medical Detoxification Program, Alberto Coustasse, Karan P. Singh, Sue G. Lurie, Yu-Sheng Lin, Claudia S. Coggin, Fernando Trevino

Alberto Coustasse, DrPH, MD, MBA, MPH

Significant gaps exist in health care regarding gender in the United States. Health status, social roles, culturally patterned behavior and access to health care can be influenced by gender. Women have been the primary users of health care and minority women usually have received poorer quality care than Non-Hispanic White (NHW) females. The objectives of this study were to identify gender, racial and ethnic disparities in access to substance abuse treatment in a Texas hospital. Secondary data collected on 1,309 subjects who underwent detoxification were studied. Gender, race/ethnicity, drug of abuse, relapse and financial classification were included in ...


State Of The Urban Youth, India 2012, Professor Vibhuti Patel Apr 2013

State Of The Urban Youth, India 2012, Professor Vibhuti Patel

Professor Vibhuti Patel

State of the Urban Youth India 2012: Employment, Livelihoods, Skills Executive Summary Every third person in urban India is a youth. In less than a decade from now, India, with a median age of 29 years will be the youngest nation in the world. India’s demographic transformation is creating an opportunity for the demographic burden of the past to be converted to a dividend for the future. For this to happen the country needs to adopt a three-pronged policy that will address the issues of employment, livelihoods and the skill status of youth. The State of the Urban Youth ...


Phil 130: Dimensions Of Diversity (Spring 2013), Dylan Kissane Apr 2013

Phil 130: Dimensions Of Diversity (Spring 2013), Dylan Kissane

Dylan Kissane

No abstract provided.


Substance Use As A Longitudinal Predictor Of The Perpetration Of Teen Dating Violence, Jeff Temple, Ryan Shorey, Paula Fite, Gregory Stuart, Vi Donna Le Mar 2013

Substance Use As A Longitudinal Predictor Of The Perpetration Of Teen Dating Violence, Jeff Temple, Ryan Shorey, Paula Fite, Gregory Stuart, Vi Donna Le

Gregory Lyal Stuart

The prevention of teen dating violence is a major public health priority. However, the dearth of longitudinal studies makes it difficult to develop programs that effectively target salient risk factors. Using a school-based sample of ethnically diverse adolescents, this longitudinal study examined whether substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) and exposure to parental violence predicted the perpetration of physical dating violence over time. 1,042 9th and 10th grade high schools students were recruited and assessed in the spring of 2010, and 93 % of the original sample completed the 1-year follow-up in the spring of 2011. Participants who had ...


Importance Of Gender And Attitudes About Violence In The Relationship Between Exposure To Interparental Violence And The Perpetration Of Teen Dating Violence, Jeff Temple, Ryan Shorey, Susan Tortolero, David Wolfe, Gregory Stuart Feb 2013

Importance Of Gender And Attitudes About Violence In The Relationship Between Exposure To Interparental Violence And The Perpetration Of Teen Dating Violence, Jeff Temple, Ryan Shorey, Susan Tortolero, David Wolfe, Gregory Stuart

Gregory Lyal Stuart

Objective Mounting evidence has demonstrated a link between exposure to family of origin violence and the perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV). However, only recently have mechanisms underlying this relationship been investigated and very few studies have differentiated between exposure to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence. Methods The current study used structural equation modeling on a large ethnically diverse school-based sample of male and female adolescents (n = 917) to address these gaps in the literature. Results For adolescent girls, there was an association between exposure to interparental violence (father-to-mother and mother-to-father) and TDV perpetration (physical violence and psychological abuse). For adolescent ...


Gender Differences In Cognitive Function Of Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia, Mei Han, Xu-Feng Huang, Da Chen, Mei Xiu, Li Hui, Haibo Liu, Thomas Kosten, Xiang Zhang Feb 2013

Gender Differences In Cognitive Function Of Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia, Mei Han, Xu-Feng Huang, Da Chen, Mei Xiu, Li Hui, Haibo Liu, Thomas Kosten, Xiang Zhang

Xu-Feng Huang

Schizophrenic patients have cognitive impairments, but gender differences in these cognitive deficits have had limited study. This study assessed cognitive functioning in 471 subjects including 122 male and 78 female schizophrenic patients and 141 male and 130 female healthy controls. We found that immediate memory, language, delayed memory and total RBANS scores were significantly decreased in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls for both genders. Male patients had significant lower immediate memory, delayed memory and total RBANS scores than female patients, and healthy controls showed a similar gender difference. The RBANS showed modest correlations with PANSS scores, duration of illness and ...


Men's Collective Struggles For Gender Justice: The Case Of Antiviolence Activism, Michael Flood Feb 2013

Men's Collective Struggles For Gender Justice: The Case Of Antiviolence Activism, Michael Flood

Michael G Flood

No abstract provided.


Gender Differences In Wheelchair Marathon Performances - Oita Wheelchair Marathon From 1983 To 2011, Romuald Lepers, Paul J. Stapley, Beat Knechtle Jan 2013

Gender Differences In Wheelchair Marathon Performances - Oita Wheelchair Marathon From 1983 To 2011, Romuald Lepers, Paul J. Stapley, Beat Knechtle

Dr Paul J Stapley

Background: The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the changes in participation and performance of males and females at the Oita International Wheelchair Marathon in Oita, Japan, between 1983 and 2011, and (2) to analyze the gender difference in the age of peak wheelchair marathon performance. Methods: Age and time performance data for all wheelchair athletes completing the Oita International Wheelchair Marathon from 1983 to 2011 were analyzed. Results: Mean annual number of finishers was 123 ± 43 for males and 6 ± 3 for females (5.0% ± 2.0% of all finishers), respectively. Mean age of overall finishers was ...


Differences In Gender And Performance In Off-Road Triathlon, Romuald Lepers, Paul Stapley Jan 2013

Differences In Gender And Performance In Off-Road Triathlon, Romuald Lepers, Paul Stapley

Dr Paul J Stapley

The aims of this study were: (1) to examine performance trends and compare elite male and female athletes at the off-road triathlon (1.5-km swim, 30-km mountain biking, and 11-km trail running) world championships since its inception in 1996, and (2) to compare gender-related differences between off-road triathlon and conventional road-based triathlon. Linear regression analyses and ANOVA were used to examine performance trends and differences between the sexes. Elite male performance times stabilized over the 2005-2009 period, whereas elite female performance times continued to improve, especially for the run leg. Differences in performance times between the sexes were less marked ...


Not-So-Strong Evidence For Gender Differences In Risk, Julie Nelson Jan 2013

Not-So-Strong Evidence For Gender Differences In Risk, Julie Nelson

Julie A. Nelson

In their article "Strong Evidence for Gender Differences in Risk Taking," Gary Charness and Uri Gneezy (2012) review a number of experimental studies regarding investments in risky assets, and claim that these yield strong evidence that females are more risk averse than males. This study replicates and extends their article, demonstrating that its methods are highly problematic. While the methods used would be appropriate for categorical, individual-­‐level differences, the data reviewed are not consistent with such a model. Instead, modest differences (at most) exist only at aggregate levels, such as group means. The evidence in favor of gender difference ...


Fearing Fear: Gender And Economic Discourse, Julie Nelson Jan 2013

Fearing Fear: Gender And Economic Discourse, Julie Nelson

Julie A. Nelson

Economic discourse—or the lack of it—about fear is gendered on at least three fronts. First, while masculine-­‐associated notions of reason and mind have historically been prioritized in mainstream economics, fear—along with other emotions and embodiment—has tended to be culturally associated with femininity. Research on cognitive "gender schema," then, may at least partly explain the near absence of discussions of fear within economic research. Second, in the rare cases where fear is discussed in the contemporary economics literature, there is a tendency to (overly-­‐)strongly associate it with women. Finally, historians and philosophers of science have ...


Does Education Empower The Indonesian Women?, Arif Rohman Jan 2013

Does Education Empower The Indonesian Women?, Arif Rohman

Arif Rohman

The second feminist wave in the 1960s has influenced feminists to increase their campaign against patriarchy in almost all areas. This campaign aims to achieve equal legal, political and social rights for women. In this context, they view education as a vehicle to empower women in societies. Using Javanese culture as an example, this article will examine whether education has much impact on it, and to identify factors which prevent education from empowering women in Indonesia. From the analysis, it has shown that educated women still faced many obstacles to participate in economical, political and social aspects.


Women And Leadership In Islam: A Case Study In Indonesia, Arif Rohman Jan 2013

Women And Leadership In Islam: A Case Study In Indonesia, Arif Rohman

Arif Rohman

Women in leadership positions is a sensitive issue in most Moslem societies. Even though reality has shown that women can compete with men, some people continue to use ‘religious reasons’ to block women’s advancement to leadership roles and maintain the status quo. This article will examine the conservative and liberal thinking about women as leaders in Muslim society especially in Indonesia.


Feminist Thought In Adrian Howe’S Book: ‘Chamberlain Revisited: A 25th Anniversary Retrospective’, Arif Rohman Jan 2013

Feminist Thought In Adrian Howe’S Book: ‘Chamberlain Revisited: A 25th Anniversary Retrospective’, Arif Rohman

Arif Rohman

It is well-known that Lindy Chamberlain experienced a form of gender inequality and gender bias during her trial in 1980s. This challenged Adrian Howe to write a book which aims to counter a gender bias mindset that still exists in some people’s belief. Howe uses genealogy as a part of discourse analysis method by representing selected letters written by people, mainly women who are from different religions, ethnicity and age who supported Lindy Chamberlain. In this article I will try to analyse and evaluate academic areas of investigation as they have been reflected in Howe’s book in terms ...


Reinterpret Polygamy In Islam: A Case Study In Indonesia, Arif Rohman Jan 2013

Reinterpret Polygamy In Islam: A Case Study In Indonesia, Arif Rohman

Arif Rohman

It is the consensus of ulema (religious leader) in Indonesia that polygamy is allowed in Islam, while polyandry is prohibited. That is why even though that the practice of monogamy has negative impacts to women, some people still conduct it and believe that polygamy is sunnah (the manner or deeds of Muhammad) and part of syariah (Islamic law). This article will explore the perspective of fundamentalist and modernist about polygamy and how the modernist Muslim scholars in Indonesia fight for opposing polygamy.