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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Gender Role Identity And Attitudes Toward Feminism, Paige W. Toller, Elizabeth A. Suter, Todd C. Trautman Nov 2013

Gender Role Identity And Attitudes Toward Feminism, Paige W. Toller, Elizabeth A. Suter, Todd C. Trautman

Paige W. Toller

In this study we examined relationships among gender role identity, support for feminism, nontraditional gender roles, and willingness to consider oneself a feminist in a sample of college students (N D 301). For female participants, we found positive relationships among higher masculinity on the PAQ (Personal Attributes Questionnaire), nontraditional attitudes toward gender roles, and the combined SRAI (Sex Role Attitudinal Inventory). A negative correlation was also found between lower scores on the PAQ masculinity–femininity index and the combined SRAI in women. For male participants, we found positive relationships among high femininity on the SIS (Sexual Identity Scale), willingness to ...


Juki Girls: Gender, Globalization, And The Stigma Of Garment Factory Work, Caitrin Lynch Sep 2013

Juki Girls: Gender, Globalization, And The Stigma Of Garment Factory Work, Caitrin Lynch

Caitrin Lynch

The Sri Lanka Reader is a sweeping introduction to the epic history of the island nation located just off the southern tip of India. The island’s recorded history of more than two and a half millennia encompasses waves of immigration from the South Asian subcontinent, the formation of Sinhala Buddhist and Tamil Hindu civilizations, the arrival of Arab Muslim traders, and European colonization by the Portuguese, then the Dutch, and finally the British. Selected texts depict perceptions of the country’s multiple linguistic and religious communities, as well as its political travails after independence in 1948, especially the ethnic ...


An Interactive Exploration Of Gender And Engineering: Unpacking The Experience, Debbie Chachra, Lynn Stein, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski, Caitrin Lynch, Yevgeniya Zastavker Sep 2013

An Interactive Exploration Of Gender And Engineering: Unpacking The Experience, Debbie Chachra, Lynn Stein, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski, Caitrin Lynch, Yevgeniya Zastavker

Alisha L. Sarang-Sieminski

The engineering student experience is understood to differ for male and female students; gendered interactions affect the development of academic and professional role confidence, as well as engineering identity. The purpose of this session is twofold. First, we aim to introduce participants to concepts of gender schemas, privilege, and identity using a range of interactive activities, including brainstorming and structured discussion. Second, we intend to share information about and obtain feedback on a Gender Discussion Exploration Kit, which the participants will be encouraged to review, use, and share at their home institutions.


Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily Hannum, Peggy Kong, Yuping Zhang Sep 2013

Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily Hannum, Peggy Kong, Yuping Zhang

Yuping Zhang

In this paper, we investigate the gender gap in education in rural northwest China. We first discuss parental perceptions of abilities and appropriate roles for girls and boys; parental concerns about old-age support; and parental perceptions of different labor market outcomes for girls' and boys' education. We then investigate gender disparities in investments in children, children's performance at school, and children's subsequent attainment. We analyze a survey of nine to twelve year-old children and their families conducted in rural Gansu Province in the year 2000, along with follow-up information about subsequent educational attainment collected seven years later. We ...


Women's Pay In Australia, Great Britain And The United States: Commentary, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jul 2013

Women's Pay In Australia, Great Britain And The United States: Commentary, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Ronald G. Ehrenberg

[Excerpt] My reaction to this paper is mixed. On the one hand, it represents one of the few serious efforts I know of to place discussions about comparable worth in a comparative perspective and to bring evidence from other countries' experiences into the debate about policy in the United States. For this the authors should be resoundingly applauded. On the other hand, I am left with the feeling that they have not pushed their empirical analyses as hard as they might have, and because of this, in places they may have drawn some inappropriate conclusions. My discussion will elaborate on ...


Necktie Nightmare: Narrating Gender In Contemporary Japan, Vera C. Mackie Jul 2013

Necktie Nightmare: Narrating Gender In Contemporary Japan, Vera C. Mackie

Vera Mackie

...the thing I hated most of all was the necktie.When I wore a necktie, there was just no doubt that I was a man.The image was of a salaryman! The mainstay of the house! The symbol of manhood! These are the words of Nomachi Mineko in the autobiographical account of her transition from male to female. The book (adapted from a blog) appeared in late 2006 under the title O-kama dakedo OL yattemasu (I'm Queer But I'm An Office Lady). The book's publication coincided with a range of mainstream representations of trans-gendered lives - in television ...


The Gender Fault-Line, Ayako Kano, Vera C. Mackie Jul 2013

The Gender Fault-Line, Ayako Kano, Vera C. Mackie

Vera Mackie

The economic, demographic and environmental shocks of recent years that have so profoundly shaped contemporary Japanese society have distinctive gendered dimensions. The economic reality has shifted, but social expectations about the roles of men and women have been slower to change. Meanwhile, the demographic crisis is placing considerable burden on families and revealing the attendant risk of the ‘care deficit’ — in the home and in the face of disaster.


Marriage, Parenthood, And Labor Outcomes For Women And Men, Yuping Zhang, Emily C. Hannum Jun 2013

Marriage, Parenthood, And Labor Outcomes For Women And Men, Yuping Zhang, Emily C. Hannum

Emily C. Hannum

With analysis of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, we argue that, in both rural and urban areas, female disadvantage in wage employment and earnings needs to be reconceptualized as being concentrated among those who are experiencing family-work conflict: wives and mothers.


Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A Diverse Population, Nancy Kropf, Stacey Kolomer Jun 2013

Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A Diverse Population, Nancy Kropf, Stacey Kolomer

Nancy P. Kropf

The number of grandparents who are raising grandchildren has risen dramatically as the result of several social trends. Within this article, diversity aspects of this population are explored including characteristics of the grandparents and grandchildren. In addition, support groups, the primary intervention for custodial grandparents, are overviewed with specific attention to models that have relevance for subpopulations of care providers. Finally, child welfare and kinship care policies are examined and critiqued from a diversity perspective.


Do Retail Firms Favor Female Managers? Evidence From Survey Data In Developing Countries, Mohammad Amin, Asif Islam May 2013

Do Retail Firms Favor Female Managers? Evidence From Survey Data In Developing Countries, Mohammad Amin, Asif Islam

Mohammad Amin

Using firm-level data for 87 developing countries, the paper analyzes how the likelihood of a firm having female vs. male top manager varies across sectors. The service sector is often considered to be more favorable towards women compared with men vis-à-vis the manufacturing sector. While our results confirm a significantly higher presence of female managers in services vs. manufacturing, the result is entirely driven by the retail firms with little contribution from other service sectors such as wholesale, construction and other services. We also find that the higher presence of female managers in the retail sector vs. manufacturing is much ...


Gender Disparities: A Medical Detoxification Program, Alberto Coustasse, Karan P. Singh, Sue G. Lurie, Yu-Sheng Lin, Claudia S. Coggin, Fernando Trevino May 2013

Gender Disparities: A Medical Detoxification Program, Alberto Coustasse, Karan P. Singh, Sue G. Lurie, Yu-Sheng Lin, Claudia S. Coggin, Fernando Trevino

Alberto Coustasse, DrPH, MD, MBA, MPH

Significant gaps exist in health care regarding gender in the United States. Health status, social roles, culturally patterned behavior and access to health care can be influenced by gender. Women have been the primary users of health care and minority women usually have received poorer quality care than Non-Hispanic White (NHW) females. The objectives of this study were to identify gender, racial and ethnic disparities in access to substance abuse treatment in a Texas hospital. Secondary data collected on 1,309 subjects who underwent detoxification were studied. Gender, race/ethnicity, drug of abuse, relapse and financial classification were included in ...


State Of The Urban Youth, India 2012, Professor Vibhuti Patel Apr 2013

State Of The Urban Youth, India 2012, Professor Vibhuti Patel

Professor Vibhuti Patel

State of the Urban Youth India 2012: Employment, Livelihoods, Skills Executive Summary Every third person in urban India is a youth. In less than a decade from now, India, with a median age of 29 years will be the youngest nation in the world. India’s demographic transformation is creating an opportunity for the demographic burden of the past to be converted to a dividend for the future. For this to happen the country needs to adopt a three-pronged policy that will address the issues of employment, livelihoods and the skill status of youth. The State of the Urban Youth ...


Substance Use As A Longitudinal Predictor Of The Perpetration Of Teen Dating Violence, Jeff Temple, Ryan Shorey, Paula Fite, Gregory Stuart, Vi Donna Le Mar 2013

Substance Use As A Longitudinal Predictor Of The Perpetration Of Teen Dating Violence, Jeff Temple, Ryan Shorey, Paula Fite, Gregory Stuart, Vi Donna Le

Gregory Lyal Stuart

The prevention of teen dating violence is a major public health priority. However, the dearth of longitudinal studies makes it difficult to develop programs that effectively target salient risk factors. Using a school-based sample of ethnically diverse adolescents, this longitudinal study examined whether substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) and exposure to parental violence predicted the perpetration of physical dating violence over time. 1,042 9th and 10th grade high schools students were recruited and assessed in the spring of 2010, and 93 % of the original sample completed the 1-year follow-up in the spring of 2011. Participants who had ...


Importance Of Gender And Attitudes About Violence In The Relationship Between Exposure To Interparental Violence And The Perpetration Of Teen Dating Violence, Jeff Temple, Ryan Shorey, Susan Tortolero, David Wolfe, Gregory Stuart Feb 2013

Importance Of Gender And Attitudes About Violence In The Relationship Between Exposure To Interparental Violence And The Perpetration Of Teen Dating Violence, Jeff Temple, Ryan Shorey, Susan Tortolero, David Wolfe, Gregory Stuart

Gregory Lyal Stuart

Objective Mounting evidence has demonstrated a link between exposure to family of origin violence and the perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV). However, only recently have mechanisms underlying this relationship been investigated and very few studies have differentiated between exposure to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence. Methods The current study used structural equation modeling on a large ethnically diverse school-based sample of male and female adolescents (n = 917) to address these gaps in the literature. Results For adolescent girls, there was an association between exposure to interparental violence (father-to-mother and mother-to-father) and TDV perpetration (physical violence and psychological abuse). For adolescent ...


Gender Differences In Cognitive Function Of Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia, Mei Han, Xu-Feng Huang, Da Chen, Mei Xiu, Li Hui, Haibo Liu, Thomas Kosten, Xiang Zhang Feb 2013

Gender Differences In Cognitive Function Of Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia, Mei Han, Xu-Feng Huang, Da Chen, Mei Xiu, Li Hui, Haibo Liu, Thomas Kosten, Xiang Zhang

Xu-Feng Huang

Schizophrenic patients have cognitive impairments, but gender differences in these cognitive deficits have had limited study. This study assessed cognitive functioning in 471 subjects including 122 male and 78 female schizophrenic patients and 141 male and 130 female healthy controls. We found that immediate memory, language, delayed memory and total RBANS scores were significantly decreased in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls for both genders. Male patients had significant lower immediate memory, delayed memory and total RBANS scores than female patients, and healthy controls showed a similar gender difference. The RBANS showed modest correlations with PANSS scores, duration of illness and ...


Men's Collective Struggles For Gender Justice: The Case Of Antiviolence Activism, Michael Flood Feb 2013

Men's Collective Struggles For Gender Justice: The Case Of Antiviolence Activism, Michael Flood

Michael G Flood

No abstract provided.


Gender Differences In Wheelchair Marathon Performances - Oita Wheelchair Marathon From 1983 To 2011, Romuald Lepers, Paul J. Stapley, Beat Knechtle Jan 2013

Gender Differences In Wheelchair Marathon Performances - Oita Wheelchair Marathon From 1983 To 2011, Romuald Lepers, Paul J. Stapley, Beat Knechtle

Dr Paul J Stapley

Background: The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the changes in participation and performance of males and females at the Oita International Wheelchair Marathon in Oita, Japan, between 1983 and 2011, and (2) to analyze the gender difference in the age of peak wheelchair marathon performance. Methods: Age and time performance data for all wheelchair athletes completing the Oita International Wheelchair Marathon from 1983 to 2011 were analyzed. Results: Mean annual number of finishers was 123 ± 43 for males and 6 ± 3 for females (5.0% ± 2.0% of all finishers), respectively. Mean age of overall finishers was ...


Differences In Gender And Performance In Off-Road Triathlon, Romuald Lepers, Paul Stapley Jan 2013

Differences In Gender And Performance In Off-Road Triathlon, Romuald Lepers, Paul Stapley

Dr Paul J Stapley

The aims of this study were: (1) to examine performance trends and compare elite male and female athletes at the off-road triathlon (1.5-km swim, 30-km mountain biking, and 11-km trail running) world championships since its inception in 1996, and (2) to compare gender-related differences between off-road triathlon and conventional road-based triathlon. Linear regression analyses and ANOVA were used to examine performance trends and differences between the sexes. Elite male performance times stabilized over the 2005-2009 period, whereas elite female performance times continued to improve, especially for the run leg. Differences in performance times between the sexes were less marked ...


Gender And Global Lawyering: Where Are The Women?, Steven Boutcher, Carole Silver Dec 2012

Gender And Global Lawyering: Where Are The Women?, Steven Boutcher, Carole Silver

Carole Silver

The dual processes of diversity and globalization are responsible for significant growth among U.S. law firms: female lawyers account for much of the increase in headcount in large law firms over the last several decades, and lawyers educated and licensed in jurisdictions outside of the U.S. have helped U.S.-based law firms expand internationally. This article draws on data gathered from lawyer biographies to examine the relationship between gender diversity and globalization, and considers whether career strategies that involve the international movement of lawyers are equally powerful for women and men. Our research suggests that gender inequality ...


The Power Of Stereotyping And Confirmation Bias To Overwhelm Accurate Assessment: The Case Of Economics, Gender, And Risk Aversion, Julie A. Nelson Dec 2012

The Power Of Stereotyping And Confirmation Bias To Overwhelm Accurate Assessment: The Case Of Economics, Gender, And Risk Aversion, Julie A. Nelson

Julie A. Nelson

Behavioral research has revealed how normal human cognitive processes can tend to lead us astray. But do these affect economic researchers, ourselves? This article explores the consequences of stereotyping and confirmation bias using a sample of published articles from the economics literature on gender and risk aversion. The results demonstrate that the supposedly “robust” claim that “women are more risk averse than men” is far less empirically supported than has been claimed. The questions of how these cognitive biases arise and why they have such power are discussed, and methodological practices that may help to attenuate these biases are outlined.


Natural Born Peacemakers? Gender And The Resolution Of Conflict, Mara Olekalns Dec 2012

Natural Born Peacemakers? Gender And The Resolution Of Conflict, Mara Olekalns

Mara Olekalns

Two males sit apart, staring at each other from the corners of their eyes. A female approaches one and takes him by the arm, pulls him towards the other male. She alternates between the two and eventually brokers peace. In a different scenario, two males are again in conflict. A third male inserts himself between them, screaming at them or physically separating them to prevent the conflict from escalating. He keeps them separate and harangues them into submission (De Waal, 2009). Female as peacemaker, male as peacekeeper. These examples fit with our intuitions about how gender might shape the way ...


The Limits Of Debate Or What We Talk About When We Talk About Gender Imbalance On The Bench, Keith Bybee Dec 2012

The Limits Of Debate Or What We Talk About When We Talk About Gender Imbalance On The Bench, Keith Bybee

Keith J. Bybee

What do we talk about when we talk about gender imbalance on the bench? The first thing we do is keep track of the number of female judges. Once the data has been gathered, we then argue about what the disparity between men and women in the judiciary means. These arguments about meaning are not freestanding. On the contrary, I claim that debates over gender imbalance occur within the context of a broader public debate over the nature of judicial decisionmaking. I argue that this public debate revolves around dueling conceptions of the judge as impartial arbiter and as politically ...


Historical Sociolinguistic Approaches To Derivational Morphology: A Study Of Speaker Gender And Nominal Suffixes In Early Modern English, Chris C. Palmer Dec 2012

Historical Sociolinguistic Approaches To Derivational Morphology: A Study Of Speaker Gender And Nominal Suffixes In Early Modern English, Chris C. Palmer

Chris C. Palmer

Sociolinguistic variables, such as gender, help nuance historical claims about language change by identifying which subsets of speakers either lead or lag in the use of different linguistic variants. But at present, scholars of historical sociolinguistics have focused primarily on syntax and inflectional morphology, often leaving derivational morphology unexplored. To fill this gap in part, this paper presents a case study of men’s and women’s use of five different nominal suffixes- ‑ness, ‑ity, -age, -ment, and –cion- within the fifteenth and sixteenth century portions of the Corpus of Early English Correspondence. This study finds that men led women ...


Gender Differences In Victimization Risk: Exploring The Role Of Deviant Lifestyles, Heather Zaykowski, Whitney Decamp Dec 2012

Gender Differences In Victimization Risk: Exploring The Role Of Deviant Lifestyles, Heather Zaykowski, Whitney Decamp

Whitney DeCamp

While research over the past few decades has illustrated that gender is a significant predictor of victimization, there has been less attention towards explaining these differences. Furthermore, there has been little attention given to how offending and other deviant behaviors contribute to victimization risk for males and females. This is surprising considering that offending, particularly violent behavior, is highly correlated with victimization risk and that males are more likely to offend than females. This study applied cross-sectional and time-ordered models predicting violent victimization and repeat victimization to examine how deviant lifestyles impacted victimization risk for males and females. The results ...