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2013

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Gay, Straight, Or Slightly Bent? The Interaction Of Leader Sexual Orientation And Gender On Leadership Evaluations, Fred George Macoukji Dec 2013

Gay, Straight, Or Slightly Bent? The Interaction Of Leader Sexual Orientation And Gender On Leadership Evaluations, Fred George Macoukji

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Existing research has shown that gender stereotypes regarding characteristics of men and women influence others' perceptions of their fit with organizational roles, including leadership roles (cf. Eagly & Karau, 2002). However, little research has examined stereotypes regarding other demographic characteristics (e.g., race, sexual orientation) and how they may interact with gender stereotypes to influence leadership evaluations. The current study examined whether leader gender and sexual orientation interact to influence subordinates' evaluations of leader effectiveness, likability, and boss desirability using an experimental design. In addition to examining whether leader gender and sexual orientation interacted to predict leader evaluations, the present ...


Use Of Protective Behavioral Strategies And Reduced Alcohol Risk: Examining The Moderating Effects Of Mental Health, Gender And Race, Shannon R. Kenney, Joseph W. Labrie Dec 2013

Use Of Protective Behavioral Strategies And Reduced Alcohol Risk: Examining The Moderating Effects Of Mental Health, Gender And Race, Shannon R. Kenney, Joseph W. Labrie

Heads Up!

Recent research indicates that protective behavioral strategies (PBS)—previously established as effective self-regulating tools for reducing alcohol risk among college students—may be especially useful for students with poor mental health, who are shown to be at heightened risk for alcohol-related harm. The current study examined the moderating influence of mental health (depression and anxiety severity), gender, and race (White, Asian) in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 1,782 undergraduate students from two West Coast universities who reported past month incidence of heavy episodic drinking. Students reported on their drinking, experience of alcohol-related consequences ...


"You're Looking Good": Compliment Or Harassment?, David B. Mcmillan Dec 2013

"You're Looking Good": Compliment Or Harassment?, David B. Mcmillan

All Theses and Dissertations

Whether an individual perceives an appearance compliment in the workplace as sexual harassment may depend on a number of factors such as the gender and/or status of the complimenter. Three hundred eighty-three (130 males, 253 females) participants completed an online survey in which they read and rated six different hypothetical vignettes imagining themselves as the recipient of an appearance compliment from a male superior, subordinate, and peer, as well as a female in each of those three status positions. Participants also filled out the Big Five Inventory (BFI; see John, Naumann, & Soto, 2008) in order to assess how personality may influence harassment perceptions. Females perceived opposite-sex appearance compliments as more harassing than males did (p < .001, d = 1.33), and males perceived same-sex compliments as more harassing than females did (p < .001, d = 0.85). Appearance compliments from those in the three status positions were also perceived differently (p < .001, np2 = .29) with compliments from superiors perceived as more harassing than from peers (p < .001) and subordinates (p < .001), and subordinates perceived as more harassing than peers (p < .001). Three of the Big Five personality factors (Conscientiousness, b = 9.93, p < .001; Neuroticism, b = 9.46, p < .001; and Openness, b = -5.04, p = .04) were predictive of harassment perceptions (R2 = .087, p < .001). Based on these findings, it is recommended that males and those in superior status positions avoid giving appearance compliments in the workplace.


Adolescents’ Definitions Of Cheating In Romantic Relationships, Jerika C. Norona Dec 2013

Adolescents’ Definitions Of Cheating In Romantic Relationships, Jerika C. Norona

Masters Theses

Cheating is a common occurrence in dating relationships. However, less is known about cheating in adolescence, a time when many individuals first experience romantic relationships. An important initial step for research is examining how adolescents define cheating in their romantic relationships. The present study used Thematic Analysis, a qualitative analytic method, to explore adolescents’ definitions of cheating and how these definitions might differ across age and gender. Furthermore, the present study examined patterns that emerged within definitions. Results indicate that definitions of cheating included a range of behaviors, such as engaging in physical activity, romantic/intimate involvement, spending time with ...


The Relationship Between Sex-Typing And Help-Seeking Behaviors In Adults, Joshua Juvrud Aug 2013

The Relationship Between Sex-Typing And Help-Seeking Behaviors In Adults, Joshua Juvrud

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The process of expressing what is masculine promotes attitudes and behaviors that can discourage men from seeking help, contributing to numerous health issues in males. The purpose of this study was to explore how personally endorsed gender stereotypes vs. gender stereotyped attitudes impacted help-seeking behavior. In the current study, female and male adults completed challenging puzzle tasks, recalled previous health help-seeking behavior, and completed sex-typed measures. Females utilized personally endorsed gender stereotypes more during the puzzle tasks, while males utilized both personally endorsed gender stereotypes as well as gender stereotyped attitudes. When males recalled health-related events, however, personally endorsed feminine ...


Shakespeare’S Cymbeline And The Mystical Particular: Redemption, Then And Now, For A Disassembled World, Judy Schavrien Jul 2013

Shakespeare’S Cymbeline And The Mystical Particular: Redemption, Then And Now, For A Disassembled World, Judy Schavrien

International Journal of Transpersonal Studies

Cymbeline reflected Shakespeare’s late-in-life aspirations for a world redeemed. Those in baroque England, past the first burgeoning of Renaissance vision, were nevertheless making a literal New World abroad. Likewise, Shakespeare arrived at a vision both post-innocent and post-tragic. As they compared to tragic heroes, he down-sized the late play characters; still, he granted them a gentler end. Late characters and worlds suffered centrifugal pressures; yet, ultimately, centripetal forces, internal and external, brought selves and worlds together. Relevant to today’s disassembled world, the study tracks Shakespeare’s approach to unification: He rebalanced gender, internal and external; he placed an ...


Boys Will Be Boys, Girls Will Be..., Rashida Aluko-Roberts Jun 2013

Boys Will Be Boys, Girls Will Be..., Rashida Aluko-Roberts

SURGE

Lets talk about sex.

Well not really, just the double standard that comes with the topic. It’s no secret that men and women are taught to think about sex differently. While there are many (myself included) who fail to accept these culturally imposed ideas and attitudes about sex, it would be incredibly naïve to not acknowledge the existence of the double standard that exists. [excerpt]


Fifty Shades Of Rosa Coldfield: Sex, Gender, And Trauma In Absalom, Absalom!, Renee A. Clare-Kovacs Jun 2013

Fifty Shades Of Rosa Coldfield: Sex, Gender, And Trauma In Absalom, Absalom!, Renee A. Clare-Kovacs

Papers & Publications: Interdisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Research

By using the opposing definitions of sex, male and female based on physical characteristics, as a framework, William Faulkner demonstrated the trauma of gender confusion for Absalom, Absalom!’s Rosa Coldfield. Coldfield’s role models required the expanded definitions of gender as defined by one’s social and behavioral traits, confusing Rosa’s understanding of herself in the sexual constructs of the Antebellum Southern United States. Coldfield allowed herself to believe that she could create a place for herself based on her confused understanding of sex and gender. Using traumatic texutality and repressed narrative, Faulkner transmits the impact of trauma ...


An Investigation Of Gender Differences In Pro-Environmental Attitudes And Behaviors, Sonja Plavsic May 2013

An Investigation Of Gender Differences In Pro-Environmental Attitudes And Behaviors, Sonja Plavsic

Honors Scholar Theses

Environmental responsibility has become an increasing concern in today's world. "Green" practices have become the norm with a growth in recycling options on school campuses and in cities, emissions restrictions for cars, and many brands positioning themselves as eco-friendly. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender differences regarding pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors among college students as predicted by socialization and social role theories, ecofeminism, and social norms. Participants were 313 University of Connecticut students (124 male, 189 female) who took part in an online survey measuring their attitudes towards the environment and conservation behavior ...


The Cultural Manifestations Of Anorexia Nervosa, Aaron Volk May 2013

The Cultural Manifestations Of Anorexia Nervosa, Aaron Volk

Tredway Library Prize for First-Year Research

No abstract provided.


The Association Of Gender, Rumination, And Depression On The Wais-Iv Working Memory Index, Audrey Ashton File May 2013

The Association Of Gender, Rumination, And Depression On The Wais-Iv Working Memory Index, Audrey Ashton File

Masters Theses

Due to the prevalence of depression in college students and associated functional and cognitive impairment, a developing body of research is exploring factors that may negatively impact cognitive efficiency. Recent research has highlighted rumination as one variable that may reduce cognitive efficiency and exacerbate depression. This study examined the impact of rumination and gender on working memory in depressed (n = 29) and non-depressed undergraduates, (n =68) by examining performance on the Working Memory Index (WMI) of the WAIS-IV. Prior to WMI subtests, participants were randomly assigned to a rumination or distraction condition. After controlling for pre-experimental rumination, test anxiety, mathematics ...


Her Voice Lingers On And Her Memory Is Strategic: Effects Of Gender And Emotional Prosody On Directed Forgetting, Hwajin Yang, Sujin Yang, Giho Park May 2013

Her Voice Lingers On And Her Memory Is Strategic: Effects Of Gender And Emotional Prosody On Directed Forgetting, Hwajin Yang, Sujin Yang, Giho Park

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The literature on directed forgetting has employed exclusively visual words. Thus, the potentially interesting aspects of a spoken utterance, which include not only vocal cues (e.g., prosody) but also the speaker and the listener, have been neglected. This study demonstrates that prosody alone does not influence directed-forgetting effects, while the sex of the speaker and the listener significantly modulate directed-forgetting effects for spoken utterances. Specifically, forgetting costs were attenuated for female-spoken items compared to male-spoken items, and forgetting benefits were eliminated among female listeners but not among male listeners. These results suggest that information conveyed in a female voice ...


Do Students Understand What Researchers Mean By Bullying?, Kristin E. Bieber Apr 2013

Do Students Understand What Researchers Mean By Bullying?, Kristin E. Bieber

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

The definition of bullying most often used by researchers incorporates three key elements: repetition, intent to harm, and a power imbalance (Olweus, 2010). Past studies have found that students may not understand how this definition of bullying is different from general peer aggression, and that they may report their involvement in instances of aggression that occur only once, or happen among individuals of equal power, when they are asked about their involvement in bullying (Monks & Smith, 2006).

This dissertation examined: a) grade differences in students’ abilities to accurately apply the definition of bullying when determining if a behavior is or is not bullying; (b) differences in students’ accurate identification of bullying as a result of grade, gender, and type of bullying; and (c) the relationship between students’ accurate ...


Perpetuating Pms: What Supports The Stereotype?, Brianna Buhaly Apr 2013

Perpetuating Pms: What Supports The Stereotype?, Brianna Buhaly

Scripps Senior Theses

This study investigated how the problematic construct of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is sustained and perpetuated in our culture. A main effect of gender priming on the number of PMS symptoms recalled from a description suggests that priming activates relevant stereotypes, leading to selective attention to stereotype-consistent information, reinforcing the held stereotypes. An interaction between gender priming and type of description (a woman experiencing PMS, a woman experiencing headaches, or a man experiencing headaches) on the number of pathological conditions ascribed to the woman or man described was found. This suggests that gender priming has a restrictive effect on pathologizing, but ...


Substance Use As A Longitudinal Predictor Of The Perpetration Of Teen Dating Violence, Jeff Temple, Ryan Shorey, Paula Fite, Gregory Stuart, Vi Donna Le Mar 2013

Substance Use As A Longitudinal Predictor Of The Perpetration Of Teen Dating Violence, Jeff Temple, Ryan Shorey, Paula Fite, Gregory Stuart, Vi Donna Le

Gregory Lyal Stuart

The prevention of teen dating violence is a major public health priority. However, the dearth of longitudinal studies makes it difficult to develop programs that effectively target salient risk factors. Using a school-based sample of ethnically diverse adolescents, this longitudinal study examined whether substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) and exposure to parental violence predicted the perpetration of physical dating violence over time. 1,042 9th and 10th grade high schools students were recruited and assessed in the spring of 2010, and 93 % of the original sample completed the 1-year follow-up in the spring of 2011. Participants who had ...


Effects Of Teacher Gender On Screening For Social, Emotional, And Behavioral Concerns For A Middle School Population, Susan E. Hardman Mar 2013

Effects Of Teacher Gender On Screening For Social, Emotional, And Behavioral Concerns For A Middle School Population, Susan E. Hardman

All Theses and Dissertations

Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) often experience serious educational difficulties and negative outcomes (Gresham, MacMillan, & Bocian, 1996; Landrum, Tankersley, & Kauffman, 2003; Rock, Fessler, & Church, 1997). School-wide screening to identify students with social, emotional, and behavioral concerns (SEB) allows school personnel to identify at-risk students and connect them with needed resources. Some students appear to be identified disproportionally, with male students identified as at-risk more frequently then female students (Young, Sabbah, Young, Reiser, & Richardson, 2009). There are many possible factors that could contribute to this disproportionate identification. Since screening for EBD is often based on teacher nominations, teacher gender is one factor that ...


Importance Of Gender And Attitudes About Violence In The Relationship Between Exposure To Interparental Violence And The Perpetration Of Teen Dating Violence, Jeff Temple, Ryan Shorey, Susan Tortolero, David Wolfe, Gregory Stuart Feb 2013

Importance Of Gender And Attitudes About Violence In The Relationship Between Exposure To Interparental Violence And The Perpetration Of Teen Dating Violence, Jeff Temple, Ryan Shorey, Susan Tortolero, David Wolfe, Gregory Stuart

Gregory Lyal Stuart

Objective Mounting evidence has demonstrated a link between exposure to family of origin violence and the perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV). However, only recently have mechanisms underlying this relationship been investigated and very few studies have differentiated between exposure to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence. Methods The current study used structural equation modeling on a large ethnically diverse school-based sample of male and female adolescents (n = 917) to address these gaps in the literature. Results For adolescent girls, there was an association between exposure to interparental violence (father-to-mother and mother-to-father) and TDV perpetration (physical violence and psychological abuse). For adolescent ...


Relationship Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Resilience, And Religious Orientation And Practices Among University Student Earthquake Survivors In Haiti, Harvey J. Burnett Jr, Herbert Helm Jan 2013

Relationship Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Resilience, And Religious Orientation And Practices Among University Student Earthquake Survivors In Haiti, Harvey J. Burnett Jr, Herbert Helm

Faculty Publications

This study examined the prevalence of PTSD symptoms; the relationship between PTSD and resilience, religious orientation and religious practices; and how gender is associated with these variables among a volunteer sample of 140 students attending a Christian university in Haiti approximately four months after the January 2010 earthquake. Using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C), the Resilience Scale (RS), and the Religious Orientation Scale (ROS) found no significant relationship between PTSD, resilience, religious orientation and religious practices. Results did indicate that 34% of the sample had PCL-C scores indicative of PTSD; female participants had higher PTSD symptoms than males; higher levels of ...


The Beast Had To Marry Balinda: Using Story Examples To Explore Socializing Concepts In Ugandan Caregivers’ Oral Stories, Valeda Dent, Geoff Goodman Jan 2013

The Beast Had To Marry Balinda: Using Story Examples To Explore Socializing Concepts In Ugandan Caregivers’ Oral Stories, Valeda Dent, Geoff Goodman

Brooklyn Library Faculty Publications

Within the context of storytelling as oral tradition, this paper uses a grounded theory approach to explore a single research question about the socializing concepts found in examples of stories told to young children by their mothers and grandmothers in a rural Ugandan village. These story examples were gathered during the implementation of a socio-educational intervention project. The aims of this paper are to provide a descriptive analysis of the emergent themes and constructs in these story examples against the backdrop of a relevant theoretical framework and life in this rural Ugandan village.


Making Sense Of Motorcycle Brotherhood: Women, Branding, And Construction Of Self, Kimberly Michelle Maas Jan 2013

Making Sense Of Motorcycle Brotherhood: Women, Branding, And Construction Of Self, Kimberly Michelle Maas

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

This project focused on the motorcycle culture as evidenced in the definition of motorcycling brotherhood, the role of women in motorcycle culture, branding, and construction of self-identity. This study is intended to provide an in-depth analysis of these four areas for every-day bikers rather than outlaw motorcycle gangs. Previous research to date has focused on the culture and context of brotherhood among outlaw motorcycle gangs. I use these four sections to determine what the everyday bikers understanding of brotherhood is, what women's current place is in motorcycle culture compared to men, the effects of branding and logos on motorcyclists ...


Women In Leadership: Performance And Interpersonal Consequences Of Stereotype Threat, Samantha Haley Snyder Jan 2013

Women In Leadership: Performance And Interpersonal Consequences Of Stereotype Threat, Samantha Haley Snyder

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Women in leadership positions may experience stereotype threat when explicitly or implicitly reminded of gender and leader stereotypes. Increased worry about potentially confirming the stereotype should affect their behavior and perceptions in leadership situations. I used a 3 (article) x 2 (confederate gender) between-participants design. Female participants read an article that either made stereotypes explicit (explicit threat), countered stereotypes (threat nullification), or did not include stereotype-relevant information (implicit threat) and were assigned to lead a male or female confederate through the construction of a Lego model. I hypothesized that women in the implicit threat conditions (implicit article; male confederate) would ...


Visuo-Spatial Abilities In Remote Perception: A Meta-Analysis Of Empirical Work, Thomas Fincannon Jan 2013

Visuo-Spatial Abilities In Remote Perception: A Meta-Analysis Of Empirical Work, Thomas Fincannon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Meta-analysis was used to investigate the relationship between visuo-spatial ability and performance in remote environments. In order to be included, each study needed to examine the relationship between the use of an ego-centric perspective and various dimensions of performance (i.e., identification, localization, navigation, and mission completion time). The moderator analysis investigated relationships involving: (a) visuo-spatial construct with an emphasis on Carroll’s (1993) visualization (VZ) factor; (b) performance outcome (i.e., identification, localization, navigation, and mission completion time); (c) autonomy to support mission performance; (d) task type (i.e., navigation vs. reconnaissance); and (e) experimental testbed (i.e., physical ...


Parent-Child Dynamics And Emerging Adult Religiosity: Attachment, Parental Beliefs, And Faith Support, Kathleen C. Leonard, Kaye V. Cook, Chris Boyatzis, Cynthia N. Kimball, Kelly S. Flanagan Jan 2013

Parent-Child Dynamics And Emerging Adult Religiosity: Attachment, Parental Beliefs, And Faith Support, Kathleen C. Leonard, Kaye V. Cook, Chris Boyatzis, Cynthia N. Kimball, Kelly S. Flanagan

Faculty Journal Articles

Parental religiosity has been shown to predict child and adolescent religiosity, but the role of parents in emerging adult religiosity is largely unknown. We explored associations among emerging adult religiosity, perceived parental religiosity, perceived similarity to mother's and father's religious beliefs, parental faith support, and parental attachment. Participants were 481 alumni of two Christian colleges and completed surveys online. Emerging adult religiosity (measured by Christian orthodoxy and intrinsic religiosity) was high and similar to parents' religiosity. Perceived similarity to parents' religious beliefs, faith support, and attachment to fathers predicted emerging adult religiosity. However, parental religiosity alone was a ...


Exploring Biopsychosocial (Bps) Facets Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) In Patients In An Acute Inpatient Physical Rehabilitation Facility (Irf), Ronnetta Williams Jan 2013

Exploring Biopsychosocial (Bps) Facets Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) In Patients In An Acute Inpatient Physical Rehabilitation Facility (Irf), Ronnetta Williams

Theses and Dissertations--Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology

From a BPS perspective, COPD and other chronic diseases may have a significant negative impact on those living with them and may be associated with higher rates of depression and anxiety and lower levels of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Certain factors, such as spirituality, may influence the negative impact of chronic disease on the relationship between mood and functional independence and HRQOL. Also, gender may influence the relationship between mood, spirituality, and HRQOL for men and women living with chronic diseases. The current study included 136 patients undergoing physical rehabilitation at an IRF. Anxiety, depression, spirituality, HRQOL, and functional ...


Race, Gender, And Leadership Promotion: The Moderating Effect Of Social Dominance Orientation, Chelsea Chatham Jan 2013

Race, Gender, And Leadership Promotion: The Moderating Effect Of Social Dominance Orientation, Chelsea Chatham

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

The current study aims to examine the effects that applicant race and gender have on ratings of promotability for a leadership role. The current study will also investigate the role that Social Dominance Orientation, an individual difference variable that reflects attitudes towards intergroup relations being equal or not, plays in attitudes towards a candidate's promotability. 213 participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in a 2 (candidates race: Caucasian vs. African-American) × 2 (candidates gender: male vs. female) factorial design and asked to assess the promotability of the candidate based on a brief work history and interview responses ...


The Impact Of Religiosity Dimensions And Ethnic Identity On Well-Being In African American Women, Ebony S. Vinson Jan 2013

The Impact Of Religiosity Dimensions And Ethnic Identity On Well-Being In African American Women, Ebony S. Vinson

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Religiosity is considered to be an important component of the cultural orientation and worldview of African Americans. African American women, in particular, have been found to be unique in their level of religious devotion and activity compared to other demographic groups but there has been minimal research examining the positive effects of religiosity over time. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the role of religiosity dimensions and ethnic identity in predicting self-esteem, social support, healthy behaviors, and licit drug use in African American women over time. Results indicate that behavioral and cognitive components of religiosity predict different ...


Subordinate-Supervisor Demographic And Perceived Value Similarity: Relationships To Subordinate Perceptions Of Organizational Justice, Charles Levi Wells, Iv Jan 2013

Subordinate-Supervisor Demographic And Perceived Value Similarity: Relationships To Subordinate Perceptions Of Organizational Justice, Charles Levi Wells, Iv

Wayne State University Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the empirical relationship between subordinate-supervisor demographic and value similarity with subordinate perceptions of organizational justice using three structural equation models. The first model indicated that subordinate-supervisor demographic and value similarity were directly related to subordinate perceptions of organizational justice (Direct Model). The second model indicated that subordinate perceived value similarity with their supervisor mediated the relationship between the subordinate-supervisor demographic similarity and subordinate perceptions of organizational justice (Mediated Model). The last model indicated subordinate perceived value similarity with their supervisor moderated the relationship between subordinate-supervisor demographic similarity and subordinate perceptions of organizational ...


The Influence Of Gender And Aging On The Neural Circuitry Supporing Facial Emotion Processing In Adults With Major Depressive Disorder, Emily Briceno Jan 2013

The Influence Of Gender And Aging On The Neural Circuitry Supporing Facial Emotion Processing In Adults With Major Depressive Disorder, Emily Briceno

Wayne State University Dissertations

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with decrements in facial emotion processing (FEP). Previous studies investigating the neural substrates of these decrements have often reported hyperactivity of emotion processing circuitry. Neural circuitry supporting FEP has been shown to be different between healthy men and women, and between young and elder adults. However, no prior studies have investigated how gender and aging affect emotion processing circuitry in individuals with MDD. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of gender and aging on emotion processing circuitry in MDD. One hundred-ten adults, grouped into subgroups according to MDD status, gender, and age ...


Generations Apart: A Mixed Methods Study Of Black Women’S Attitudes About Race And Social Activism, Carolyn D. Love Jan 2013

Generations Apart: A Mixed Methods Study Of Black Women’S Attitudes About Race And Social Activism, Carolyn D. Love

Dissertations & Theses

Since the beginning of slavery in the United States, Black women have been actively involved in the creation and formation of Black civil society. The abolitionist, Black women’s club, and civil rights movements challenged White supremacy and created institutions that fought for political, social, and economic justice. Historically, Black women have engaged in the struggle for group survival while at the same time fighting for institutional transformation to eliminate or change discriminatory policies, practices, and procedures. With each passing generation, Black women have led efforts of resistance against racial discrimination, gender bias, and class exploitation. However, with each passing ...


Natural Born Peacemakers? Gender And The Resolution Of Conflict, Mara Olekalns Dec 2012

Natural Born Peacemakers? Gender And The Resolution Of Conflict, Mara Olekalns

Mara Olekalns

Two males sit apart, staring at each other from the corners of their eyes. A female approaches one and takes him by the arm, pulls him towards the other male. She alternates between the two and eventually brokers peace. In a different scenario, two males are again in conflict. A third male inserts himself between them, screaming at them or physically separating them to prevent the conflict from escalating. He keeps them separate and harangues them into submission (De Waal, 2009). Female as peacemaker, male as peacekeeper. These examples fit with our intuitions about how gender might shape the way ...