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2013

Gender

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Articles 1 - 30 of 178

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Microfinance: A Tool For Financial Access, Poverty Alleviation Or Gender Empowerment ? - Empirical Findings From Pakistan, Ghazal Mir Zulfiqar Dec 2013

Microfinance: A Tool For Financial Access, Poverty Alleviation Or Gender Empowerment ? - Empirical Findings From Pakistan, Ghazal Mir Zulfiqar

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

In just 30 years microfinance has transformed from a credit-based rural development scheme that has claimed to reduce poverty and empower poor women, to a $70 billion financial industry. In the process, the traditional NGO-led model has given way to commercialized institutions, resulting in an increased emphasis on profitmaking. This has also led to confusion in the sector around its mission: is it to alleviate poverty and empower poor women or simply to provide the "unbanked" with access to formal sources of finance? This research considers the main debates in microfinance with regard to its mission and presents empirical evidence ...


Male Spouses Of Women Physicians: Communication, Compromise, And Carving Out Time, Carol Issac, Kara Petrashek, Megan Steiner, Linda Baier Manwell, Molly Carnes, Angela Byars-Winston Dec 2013

Male Spouses Of Women Physicians: Communication, Compromise, And Carving Out Time, Carol Issac, Kara Petrashek, Megan Steiner, Linda Baier Manwell, Molly Carnes, Angela Byars-Winston

The Qualitative Report

As the numbers of female physicians continue to grow, fewer medical marriages are comprised of the traditional dyad of male physician and stay - at - home wife. The “two - career family” is an increasingly frequent state for both male and female physicians’ families, and dual - doctor marriages are on the rise. This qualitative study explored the contemporary medical marriage from the perspective of male spouses of female physicians. In 2010, we conducted semi - structured, in - depth interviews with nine spouses of internal medicine resident and faculty physicians. Interviewers queried work - home balance, career choices, and support networks. We used an interpretive ...


"For A Future Tomorrow": The Figured Worlds Of Schoolgirls In Kono, Sierra Leone, Jordene Hale Dec 2013

"For A Future Tomorrow": The Figured Worlds Of Schoolgirls In Kono, Sierra Leone, Jordene Hale

Doctoral Dissertations

Current research in Sub-Sahara Africa suggests that young women face challenges in accessing and completing schooling, due among other things to gender related school based violence (Bruce & Hallman, 2008; Dunne, Humphreys, & Leach, 2006; Lloyd, Kaufman, & Hewett, 2000). These studies, while valuable in providing documentation on school enrollment and school leaving, do not explore the motivational framework where young women remain in school.

The purpose of this dissertation is to trace how schoolgirls’ identities or “figured worlds” (Gee, 2011) are co-constructed in particular contexts by the same cohort of schoolgirls, their teachers, households, and communities through an ethnographic case study conducted over a period of three years from 2010 to 2013 in Kono, Sierra Leone. The unit of analysis is the experience of the individual schoolgirls rendered in detailed portraits. The central research question addressed is: What are the ‘figured worlds’ that these schoolgirls inhabit that compels them, in the face of overwhelming odds, to commit to schooling? What is the role of “imagined communities” for these schoolgirls (Anderson, 1991; Kanno & Norton, 2003)? Further, how do the schoolgirls utilize the liminal space of schooling (Switzer, 2010)? Employing the portraiture methodology (Lawrence-Lightfoot & Hoffman Davis, 1997) this research focuses on three schoolgirls, their communities, and their relationships with the researcher. This research analyzes how for schoolgirls in sub-Sahara Africa, the figured worlds of schoolgirls, is an identity that despite the physical risk, economic loss, and unlikely career success, becomes compelling. This ...


Accounting For Gender In International Refugee Law: A Close Reading Of The Unhcr Gender Guidelines And The Discursive Construction Of Gender As An Identity, Johanna N. Tvedt Dec 2013

Accounting For Gender In International Refugee Law: A Close Reading Of The Unhcr Gender Guidelines And The Discursive Construction Of Gender As An Identity, Johanna N. Tvedt

Master's Theses

This thesis conducts a close reading of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees’ “Guidelines on International Protection: Gender-Related Persecution within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees” – a document that explains how legal definitions of refugee status might take into account gender issues. In it, I investigate the relationship between gender identity and the refugee status to understand how gender is constructed in relation to other terms or identity categories that determine whether an individual will be granted asylum. Performing a close reading of this ...


Gay, Straight, Or Slightly Bent? The Interaction Of Leader Sexual Orientation And Gender On Leadership Evaluations, Fred George Macoukji Dec 2013

Gay, Straight, Or Slightly Bent? The Interaction Of Leader Sexual Orientation And Gender On Leadership Evaluations, Fred George Macoukji

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Existing research has shown that gender stereotypes regarding characteristics of men and women influence others' perceptions of their fit with organizational roles, including leadership roles (cf. Eagly & Karau, 2002). However, little research has examined stereotypes regarding other demographic characteristics (e.g., race, sexual orientation) and how they may interact with gender stereotypes to influence leadership evaluations. The current study examined whether leader gender and sexual orientation interact to influence subordinates' evaluations of leader effectiveness, likability, and boss desirability using an experimental design. In addition to examining whether leader gender and sexual orientation interacted to predict leader evaluations, the present ...


Women's Inheritance Rights And Intergenerational Transmission Of Resources In India, Klaus Deininger, Aparajita Goyal, Hari Nagarajan Dec 2013

Women's Inheritance Rights And Intergenerational Transmission Of Resources In India, Klaus Deininger, Aparajita Goyal, Hari Nagarajan

Aparajita Goyal

We use inheritance patterns over three generations of individuals to assess the impact of changes in the Hindu Succession Act that grant daughters equal coparcenary birth rights in joint family property that were denied to daughters in the past. We show that the amendment significantly increased daughters’ likelihood to inherit land, but that even after the amendment, substantial bias persists. Our results also indicate a robust increase in educational attainment of daughters, suggesting an alternative channel of wealth transfer.


Use Of Protective Behavioral Strategies And Reduced Alcohol Risk: Examining The Moderating Effects Of Mental Health, Gender And Race, Shannon R. Kenney, Joseph W. Labrie Dec 2013

Use Of Protective Behavioral Strategies And Reduced Alcohol Risk: Examining The Moderating Effects Of Mental Health, Gender And Race, Shannon R. Kenney, Joseph W. Labrie

Heads Up!

Recent research indicates that protective behavioral strategies (PBS)—previously established as effective self-regulating tools for reducing alcohol risk among college students—may be especially useful for students with poor mental health, who are shown to be at heightened risk for alcohol-related harm. The current study examined the moderating influence of mental health (depression and anxiety severity), gender, and race (White, Asian) in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 1,782 undergraduate students from two West Coast universities who reported past month incidence of heavy episodic drinking. Students reported on their drinking, experience of alcohol-related consequences ...


"We Shall Meet Beyond The River": An Analysis Of The Deathscape Of Brownville, Nebraska, Ashley J. Barnett Dec 2013

"We Shall Meet Beyond The River": An Analysis Of The Deathscape Of Brownville, Nebraska, Ashley J. Barnett

Theses and Dissertations in Geography

Gravestone studies have traditionally focused on the East Coast, particularly the Northeast, because of the long Euro-American settlement history in that region and because of a landmark 1966 study produced by Edwin Dethlefsen and James Deetz which focused on this region. Significantly less attention has been paid to the interior of the continent, particularly the Great Plains. This study analyzes the temporal variations in gravestone iconography and inscriptions to determine major cultural shifts that took place in Brownville, Nebraska, from the town’s founding in 1854 to the present. 1,224 gravestones in Walnut Grove Cemetery were recorded and analyzed ...


Japanese Expatriate Women In The United States, Ayano Sonoda Dec 2013

Japanese Expatriate Women In The United States, Ayano Sonoda

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Expatriation from Japanese companies has been considered mainly for men. This research focuses on gradually increasing Japanese expatriate women’s experiences in the United States. Using structuration theory (Giddens, 1984) and doing gender (West & Zimmerman, 1987), gender practices and (re)production of gendered structure at Japanese organizations in the United States are illustrated. It is exploratory research without prior research focusing on the subjects. Literature review, therefore, covers three relevant areas: women in workplace in Japan, Japanese expatriates in the United States, and women in international assignments from western countries. This research employs qualitative research method to understand the social ...


Becoming The Best Mom Or The Best Doctor? Gender Inequality And Medical Students’ Specialty Choice, Casey L. Lawson Dec 2013

Becoming The Best Mom Or The Best Doctor? Gender Inequality And Medical Students’ Specialty Choice, Casey L. Lawson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In anticipation of an expected national shortage of primary care physicians, 24 medical students from the East Tennessee State University Quillen College of Medicine were selected through a snowball sample and participated in in-depth interviews. A major aim of the study was to explore the social and economic factors influencing students’ specialty choice and career interests. Students’ perceptions of “rural” environments, student debt, professional obligations, specialties, and preceptorship experiences were analyzed. Students’ gender heavily influenced their feelings about choosing a medical specialty, as did their stereotypes of physicians in particular medical fields. The thesis concludes with recommendations for challenging negative ...


The Perceived Level Of Enjoyment In Sports Violence: An Experiment Examining How Sports Commentary, Fanship, And Gender Affect Viewer Emotions, Sarah Vineyard Dec 2013

The Perceived Level Of Enjoyment In Sports Violence: An Experiment Examining How Sports Commentary, Fanship, And Gender Affect Viewer Emotions, Sarah Vineyard

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This investigation examines if the independent variables of sports commentary, fanship, and gender affect the viewer's level of perceived enjoyment while watching sports violence through televised professional football and hockey clips. Previous studies have found that these three variables contribute most to a viewer's level of perceived enjoyment. This study aimed to test to see if that was still true, while taking into account new rules regarding violence by the National Football League and the National Hockey League. This thesis addresses all variables in one study, which something past research has failed to do.

Perhaps the most significant ...


Adolescents’ Definitions Of Cheating In Romantic Relationships, Jerika C. Norona Dec 2013

Adolescents’ Definitions Of Cheating In Romantic Relationships, Jerika C. Norona

Masters Theses

Cheating is a common occurrence in dating relationships. However, less is known about cheating in adolescence, a time when many individuals first experience romantic relationships. An important initial step for research is examining how adolescents define cheating in their romantic relationships. The present study used Thematic Analysis, a qualitative analytic method, to explore adolescents’ definitions of cheating and how these definitions might differ across age and gender. Furthermore, the present study examined patterns that emerged within definitions. Results indicate that definitions of cheating included a range of behaviors, such as engaging in physical activity, romantic/intimate involvement, spending time with ...


"You're Looking Good": Compliment Or Harassment?, David B. Mcmillan Dec 2013

"You're Looking Good": Compliment Or Harassment?, David B. Mcmillan

All Theses and Dissertations

Whether an individual perceives an appearance compliment in the workplace as sexual harassment may depend on a number of factors such as the gender and/or status of the complimenter. Three hundred eighty-three (130 males, 253 females) participants completed an online survey in which they read and rated six different hypothetical vignettes imagining themselves as the recipient of an appearance compliment from a male superior, subordinate, and peer, as well as a female in each of those three status positions. Participants also filled out the Big Five Inventory (BFI; see John, Naumann, & Soto, 2008) in order to assess how personality may influence harassment perceptions. Females perceived opposite-sex appearance compliments as more harassing than males did (p < .001, d = 1.33), and males perceived same-sex compliments as more harassing than females did (p < .001, d = 0.85). Appearance compliments from those in the three status positions were also perceived differently (p < .001, np2 = .29) with compliments from superiors perceived as more harassing than from peers (p < .001) and subordinates (p < .001), and subordinates perceived as more harassing than peers (p < .001). Three of the Big Five personality factors (Conscientiousness, b = 9.93, p < .001; Neuroticism, b = 9.46, p < .001; and Openness, b = -5.04, p = .04) were predictive of harassment perceptions (R2 = .087, p < .001). Based on these findings, it is recommended that males and those in superior status positions avoid giving appearance compliments in the workplace.


Is First, They Killed My Father A Cambodian Testimonio?, John Maddox Dec 2013

Is First, They Killed My Father A Cambodian Testimonio?, John Maddox

CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture

In his article "Is First, They Killed My Father a Cambodian testimonio" John T. Maddox discusses aspects of the testimonial. Dialoguing with leading Latin Americanists, Maddox argues that Cambodian writer Loung Ung's First, They Killed My Father (2000) challenges this uniqueness and opens studies on the testimonio to new possibilities for intellectual reflection and political activism. In Maddox's view, the continued use of the term testimonio would serve as a reference to this long-standing tradition of writing and thinking about political violence in Latin America. After a discussion of the debate of the definition and function of testimonio ...


Fearless: Kaleigh Sosa, Kathryn E. Bucolo Nov 2013

Fearless: Kaleigh Sosa, Kathryn E. Bucolo

SURGE

Fearlessly organizing events on campus addressing issues of sexual assault, serving the campus community by raising awareness of gender, bias, and violence issues, and helping first-years and sophomores as part of Residence Life staff, Kaleigh Sosa ’14 passionately leads her peers toward understanding. [excerpt]


Twice As Likely To..., Adrienne M. Ellis Nov 2013

Twice As Likely To..., Adrienne M. Ellis

SURGE

TRIGGER WARNING!

I am white. I am bisexual. I am female. I have been sexually assaulted. Three times. [excerpt]


Fearless: Sexual Assault Survivors, Kathryn E. Bucolo Nov 2013

Fearless: Sexual Assault Survivors, Kathryn E. Bucolo

SURGE

TRIGGER WARNING!

Raped, abused, molested, assaulted. Every other day on this campus.

Grabbed, touched, hit, down. Not a person. Skirt going down, shirt coming up.

Led behind locked doors, poured another drink.

“Not sure if it counted as assault.”

Every. other. day. [excerpt]


Gender Role Identity And Attitudes Toward Feminism, Paige W. Toller, Elizabeth A. Suter, Todd C. Trautman Nov 2013

Gender Role Identity And Attitudes Toward Feminism, Paige W. Toller, Elizabeth A. Suter, Todd C. Trautman

Paige W. Toller

In this study we examined relationships among gender role identity, support for feminism, nontraditional gender roles, and willingness to consider oneself a feminist in a sample of college students (N D 301). For female participants, we found positive relationships among higher masculinity on the PAQ (Personal Attributes Questionnaire), nontraditional attitudes toward gender roles, and the combined SRAI (Sex Role Attitudinal Inventory). A negative correlation was also found between lower scores on the PAQ masculinity–femininity index and the combined SRAI in women. For male participants, we found positive relationships among high femininity on the SIS (Sexual Identity Scale), willingness to ...


An Analysis Of Gender Pay Disparity In The Nonprofit Sector: An Outcome Of Labor Motivation Or Gendered Jobs?, Lewis Faulk, Lauren Hamilton Edwards, Gregory B. Lewis, Jasmine Mcginnis Nov 2013

An Analysis Of Gender Pay Disparity In The Nonprofit Sector: An Outcome Of Labor Motivation Or Gendered Jobs?, Lewis Faulk, Lauren Hamilton Edwards, Gregory B. Lewis, Jasmine Mcginnis

Public Management and Policy Faculty Publications

Although pay differences between men and women with comparable characteristics are generally smaller in the nonprofit than in the for-profit sector, gender pay gaps in the nonprofit sector vary widely across industries. In some industries, gender pay gaps are as large as in the for-profit sector, but in others, women make more than comparably qualified men. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling on the combined 2001-2006 American Community Surveys, we test nonprofit labor motivation theories against a gendered-job hypothesis to explain this variation. We find that gender pay gaps in the nonprofit sector are smaller in industries where nonprofits outnumber for-profits and ...


Women And The Second Estate In 16th Century Zambezia: Gendered Powers, A 'Puppet' African Queen And Succession In Vakaranga Society, 1500-1700, George G. Levin Nov 2013

Women And The Second Estate In 16th Century Zambezia: Gendered Powers, A 'Puppet' African Queen And Succession In Vakaranga Society, 1500-1700, George G. Levin

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Women in vaKaranga society of the 15th to 17th centuries have been portrayed as oppressed by an "extremely patriarchal" system, but the reality, while still fitting the simple classification of a 'patriarchal' monarchy, indicates quite a bit more negotiation of gendered powers than women, as a class, experienced in the Mediterranean or East Asia. The vaKaranga were the architects of Great Zimbabwe, the capital of a growing state, colonizing their cousins of the Zambezi river, which their Kusi-Mashariki Bantu forefathers had traversed southward a millennium before. Civil war had (apparently) split one nation into two states, Mutapa (Monomotapa) and Khami ...


Book Review: The Archaeology Of Gender: Separating The Spheres In Urban America By Diana Dizerega Wall, Lorinda B. R. Goodwin Oct 2013

Book Review: The Archaeology Of Gender: Separating The Spheres In Urban America By Diana Dizerega Wall, Lorinda B. R. Goodwin

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Book Review: The Archaeology of Gender: Separating the Spheres in Urban America by Diana diZerega Wall 1994, Plenum Press, New York. Foreword by Stanley South, 241 pages, 17 plates, 33 figures, 37 tables, 5 appendices, $37.50.


Mediated Bodies: The Construction Of A Wife, Mother, And The Female Body In Television Sitcoms: Roseanne, Saniya Lee Ghanoui Oct 2013

Mediated Bodies: The Construction Of A Wife, Mother, And The Female Body In Television Sitcoms: Roseanne, Saniya Lee Ghanoui

Proceedings of the New York State Communication Association

After first examining several theoretical concepts related to the construction of gender on television and the way in which women are characterized, this paper examines the television show Roseanne to explore the way it changed the representation of a feminist on television. No longer did women have to be childless and career-minded to be equal to men or in some cases better than men, as the character Roseanne Conner reveals on the show. Rather, women were able to articulate their feminist outlooks through their opinions, expressions, and actions. I break the show into four distinct notions of gendered representations: socioeconomic ...


Phil 130: Dimensions Of Diversity (Fall 2013), Dylan Kissane Oct 2013

Phil 130: Dimensions Of Diversity (Fall 2013), Dylan Kissane

Dylan Kissane

No abstract provided.


Brazen (Fall 2013), Hollins University Oct 2013

Brazen (Fall 2013), Hollins University

Brazen - Gender & Women's Studies Department Newsletters

No abstract provided.


Women And Power In The United States: A Geographic Analysis Of Government, Work, And Economic Status, Kylie Stackis Oct 2013

Women And Power In The United States: A Geographic Analysis Of Government, Work, And Economic Status, Kylie Stackis

Earth and Environmental Sciences Presentations

This geographic analysis investigates the different ways that women hold power across the United States, primarily through government, work, and economic status. Political power is in this case represented through government representation at the national and state level. Economic power considers employment, income, occupation (specifically traditionally male fields of business and science), hours worked, and Forbes lists of the richest 400 people in the United States as well as the 500 CEOs of influential companies. Education was a third variable in the analysis since it exemplifies the power of knowledge and lends itself to the potential for political and economic ...


I, The Queen: Power And Gender In The Reign Of Isabel I Of Castile, Sarah E. Hayes Oct 2013

I, The Queen: Power And Gender In The Reign Of Isabel I Of Castile, Sarah E. Hayes

Student Publications

The role of women in society, in particular, women in leadership positions, constantly is debated. However, this discussion extends far back in history. As one of the most memorable rulers of Early Modern Europe, the life and reign of Queen Isabella of Spain, more accurately known as Queen Isabel I of Castile and León, can provide answers. Scholars have long grappled with the degree to which Isabel embodied or transcended the gender norms of her time as well as whether she ruled more through the joint monarchy with her husband King Fernando of Aragón or as a sovereign in her ...


I Don't Want To Save Second Base, Chelsea E. Broe Sep 2013

I Don't Want To Save Second Base, Chelsea E. Broe

SURGE

Tomorrow kicks off Breast Cancer Awareness Month, and I have one request: This October, let’s not save second base.

I know, I know, you probably think this month is a good thing. If not for all of those T-shirts demanding every female-bodied person to feel their boobies, or the bracelets simply proclaiming “I love boobies,” people with breasts might forget that they even have them, or at the very least might start to think that their breasts are their own business. But the female body seems to be an object owned by the public, so we must always be ...


Juki Girls: Gender, Globalization, And The Stigma Of Garment Factory Work, Caitrin Lynch Sep 2013

Juki Girls: Gender, Globalization, And The Stigma Of Garment Factory Work, Caitrin Lynch

Caitrin Lynch

The Sri Lanka Reader is a sweeping introduction to the epic history of the island nation located just off the southern tip of India. The island’s recorded history of more than two and a half millennia encompasses waves of immigration from the South Asian subcontinent, the formation of Sinhala Buddhist and Tamil Hindu civilizations, the arrival of Arab Muslim traders, and European colonization by the Portuguese, then the Dutch, and finally the British. Selected texts depict perceptions of the country’s multiple linguistic and religious communities, as well as its political travails after independence in 1948, especially the ethnic ...


An Interactive Exploration Of Gender And Engineering: Unpacking The Experience, Debbie Chachra, Lynn Stein, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski, Caitrin Lynch, Yevgeniya Zastavker Sep 2013

An Interactive Exploration Of Gender And Engineering: Unpacking The Experience, Debbie Chachra, Lynn Stein, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski, Caitrin Lynch, Yevgeniya Zastavker

Alisha L. Sarang-Sieminski

The engineering student experience is understood to differ for male and female students; gendered interactions affect the development of academic and professional role confidence, as well as engineering identity. The purpose of this session is twofold. First, we aim to introduce participants to concepts of gender schemas, privilege, and identity using a range of interactive activities, including brainstorming and structured discussion. Second, we intend to share information about and obtain feedback on a Gender Discussion Exploration Kit, which the participants will be encouraged to review, use, and share at their home institutions.


Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily Hannum, Peggy Kong, Yuping Zhang Sep 2013

Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily Hannum, Peggy Kong, Yuping Zhang

Yuping Zhang

In this paper, we investigate the gender gap in education in rural northwest China. We first discuss parental perceptions of abilities and appropriate roles for girls and boys; parental concerns about old-age support; and parental perceptions of different labor market outcomes for girls' and boys' education. We then investigate gender disparities in investments in children, children's performance at school, and children's subsequent attainment. We analyze a survey of nine to twelve year-old children and their families conducted in rural Gansu Province in the year 2000, along with follow-up information about subsequent educational attainment collected seven years later. We ...