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2013

Children

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Hurricane-Exposed Youth And Psychological Distress: An Examination Of The Role Of Social Support, Donice M. Banks Dec 2013

Hurricane-Exposed Youth And Psychological Distress: An Examination Of The Role Of Social Support, Donice M. Banks

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Hurricane exposure places youth at risk for psychological distress such as symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression, while social support may contribute to resilience following disasters. This study examined associations among family and peer social support, level of hurricane exposure, and psychological distress using both a large single-time assessment sample (N = 1098) and a longitudinal sample followed over a six-month period (n = 192). Higher levels of hurricane exposure were related to lower levels of social support from family and peers as well as to higher levels of psychological distress. Higher levels of family and peer social support ...


Children And Homelessness In Massachusetts, Donna Haig Friedman, Katherine Calano, Marija Bingulac, Christine Miller, Alisa Zeliger Dec 2013

Children And Homelessness In Massachusetts, Donna Haig Friedman, Katherine Calano, Marija Bingulac, Christine Miller, Alisa Zeliger

Donna Haig Friedman

In Massachusetts, more than half a million children (15% of all children) live in poverty, 30% of all children live with parents who lack secure employment, and 41% live in households with high housing cost burdens. This article examines the root causes of poverty and its links to child homelessness in the state. Though the state has a long-standing progressive political legacy, the well-being of low-income families with children continues to decline. The article offers evidence about the extent of child homelessness and its profound effects on Massachusetts children and youth. The interconnectedness of what are usually thought of as ...


Children's Recognition Of Pride: An Experimental Approach, Darren Jason Garcia Dec 2013

Children's Recognition Of Pride: An Experimental Approach, Darren Jason Garcia

Theses and Dissertations

Pride is elicited when a child takes credit for an achievement or exceeds a socially valued standard or expectation. Evidence suggests that pride has a distinct nonverbal expression that is recognized by adults across cultures (Tracy & Robins, 2004). Research examining when children recognize pride has yielded age discrepancies between studies that use forced-choice response formats and those that use spontaneous-response formats. Differences in children's ability to use and comprehend language may account for some of these differences. The purpose of this thesis was to examine the age at which children reliably recognize pride, while minimizing the need for children ...


Temperament In Mothers With Borderline Personality Disorder And In Their Young Children Aged 4-7, Christina Gabriela Mena Dec 2013

Temperament In Mothers With Borderline Personality Disorder And In Their Young Children Aged 4-7, Christina Gabriela Mena

Masters Theses

In this study we sampled mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and their young children ages 4-7 (n = 36), as well as normative comparisons (n = 34). We assessed temperament in both mothers and their children. Mothers reported on their own and on their children’s temperament. Controlling for maternal current major depressive disorder and education, mothers with BPD reported more negative affectivity, less effortful control, and less positive affect than did normative comparison mothers. Children whose mothers had BPD had more negative affectivity (fear and frustration) and less effortful control, but not less smiling and laughter. When controlling for maternal ...


Children's Ideas About The Moral Standing And Social Welfare Of Non-Human Species, Gail F. Melson Dec 2013

Children's Ideas About The Moral Standing And Social Welfare Of Non-Human Species, Gail F. Melson

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

Moral and social welfare issues related to humane treatment of animals confront children and continue to be important societal issues through adulthood. Despite this, children's moral reasoning about animals has been largely ignored. This paper addresses six questions concerning how children reason morally about non-human animals: (1) How do children think about the moral claims of animals? Is there a developmental progression in such reasoning? (2) How does moral reasoning about animals differ from moral reasoning about other life forms-plants and ecological systems? (3) What is the relation, if any, between children's moral reasoning about non-human animals and ...


The Impact Of Maternal Acculturation, Youth Age, Sex And Anxiety Sensitivity On Anxiety Symptoms In Hispanic Youth, Maria Pienkowski Nov 2013

The Impact Of Maternal Acculturation, Youth Age, Sex And Anxiety Sensitivity On Anxiety Symptoms In Hispanic Youth, Maria Pienkowski

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Despite progress that has been made in the areas of maternal acculturation and internalizing symptoms in Hispanic youth, much remains to be learned about the relation between maternal acculturation and youth anxiety. The inclusion of cognitive vulnerabilities such as anxiety sensitivity (AS) further adds to the understanding the development of anxiety in Hispanic youth. Examining the role that youth age and youth sex play in the relation between AS and youth anxiety symptoms also can further understanding of the development of youth anxiety. Thus, the specific aims of this dissertation were to examine whether: (1) a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA ...


Children's Neighbourhood Geographies: Examining Children's Perception And Use Of Their Neighbourhood Environments For Healthy Activity, Janet E. Loebach Oct 2013

Children's Neighbourhood Geographies: Examining Children's Perception And Use Of Their Neighbourhood Environments For Healthy Activity, Janet E. Loebach

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation examines children’s everyday neighbourhood activities, and the role of the local environment in supporting or limiting their healthy behaviours. Research from the last two decades has documented a dramatic decline in the time children spend playing in their neighbourhood settings, and engaging in local active and independent travel. Traditionally, neighbourhood-based activities have fostered key developmental and health outcomes, including higher levels of physical fitness, the negotiation of new social relationships, and increased cognitive and environmental competence. The processes of carving out neighbourhood ‘domains’ for independent activity and establishing community relationships are also linked to the development of ...


Individual Child Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Versus Child-Parent Cognitive Behavioral Treatments For Anxiety Disorders In Children And Adolescents: Comparative Outcomes, Jessica Dahan Oct 2013

Individual Child Cognitive Behavioral Treatment Versus Child-Parent Cognitive Behavioral Treatments For Anxiety Disorders In Children And Adolescents: Comparative Outcomes, Jessica Dahan

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Anxiety disorders; such as separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and specific phobia, are widespread in children and adolescents. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in reducing excessive fears and anxieties in children and adolescents. Research has produced equivocal findings that involving parents in treatment of child anxiety enhances effects over individual CBT (ICBT). The present dissertation study examined whether parental involvement can enhance individual treatment effect if the parent conditions are streamlined by targeting specific parental variables. The first parent condition, Parent Reinforcement Skills Training (RFST), involved increasing mothers’ use of positive reinforcement ...


The Sound Of Social Cognition: Toddlers’ Understanding Of How Sound Influences Others, Rebecca Williamson, Rechele Brooks, Andrew N. Meltzoff Oct 2013

The Sound Of Social Cognition: Toddlers’ Understanding Of How Sound Influences Others, Rebecca Williamson, Rechele Brooks, Andrew N. Meltzoff

Psychology Faculty Publications

Understanding others’ perceptions is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Children’s construal of visual perception is well investigated, but there is little work on children’s understanding of others’ auditory perception. The current study assesses toddlers’ recognition that producing different sounds can affect others differentially—auditory perspective taking. Two- and three-year-olds were familiarized with two objects, one loud and one quiet. The adult then introduced a doll, and children were randomly assigned to one of two goals: either to wake the doll or to let her sleep. Children’s object choice and the sound intensity they produced significantly varied ...


Farm To Preschool Harvest Of The Month Curriculum, Year 2, Zoe Phillips, Rosa Romero, Victor Hernandez Oct 2013

Farm To Preschool Harvest Of The Month Curriculum, Year 2, Zoe Phillips, Rosa Romero, Victor Hernandez

UEP Faculty & UEPI Staff Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Transracial Foster Care And Adoption: Issues And Realities, Fern L. Johnson, Stacie Mickelson, Mariana Lopez Davila Sep 2013

Transracial Foster Care And Adoption: Issues And Realities, Fern L. Johnson, Stacie Mickelson, Mariana Lopez Davila

New England Journal of Public Policy

The article places transracial foster care and adoption into a broader perspective that highlights social and cultural factors and the reasons for controversy about this adoption option. The first section describes the demographics of children in the foster care system. This is followed by an overview of requirements for approval as foster and adoptive parents in Massachusetts and information about the laws governing transracial adoption. The controversy over transracial adoption is laid out by explaining the race-blind and race-matching positions. Policy priorities are outlined that take into account the main points of controversy. The final section focuses on growth in ...


Children And Homelessness In Massachusetts, Donna Haig Friedman, Katherine Calano, Marija Bingulac, Christine Miller, Alisa Zeliger Sep 2013

Children And Homelessness In Massachusetts, Donna Haig Friedman, Katherine Calano, Marija Bingulac, Christine Miller, Alisa Zeliger

New England Journal of Public Policy

In Massachusetts, more than half a million children (15% of all children) live in poverty, 30% of all children live with parents who lack secure employment, and 41% live in households with high housing cost burdens. This article examines the root causes of poverty and its links to child homelessness in the state. Though the state has a long-standing progressive political legacy, the well-being of low-income families with children continues to decline. The article offers evidence about the extent of child homelessness and its profound effects on Massachusetts children and youth. The interconnectedness of what are usually thought of as ...


The Irony Of Choice, Cam T. Nguyen Sep 2013

The Irony Of Choice, Cam T. Nguyen

SURGE

We are having the inevitable late night conversation. You talk about your eventual wedding, your marriage to the person you love, the timeline you’ve created for yourself, and your plans for what our future children will do together. I clarify that I don’t want to have children, but you can’t seem to understand that decision. You question how happy, satisfied, or fulfilled my life will be without children, the maternal instincts I’m supposed to be feeling, and my desire to have something to care for and love. You’re convinced that I will recognize how empty ...


Health Information And Advertising Appeals In Food Commercials: A Content Analysis, Kara Chan, Vivienne S. Y. Leung, Lennon Tsang Sep 2013

Health Information And Advertising Appeals In Food Commercials: A Content Analysis, Kara Chan, Vivienne S. Y. Leung, Lennon Tsang

Department of Communication Studies Journal Articles

A content analysis of 311 food commercials broadcast on television networks in Hong Kong was conducted. There were nearly equal proportions of ads for healthy and unhealthy foods. The three most frequently used advertising appeals were taste/flavor/smell/texture, health/wellbeing and physical performance/speed/strength. Altogether 54 percent of the food ads contained health-related claims. Intriguingly, 23 percent of the ads for unhealthy food contained health-related claims. The prevalent use of general health claims in unhealthy food ads calls for policy makers to devise better ways to regulate health claims in food advertisements. This is the first content ...


Identifying Barriers And Facilitators Of Successful School-Based Mental Health And Behavioral Programs Delivered In The Context Of Urban Poverty: A Qualitative Exploration Of Perspectives From Service Providers And Youth, Farahnaz K. Farahmand Aug 2013

Identifying Barriers And Facilitators Of Successful School-Based Mental Health And Behavioral Programs Delivered In The Context Of Urban Poverty: A Qualitative Exploration Of Perspectives From Service Providers And Youth, Farahnaz K. Farahmand

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to identify the barriers and facilitators of successful mental health and/or behavioral programs implemented within inner-city schools. The impetus for this study came from prior meta-analytic research which demonstrated programs being offered within inner-city schools, as a whole, showed very low effect sizes, with many of the programs offered to youth within these settings showing iatrogenic effects. The use of qualitative methods, specifically a phenomenological approach, provided an in-depth understanding of 1) service providers' experience(s) delivering mental health and/or behavioral programs in inner-city schools; and, 2) low-income, urban youths' experience(s ...


The Effect Of Household Financial, Time And Environmental Constraints On Very Low Food Security Among Children, Helen H. Jensen, Oleksandr Zhylyevskyy Aug 2013

The Effect Of Household Financial, Time And Environmental Constraints On Very Low Food Security Among Children, Helen H. Jensen, Oleksandr Zhylyevskyy

University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series

Food insecurity is detrimental to children’s well-being. A better understanding of factors contributing to low and very low food security among children in the United States can guide the design of food assistance programs. We analyze the effects of household characteristics and local food environment attributes, including food prices and availability of food stores and eating places, on children’s food insecurity. We also investigate the effects of these characteristics and attributes on food preparation time. Using Becker’s household production approach, we propose an economic model that formalizes the use of constrained financial and time resources in the ...


The Effect Of Robot-Child Interactions On Social Attention And Verbalization Patterns Of Typically Developing Children And Children With Autism Between 4 And 8 Years, Sudha Srinivasan, Anjana Bhat Aug 2013

The Effect Of Robot-Child Interactions On Social Attention And Verbalization Patterns Of Typically Developing Children And Children With Autism Between 4 And 8 Years, Sudha Srinivasan, Anjana Bhat

Open Access Author Fund Awardees' Articles

Background: There is anecdotal evidence for the use of robots to facilitate prosocial behaviors such as joint attention and verbalization in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). However, there have been no normative data in typically developing children to evaluate the effects of robot-child interactions on social and communication skills. Objectives: The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes in social attention and verbalization skills of 15 typically developing (TD) children, using a structured 8-session imitation protocol within a robot-adult-child context. We further extended this imitation protocol to two children with ASDs. Methods: Pretest, session1, session 4, session ...


An Investigation Of The Association Between Arithmetic Achievement And Symbolic And Nonsymbolic Magnitude Processing In 5-9 Year-Old Children: Evidence From A Paper-And-Pencil Test, Nadia Nosworthy Aug 2013

An Investigation Of The Association Between Arithmetic Achievement And Symbolic And Nonsymbolic Magnitude Processing In 5-9 Year-Old Children: Evidence From A Paper-And-Pencil Test, Nadia Nosworthy

Faculty Publications

Recently, there has been a growing emphasis on basic number processing competencies (such as the ability to judge which of two numbers is larger) and their role in predicting individual differences in school-relevant math achievement. Children’s ability to compare both symbolic (e.g. Arabic numerals) and nonsymbolic (e.g. dot arrays) magnitudes has been found to correlate with their math achievement. The available evidence, however, has focused on computerized paradigms, which may not always be suitable for universal, quick application in the classroom. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether both symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison are related to children ...


The Influence Of Person Familiarity On Children's Social Information Processing, Andrew J. Cummings Aug 2013

The Influence Of Person Familiarity On Children's Social Information Processing, Andrew J. Cummings

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study examined the influence person familiarity has on children's social information processing (SIP) choices and emotion recognition. Children in grades 2nd through 5th watch a videotaped expression of a familiar or unfamiliar individual while listening to a hypothetical social interaction. Following the video clip, children responded to open-ended questions and prompted questions designed to assess their strategies and goals in the social interaction. Children also selected from two choices (either `on purpose' or `by accident') for their attribution of the individual's intent. Last, children identified the emotion that they believed the individual in the video was experiencing ...


An Investigation Of The Association Between Arithmetic Achievement And Symbolic And Nonsymbolic Magnitude Processing In 5-9 Year-Old Children: Evidence From A Paper-And-Pencil Test, Nadia Nosworthy Jul 2013

An Investigation Of The Association Between Arithmetic Achievement And Symbolic And Nonsymbolic Magnitude Processing In 5-9 Year-Old Children: Evidence From A Paper-And-Pencil Test, Nadia Nosworthy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Recently, there has been a growing emphasis on basic number processing competencies (such as the ability to judge which of two numbers is larger) and their role in predicting individual differences in school-relevant math achievement. Children’s ability to compare both symbolic (e.g. Arabic numerals) and nonsymbolic (e.g. dot arrays) magnitudes has been found to correlate with their math achievement. The available evidence, however, has focused on computerized paradigms, which may not always be suitable for universal, quick application in the classroom. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether both symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison are related to children ...


School-Based Mental Health: A De Facto Mental Health System For Children, Steve Jacob, Alberto Coustasse Jul 2013

School-Based Mental Health: A De Facto Mental Health System For Children, Steve Jacob, Alberto Coustasse

Alberto Coustasse, DrPH, MD, MBA, MPH

As the nation's schools seek to fulfill the academic imperatives of the federal No Child Left Behind Act and associated state imperatives, they may be forgetting an important missing element in boosting academic achievement: directly confronting the mental health and psychosocial needs that impede a significant percentage of children and adolescents. This article explores the available research on mental health services in schools and the theoretical basis for multiple approaches to the problem. Creating a comprehensive solution to address mental and behavioral barriers to learning could significantly improve academic performance in U.S. primary and secondary schools.


Risner, Randall (Fa 755), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives Jul 2013

Risner, Randall (Fa 755), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

FA Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Folklife Archives Project 755. Audio CD and transcript of interview with James Edward “Jimmy” Allen, Salyersville, Kentucky, by Randall Risner. Allen discusses his childhood, education, family life and activities as a lifetime resident of Magoffin County, Kentucky.


Negotiating Change: Working With Children And Their Employers To Transform Child Domestic Work In Iringa, Tanzania, Natascha Klocker Jul 2013

Negotiating Change: Working With Children And Their Employers To Transform Child Domestic Work In Iringa, Tanzania, Natascha Klocker

Natascha Klocker

This paper documents the practical and action-oriented findings of an investigation into child domestic work undertaken in Iringa, Tanzania from 2005 to 2007. It provides an overview of the experiences of both child domestic workers and their employers, before discussing their suggestions for how child domestic working arrangements may be improved. The latter sections of the paper relate the attempts to regulate child domestic work that emerged from such dialogue. In providing detailed information on that process, the paper is positioned within the field of action research and resists the boundary frequently applied between academia and activism. It also moves ...


Online Advertising: Examining The Content And Messages Within Websites Targeted At Children, Lisa Kervin, Sandra Jones, Jessica Mantei Jul 2013

Online Advertising: Examining The Content And Messages Within Websites Targeted At Children, Lisa Kervin, Sandra Jones, Jessica Mantei

Jessica Mantei

It is recognised that from a young age children spend considerable portions of their leisure time on the Internet. In Australia a number of child-targeted magazines have associated websites, which have high and ever-increasing readership. We do not yet know the impact of this medium upon children. Overt advertising is evident on webpages, but so too are hidden advertisements in the written text, images and games. This material usually does not comply with existing broadcasting codes of practice for mainstream advertising. This article examines the instances of overt and covert advertisements for food within three websites monitored over a 12-month ...


"I Hope This Can Be Shared With Everyone In Lots Of Schools": A Novel Intervention To Improve Social Skills Of Peers Of Children With Autism, Sandra Jones, Joanne Telenta, Fiona Mckay Jul 2013

"I Hope This Can Be Shared With Everyone In Lots Of Schools": A Novel Intervention To Improve Social Skills Of Peers Of Children With Autism, Sandra Jones, Joanne Telenta, Fiona Mckay

Sandra Jones

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are lifelong developmental disabilities characterised by marked difficulties in social interaction, impaired communication, restricted and repetitive interests and behaviours, and sensory sensitivities (Aspect 2009). While there is considerable debate as to prevalence, Centrelink data shows an estimated prevalence of 62.5 per 10,000 for 6-12 year old children (McDermott et al. 2007). While young children find social situations aversive and prefer to play alone, as these children reach their teens many desire social contact with their peers but lack the ability to form and maintain friendships. Observations in schools demonstrate peer interaction in children with ...


What I Say Isn't Always What I Do: Investigating Differences In Children's Reported And Actual Snack Food Preferences, Sandra C. Jones, Lisa Kervin, Samantha Reis, Parri Gregory Jun 2013

What I Say Isn't Always What I Do: Investigating Differences In Children's Reported And Actual Snack Food Preferences, Sandra C. Jones, Lisa Kervin, Samantha Reis, Parri Gregory

Sandra Jones

The current study sought to explore discrepancies between children's stated snack food motivations and actual food choices, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as a measure of implicit attitudes towards 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' foods. Participants were children aged 6-12 years (n=118), from two primary schools on the South Coast of NSW, Australia - a public school in a semi-rural suburb south of a sea-side city and a public school in a largely residential northern suburb of the same city. The children completed a questionnaire about motivations for snack choices, participated in an activity, completed two further questionnaires, selected snack ...


Branded Food References In Children's Magazines: 'Advertisements' Are The Tip Of The Iceberg, Sandra C. Jones, Parri Gregory, Lisa K. Kervin Jun 2013

Branded Food References In Children's Magazines: 'Advertisements' Are The Tip Of The Iceberg, Sandra C. Jones, Parri Gregory, Lisa K. Kervin

Sandra Jones

Objective: While children's magazines 'blur the lines' between editorial content and advertising, this medium has escaped the calls for government restrictions that are currently associated with food advertisements aired during children's television programming. The aim of this study was to address significant gaps in the evidence base in relation to commercial food messages in children's magazines by systematically investigating the nature and extent of food advertising and promotions over a 12-month period. Method: All issues of Australian children's magazines published in the calendar year 2009 were examined for references to foods or beverages. Results: Approximately 16 ...


You Are What Your Children Eat: Using Projective Techniques To Investigate Parents' Perceptions Of The Food Choices Parents Make For Their Children, Gary I. Noble, Sandra C. Jones, Danielle Mcvie Jun 2013

You Are What Your Children Eat: Using Projective Techniques To Investigate Parents' Perceptions Of The Food Choices Parents Make For Their Children, Gary I. Noble, Sandra C. Jones, Danielle Mcvie

Sandra Jones

The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying reasons for parents' decisions about their children's diets. This study used the projective methodologies of picture response and third-person techniques (projective questioning), which are designed to elicit people's underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes and concerns, particularly those beliefs which people find hard to articulate. We found a significant difference in parents' perceptions of the woman in the scenario in response to all four of the statements that related directly to food choices. This study provides support for the contention that parents reports of their intentions and behaviours regarding food ...


Large-Scale Network Organization In The Avian Forebrain: A Connectivity Matrix And Theoretical Analysis, Verner Peter Bingman, Murray Shanahan, Toru Shimizu, Martin Wild, Onur Güntürkün Jun 2013

Large-Scale Network Organization In The Avian Forebrain: A Connectivity Matrix And Theoretical Analysis, Verner Peter Bingman, Murray Shanahan, Toru Shimizu, Martin Wild, Onur Güntürkün

Psychology Faculty Publications

Many species of birds, including pigeons, possess demonstrable cognitive capacities, and some are capable of cognitive feats matching those of apes. Since mammalian cortex is laminar while the avian telencephalon is nucleated, it is natural to ask whether the brains of these two cognitively capable taxa, despite their apparent anatomical dissimilarities, might exhibit common principles of organization on some level. Complementing recent investigations of macro-scale brain connectivity in mammals, including humans and macaques, we here present the first large-scale "wiring diagram" for the forebrain of a bird. Using graph theory, we show that the pigeon telencephalon is organized along similar ...


When The Cradle Falls: The Subversion, Secrets, And Sentimentality Of Lullabies, Lauren R. Castro Jun 2013

When The Cradle Falls: The Subversion, Secrets, And Sentimentality Of Lullabies, Lauren R. Castro

Music

No abstract provided.