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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Kinase Inhibitory, Haemolytic And Cytotoxic Activity Of Three Deep-Water Sponges From North Western Australia And Their Fatty Acid Composition, Ana Zivanovic, Natalie J. Pastro, Jane Fromont, Murray Thomson, Danielle Skropeta Nov 2013

Kinase Inhibitory, Haemolytic And Cytotoxic Activity Of Three Deep-Water Sponges From North Western Australia And Their Fatty Acid Composition, Ana Zivanovic, Natalie J. Pastro, Jane Fromont, Murray Thomson, Danielle Skropeta

Danielle Skropeta

The c-AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibition, haemolytic activity, and cytoxicity of 21 extracts obtained from North Western Australian sponges collected from depths of 84-135 m were investigated. Hexane extracts from Ircinia/Sarcotragus sp. and Geodia sp. displayed PKA inhibitory activities of 100 and 97% respectively (at 100 μg/mL), while aq. methanol extracts from Haliclona sp. exhibited potent haemolytic activity (75%) and hexane extracts from Geodia sp. were highly toxic (88%) to the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. As the non-polar extracts gave the greatest PKA inhibition, these were further analysed by GC-MS and 29 fatty acids were identified in ...


Deep-Sea Natural Products, Danielle Skropeta Nov 2013

Deep-Sea Natural Products, Danielle Skropeta

Danielle Skropeta

This review covers the 390 novel marine natural products described to date from deep-water (>50 m)marine fauna, with details on the source organism, its depth and country of origin, along with anyreported biological activity of the metabolites. Relevant synthetic studies on the deep-sea naturalproducts have also been included.


Misidentification Of Tansy, Tanacetum Macrophyllum, As Yarrow, Achillea Grandifolia: A Health Risk Or Benefit?, Niko Radulovic, Polina Blagojevic, Danielle Skropeta, Aleksandra Zarubica, Bojan Zlatkovic, Radosav Palic´ Nov 2013

Misidentification Of Tansy, Tanacetum Macrophyllum, As Yarrow, Achillea Grandifolia: A Health Risk Or Benefit?, Niko Radulovic, Polina Blagojevic, Danielle Skropeta, Aleksandra Zarubica, Bojan Zlatkovic, Radosav Palic´

Danielle Skropeta

Tansy, Tanacetum macrophyllum (Waldst. & Kit.) Sch. Bip., is often misidentified by herb collectors as yarrow, Achillea grand folia Friv. With the former, cases of poisoning induced by its ingestion are well documented, but the latter is widely used for ethnopharmacological purposes. The aim of this study was to estimate, based on the volatile metabolite profiles of the two species, the potential health risk connected with their misidentification. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oils hydrodistilled using a Clevenger-type apparatus from A. grandifolia, T macrophyllum, and two plant samples (reputedly of A. grandifolia, but in fact mixtures of A. grand ...


Anti-Cancer Activity Of An Acid-Labile N-Alkylisatin Conjugate Targeting The Transferrin Receptor, Vineesh Indira Chandran, Lidia Matesic, Julie Locke, Danielle Skropeta, Marie Ranson, Kara Vine Nov 2013

Anti-Cancer Activity Of An Acid-Labile N-Alkylisatin Conjugate Targeting The Transferrin Receptor, Vineesh Indira Chandran, Lidia Matesic, Julie Locke, Danielle Skropeta, Marie Ranson, Kara Vine

Danielle Skropeta

We have previously reported a series of pH-sensitive imine-linked N-alkylisatin prodrugs that are stable at pH 7.4, but readily cleaved at pH 4.5. Herein, one of the most potent prodrugs, 5,7-dibromo-N-(pmethoxybenzyl) isatin (NAI), was functionalized with a para-phenylpropionic acid linker, and the resulting NAI–imine prodrug conjugated to transferrin (Tf) to form a NAI–imine–Tf conjugate. Cytotoxicity assays revealed the conjugate was equipotent to the free drug against MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with clear selectivity patterns based on TfR levels. These results suggest that this novel isatin-based cytotoxin conjugated to a tumor targeting protein via ...


Kinase Inhibitors From Marine Sponges, Danielle Skropeta, Natalie Pastro, Ana Zivanovic Nov 2013

Kinase Inhibitors From Marine Sponges, Danielle Skropeta, Natalie Pastro, Ana Zivanovic

Danielle Skropeta

Protein kinases play a critical role in cell regulation and their deregulation is a contributing factor in an increasing list of diseases including cancer. Marine sponges have yielded over 70 novel compounds to date that exhibit significant inhibitory activity towards a range of protein kinases. These compounds, which belong to diverse structural classes, are reviewed herein, and ordered based upon the kinase that they inhibit. Relevant synthetic studies on the marine natural product kinase inhibitors have also been included.


The Effect Of Individual N-Glycans On Enzyme Activity, Danielle Skropeta Nov 2013

The Effect Of Individual N-Glycans On Enzyme Activity, Danielle Skropeta

Danielle Skropeta

No abstract provided.


Structures, Biological Activities And Phylogenetic Relationships Of Terpenoids From Marine Ciliates Of The Genus Euplotes, Graziano Guella, Danielle Skropeta, Graziano Di Giuseppe, Fernando Dini Nov 2013

Structures, Biological Activities And Phylogenetic Relationships Of Terpenoids From Marine Ciliates Of The Genus Euplotes, Graziano Guella, Danielle Skropeta, Graziano Di Giuseppe, Fernando Dini

Danielle Skropeta

In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C-30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having ...


Domino Pericyclic Reactions Of Acyclic Conjugated (E,Z,E,E)-Tetraenes, Danielle Skropeta, Rodney Rickards Nov 2013

Domino Pericyclic Reactions Of Acyclic Conjugated (E,Z,E,E)-Tetraenes, Danielle Skropeta, Rodney Rickards

Danielle Skropeta

No abstract provided.


N-Phenethyl And N-Naphthylmethyl Isatins And Analogues As In Vitro Cytotoxic Agents, John Bremner, Stephen Pyne, Marie Ranson, Danielle Skropeta, Julie Locke, Lidia Matesic, Kara Perrow Nov 2013

N-Phenethyl And N-Naphthylmethyl Isatins And Analogues As In Vitro Cytotoxic Agents, John Bremner, Stephen Pyne, Marie Ranson, Danielle Skropeta, Julie Locke, Lidia Matesic, Kara Perrow

Danielle Skropeta

Arange of N-phenethyl,N-phenacyl, and N-(1- and 2-naphthylmethyl) derivatives of 5,7-dibromoisatin 2 were prepared byN-alkylation reactions. Their activity against human monocyte-like histiocytic lymphoma (U937), leukemia (Jurkat), and breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cell lines was assessed. The results allowed further development of structureactivity relationships. The compound 5,7-dibromo-N-(1-naphthylmethyl)-1H-indole-2,3-dione 5a was the most potent against U937 cells with an IC50 value of 0.19 microM.


Exploring Marine Resources For New Pharmaceutical Applications, Danielle Skropeta Nov 2013

Exploring Marine Resources For New Pharmaceutical Applications, Danielle Skropeta

Danielle Skropeta

No abstract provided.


Complete Assignment Of The 1h And 13c Nmr Spectra Of Antimicrobial 4-Arylamino- 3-Nitrocoumarin Derivatives, Vidoslav Dekic, Niko Radulovic, Rastko Vukicevic, Biljana Dekic, Danielle Skropeta, Radosav Palic Nov 2013

Complete Assignment Of The 1h And 13c Nmr Spectra Of Antimicrobial 4-Arylamino- 3-Nitrocoumarin Derivatives, Vidoslav Dekic, Niko Radulovic, Rastko Vukicevic, Biljana Dekic, Danielle Skropeta, Radosav Palic

Danielle Skropeta

No abstract provided.


Synthesis And Hydrolytic Evaluation Of Acid-Labile Imine-Linked Cytoxic Isatin Model Systems, Lidia Matesic, Julie Locke, Kara Perrow, Marie Ranson, John Bremner, Danielle Skropeta Nov 2013

Synthesis And Hydrolytic Evaluation Of Acid-Labile Imine-Linked Cytoxic Isatin Model Systems, Lidia Matesic, Julie Locke, Kara Perrow, Marie Ranson, John Bremner, Danielle Skropeta

Danielle Skropeta

In this study a series of isatin-based, pH-sensitive aryl imine derivatives with differing aromatic substituents and substitution patterns were synthesised and their acid-catalysed hydrolysis evaluated. These derivatives were functionalised at the C3 carbonyl group of a potent N-substituted isatin cytotoxin and were stable at physiological pH but readily cleaved at pH 4.5. Observed rates of hydrolysis for the embedded imine-acid moiety were in the order para-phenylpropionic acid>phenylacetic acid (para>meta)>benzoic acid (meta>para). The ability to fine-tune hydrolysis rates in this way has potential implications for optimising imine linked, tumour targeting cytotoxin-protein conjugates


Average Mass Scan Of The Total Ion Chromatogram Versus Percentage Chemical Composition In Multivariate Statistical Comparison Of Complex Volatile Mixtures, Niko Radulovic, Polina Blagojevic, Danielle Skropeta Nov 2013

Average Mass Scan Of The Total Ion Chromatogram Versus Percentage Chemical Composition In Multivariate Statistical Comparison Of Complex Volatile Mixtures, Niko Radulovic, Polina Blagojevic, Danielle Skropeta

Danielle Skropeta

The analysis of complex volatile mixtures by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a time-consuming process. It involves separation and identification of the components based on their retention times and fragmentation patterns, followed by determination of their relative percentages from integration of their peak areas. Herein we show that multivariate statistical analysis of the relative abundances of the m/z values obtained from the average mass scans (AMS) of the complex mixture is a faster and potentially more reliable method of assessing these mixtures. To achieve this, 15 model complex mixtures, were prepared comprising varying amounts of 10 different constituents. The ...


Synthesis And Anti-Leukaemic Activity Of Pyrrolo[3,2,1-Hi]Indole-1,2- Diones, Pyrrolo[3,2,1-Ij]Quinoline-1,2-Diones And Other Polycyclic Isatin Derivatives, Lidia Matesic, Julie M. Locke, Kara Vine, Marie Ranson, John B. Bremner, Danielle Skropeta Nov 2013

Synthesis And Anti-Leukaemic Activity Of Pyrrolo[3,2,1-Hi]Indole-1,2- Diones, Pyrrolo[3,2,1-Ij]Quinoline-1,2-Diones And Other Polycyclic Isatin Derivatives, Lidia Matesic, Julie M. Locke, Kara Vine, Marie Ranson, John B. Bremner, Danielle Skropeta

Danielle Skropeta

To further expand the structure–cytotoxic activity relationships of isatin derivatives and to reduce flexibility in substituent groups at nitrogen, 20 analogues incorporating a ring system between the N1 and C7 atoms of isatin were prepared using a variety of synthetic strategies. This yielded pyrroloindole-, pyrroloquinoline-, pyrroloacridine-, pyrrolophenanthridine- and benzopyrrolophenanthridine-based systems with embedded isatin moieties, the latter possessing a novel carbon skeleton. These compounds were subsequently assessed for their in vitro cytotoxicity against human U937 lymphoma cells, with the brominated pyrroloacridine dione 27 showing the most promising activity (IC50 3.01 μM) after 24 h.


N-Glycolisation Regulates Endothelial Lipase-Mediated Phospholipid Hydrolysis In Apoe- And Apoa-I-Containing High Density Lipoproteins, Danielle Skropeta, Daniel Rader, Weijun Jin, Monica Mcmahon, Kate Shearston, Philip Barter, Kristine Mcgrath, Kerry-Anne Rye, Chatri Settasatian, Daniela Caiazza Nov 2013

N-Glycolisation Regulates Endothelial Lipase-Mediated Phospholipid Hydrolysis In Apoe- And Apoa-I-Containing High Density Lipoproteins, Danielle Skropeta, Daniel Rader, Weijun Jin, Monica Mcmahon, Kate Shearston, Philip Barter, Kristine Mcgrath, Kerry-Anne Rye, Chatri Settasatian, Daniela Caiazza

Danielle Skropeta

No abstract provided.


Cytotoxic And Anticancer Activities Of Isatin And Its Derivatives: A Comprehensive Review From 2000-2008, Marie Ranson, Danielle Skropeta, Julie Locke, Lidia Matesic, Kara Perrow Nov 2013

Cytotoxic And Anticancer Activities Of Isatin And Its Derivatives: A Comprehensive Review From 2000-2008, Marie Ranson, Danielle Skropeta, Julie Locke, Lidia Matesic, Kara Perrow

Danielle Skropeta

No abstract provided.


C-Amp Dependent Protein Kinase A Inhibitory Activity Of Six Algal Extracts From South Eastern Australia And Their Fatty Acid Composition, Ana Zivanovic, Danielle Skropeta Nov 2013

C-Amp Dependent Protein Kinase A Inhibitory Activity Of Six Algal Extracts From South Eastern Australia And Their Fatty Acid Composition, Ana Zivanovic, Danielle Skropeta

Danielle Skropeta

c-AMP dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, PKA) is an important enzyme involved in the regulation of an increasing number of physiological processes including immune function, cardiovascular disease, memory disorders and cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PKA inhibitory activity of a range of algal extracts, along with their fatty acid composition. Six algal species were investigated including two Chlorophyta (Codium dimorphum and Ulva lactuca), two Phaeophyta (Phyllospora comosa and Sargassum sp.) and two Rhodophyta (Prionitis linearis and Corallina vancouveriensis), with the order of PKA inhibitory activity of their extracts identified as follows: brown seaweeds > red ...


Chemotaxonomy Of The Peppergrass Lepidium Coronopus (L.) Al-Shehbaz (Syn. Coronopus Squamatus) Based On Its Volatile Glucosinolate Autolysis Products, Niko Radulovic, Bojan Zlatkovic, Danielle Skropeta, Radosav Palic´ Nov 2013

Chemotaxonomy Of The Peppergrass Lepidium Coronopus (L.) Al-Shehbaz (Syn. Coronopus Squamatus) Based On Its Volatile Glucosinolate Autolysis Products, Niko Radulovic, Bojan Zlatkovic, Danielle Skropeta, Radosav Palic´

Danielle Skropeta

The genus Lepidium comprises approximately 175 different plant species commonly referred to as peppergrasses or pepperworts ( Al-Shehbaz, 1997 and Mummenhoff et al., 2001), which occur worldwide apart from the polar regions where they are considered rare in the Arctic and are absent from Antarctica. Lepidium is a comparatively large genus belonging to the mustard family Brassicaceae. Lepidium coronopus (L.) Al-Shehbaz, a representative of the genus, is a herbaceous annual to biennial plant that belongs to the tribe Lepidieae and has previously been described by the following synonymous species: Coronopus squamatus (Forsskal) Ascherson; C. squamatus subsp. conradi (Muschler) Maire; C. squamatus ...


Learning How To Be An Academic - The Story Of A New Academic In The Sciences, Danielle Skropeta Nov 2013

Learning How To Be An Academic - The Story Of A New Academic In The Sciences, Danielle Skropeta

Danielle Skropeta

No abstract provided.


Solid-State And Solution-Phase Conformations Of Pseudoproline-Containing Dipeptides, James R. Cochrane, Nima Sayyadi, Danielle Skropeta, Peter Turner, Jack K. Clegg, Katrina A. Jolliffe Nov 2013

Solid-State And Solution-Phase Conformations Of Pseudoproline-Containing Dipeptides, James R. Cochrane, Nima Sayyadi, Danielle Skropeta, Peter Turner, Jack K. Clegg, Katrina A. Jolliffe

Danielle Skropeta

The conformations of 14 threonine-derived pseudoproline-containing dipeptides (including four d-allo-Thr derivatives) have been investigated by NMR. In solution, the major conformer observed for all dipeptides is that in which the amide bond between the pseudoproline and the preceding amino acid is cis. For dipeptides in which the N-terminus is protected, the ratio of cis- to trans-conformers does not depend significantly on the side chain of the N-terminal amino acid, or the stereochemistry of the Thr residue. However, for dipeptides bearing a free N-terminus, there are significant differences in the ratios of cis- to trans-conformers depending on the side chain present ...


Removal Of Trace Organic Contaminants By Nitrifying Activated Sludge And Whole-Cell And Crude Enzyme Extract Of Trametes Versicolor, Shufan Yang, Faisal I. Hai, Long D. Nghiem, Felicity Roddick, William E. Price Oct 2013

Removal Of Trace Organic Contaminants By Nitrifying Activated Sludge And Whole-Cell And Crude Enzyme Extract Of Trametes Versicolor, Shufan Yang, Faisal I. Hai, Long D. Nghiem, Felicity Roddick, William E. Price

William E. Price

The resistance of certain anthropogenic trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) to conventional wastewater treatment and their potential adverse effects on human and ecological health raise significant concerns and have prompted research on their bioremediation by white-rot fungi. This study compared the removal efficiencies of four widespread TrOCs: carbamazepine (CBZ), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), bisphenol A (BPA) and diclofenac (DCF), by nitrifying activated sludge as well as whole-cell and extracellular enzyme (laccase) extract of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Fungal whole-cell culture removed only BPA and DCF but with high efficiencies (>90%) while the mixed nitrifying culture removed all compounds, although by levels of ...


Teasaponin Improves Central Leptin Sensitivity In High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice, Y Wu, Xu-Feng Huang, Y Yu Sep 2013

Teasaponin Improves Central Leptin Sensitivity In High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice, Y Wu, Xu-Feng Huang, Y Yu

Yizhen Wu

Purpose: Leptin promotes negative energy balance by suppressing energy intake (EI) and elevating energy expenditure through its central action. Central leptin resistance is a hallmark of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Oral administration of teasaponin (TS) can reduce body weight and fat mass. However, little is known if TS has benefit effect in improving central leptin sensitivity. This study investigated the effects of TS on central leptin sensitivity and leptin signalling in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc) of DIO mice. Methods: After 15 weeks of high-fat diet, DIO mice (n=40) were divided into two groups received either intraperitoneal (ip) injection of ...


Synthesis Of Reaction-Ready 6,6 '-Biindole And 6,6 '-Biisatin Via Palladium(Ii)-Catalysed Intramolecular C-H Functionalisation, Allan B. Gamble, Paul A. Keller Sep 2013

Synthesis Of Reaction-Ready 6,6 '-Biindole And 6,6 '-Biisatin Via Palladium(Ii)-Catalysed Intramolecular C-H Functionalisation, Allan B. Gamble, Paul A. Keller

Paul Keller

The first synthesis of a 6,6'-biindole and 6,6'-biisatin scaffold is reported with the penultimate step being the formation of the di-heterocyclic ring by Pd(II)-catalysed intramolecular C-H functionalisation and Sandmeyer cyclisation, respectively.


The First Syntheses Of Enantiopure 2,2 '-Biindoline, Steven M. Wales, Anthony C. Willis, Paul A. Keller Sep 2013

The First Syntheses Of Enantiopure 2,2 '-Biindoline, Steven M. Wales, Anthony C. Willis, Paul A. Keller

Paul Keller

The first two syntheses of chiral 2,2'-biindoline are reported either in five steps from 2,2'-bioxirane, or three steps from 2,2'-biaziridine, both with exceptional enantiopurity


Reductive Ring Opening Reactions Of Diphenyldihydrofullerenylpyrroles, William Hawkins, Paul A. Keller, Stephen G. Pyne Sep 2013

Reductive Ring Opening Reactions Of Diphenyldihydrofullerenylpyrroles, William Hawkins, Paul A. Keller, Stephen G. Pyne

Paul Keller

The reductive ring opening reaction conditions for the simple [60]fullerenyldihydropyrrole 1 have been optimized to include acetic acid in the reaction mixture to rapidly protonate the anionic intermediate. Under these conditions, the ring opened dihydrofullerene 2 was obtained in 68% yield. Under slightly modified conditions and at −78 °C, the reductive bis-ring opening of the tethered trans-4 isomer 3 provided the novel racemic bis-dihydrofullerenyl derivative 7.


Revealing Indigenous Indonesian Traditional Medicine: Anti-Infective Agents, Paul A. Keller, Ari Satia Nugraha Sep 2013

Revealing Indigenous Indonesian Traditional Medicine: Anti-Infective Agents, Paul A. Keller, Ari Satia Nugraha

Paul Keller

Indonesia is rich in medicinal plants which the population has used traditionally from generation to generation for curing diseases. Our interest in the treatment of infectious diseases has lead to the investigation of traditional Indonesian treatments. In this review, we present a comprehensive review of ethnopharmacologically directed screening in Indonesian medicinal plants to search for new anti-viral, antimalarial, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agents. Some potent drug leads have been isolated from Indonesian medicinal plants. Further research is still required for the lead development as well as the search for new bioactive compounds from the enormous medicinal plant resources.


Binaphthyl-Anchored Antibacterial Tripeptide Derivatives With Hydrophobic C-Terminal Amino Acid Variations, John Bremner, Paul A. Keller, Stephen Pyne, Mark Robertson, Kandasamy Sakthivel, Kittiya Somphol, Dean Baylis, Jonathon A Coates, John Deadman, Dharshini Jeevarajah, David I. Rhodes Sep 2013

Binaphthyl-Anchored Antibacterial Tripeptide Derivatives With Hydrophobic C-Terminal Amino Acid Variations, John Bremner, Paul A. Keller, Stephen Pyne, Mark Robertson, Kandasamy Sakthivel, Kittiya Somphol, Dean Baylis, Jonathon A Coates, John Deadman, Dharshini Jeevarajah, David I. Rhodes

Paul Keller

The facile synthesis of seven new dicationic tripeptide benzyl ester derivatives, with hydrophobic group variations in the C-terminal amino acid component, is described. Moderate to good activity was seen against Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. One cyclohexyl-substituted compound 2c was tested more widely and showed good potency (MIC values ranging from 2–4 μg/mL) against antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococci (VRE, VSE), and against Staphylococcus epidermidis.


Synthesis Of Novel N-Protected Hydrophobic Phenylalanines And Their Application In Potential Antibacterials, Timothy P. Boyle, J. B. Bremner, Jonathan A. Coates, John Deadman, Paul A. Keller, Stephen G. Pyne, Kittiya Somphol Sep 2013

Synthesis Of Novel N-Protected Hydrophobic Phenylalanines And Their Application In Potential Antibacterials, Timothy P. Boyle, J. B. Bremner, Jonathan A. Coates, John Deadman, Paul A. Keller, Stephen G. Pyne, Kittiya Somphol

Paul Keller

An efficient synthesis of two new N-acetyl-4’-arylphenylalanines is described together with their incorporation in to a number of cationic peptoid antibacterial agents, one of which had an MIC of 7.8 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus.


Phytochemical And Biological Activity Studies Of The Bhutanese Medicinal Plant Corydalis Crispa, Phurpa Wangchuk, Paul A. Keller, Stephen G. Pyne, Thanapat Sastraruji, Malai Taweechotipatr, Roonglawan Rattanajak, Aunchalee Tonsomboon, Sumalee Kamchonwongpaisan Sep 2013

Phytochemical And Biological Activity Studies Of The Bhutanese Medicinal Plant Corydalis Crispa, Phurpa Wangchuk, Paul A. Keller, Stephen G. Pyne, Thanapat Sastraruji, Malai Taweechotipatr, Roonglawan Rattanajak, Aunchalee Tonsomboon, Sumalee Kamchonwongpaisan

Paul Keller

The chemical constituents and biological activities of Corydalis crispa (Fumariaceae) were investigated for the first time. The phytochemical study resulted in the isolation of nine known isoquinoline alkaloids: protopine (1), 13-oxoprotopine (2), 13-oxocryptopine (3), stylopine (4), coreximine (5), rheagenine (6), ochrobirine (7), sibiricine (8) and bicuculline (9), with complete NMR data for 2 and 3 provided here for the first time. Crude extracts exhibitedsignificant anti-inflammatory (p < 0.01) activity against TNF-alpha production in LPS activated THP-1 cells. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of compounds 2, 4 and 7 and the antiplasmodial activity of compound 5 against P. falciparum strains TM4/8 ...


An Assessment Of The Bhutanese Traditional Medicine For Its Ethnopharmacology, Ethnobotany And Ethnoquality: Textual Understanding And The Current Practices, Phurpa Wangchuk, Stephen G. Pyne, Paul A. Keller Sep 2013

An Assessment Of The Bhutanese Traditional Medicine For Its Ethnopharmacology, Ethnobotany And Ethnoquality: Textual Understanding And The Current Practices, Phurpa Wangchuk, Stephen G. Pyne, Paul A. Keller

Paul Keller

Ethnopharmacological relevance : This study involves the assessment of the Bhutanese traditional medicine (BTM) which was integrated with the mainstream biomedicine in 1967 to provide primary health care services in the country. It caters to 20-30% of the daily out-patients within 49 traditional medicine units attached to 20 district modern hospitals and 29 Basic Health Units in the country. Aim of the study : This study presents the ethnopharmacological, ethnobotanical and the ethnoquality concepts in relation to mainstream Tibetan medicine and describes the current practices of BTM. Materials and methods : Experienced BTM practitioners (Drung-tshos and Smen-pas) were selected using a convenience sampling ...