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2013

Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Tattoo Stigma And Job Discrimination, Phil Drazewski Dec 2013

Tattoo Stigma And Job Discrimination, Phil Drazewski

Theses and Dissertations

Recent research (Madera & Hebl, 2011) has found that visible stigmas can lead to discrimination against stigmatized individuals in the form of lower job applicant ratings. Tattooed individuals may be one group that faces such discrimination. People with tattoos are perceived less positively than non-tattooed people (Martin & Dula, 2010; Resenhoeft, Villa, & Wiseman, 2008), which may be the result of a tattoo stigma. Pryor & Reeder (2011) suggested that one hallmark of stigmas is that they evoke implicit negative attitudes. In a pilot study, participants implicitly and explicitly evaluated tattooed and non-tattooed individuals, and a tattoo stigma was supported. In the present study, tattooed (vs. non-tattooed) applicants were rated lower on overall effectiveness. However, unlike Madera & Hebl (2011), the present study did not find memory to mediate the tattoo condition-effectiveness ratings relationship. Implicit tattoo-related attitudes, explicit tattoo-related attitudes, and participant gender were found to moderate the relationship between ...


“Cause That’S The Only Skills In School You Need” A Qualitative Analysis Of Revenge Goals In Poor Urban Youth, Lena Janina Jäggi Dec 2013

“Cause That’S The Only Skills In School You Need” A Qualitative Analysis Of Revenge Goals In Poor Urban Youth, Lena Janina Jäggi

Theses and Dissertations

Ample research shows that revenge goals are correlated with maladjustment and retaliation is an important factor driving youth violence. Still, in environments with limited institutionalized interventions revenge might be an indispensable tool to maintain social equilibrium. This qualitative secondary analysis of 50 (30 Boys) revenge scenarios from a larger longitudinal study (N=358 dyads of youth/maternal caregiver) expands existing one-dimensional knowledge of revenge from closed-answer vignettes to the rich real world experience of 10-16 year old youth from an urban community sample. Key findings showed significant qualitative differences in both cognition and emotions of revenge scenarios. Ten distinct patterns ...


Motivation And The Sat: What Factors Help Determine College Success Past Standardized Testing, Alexandra Vartanian Dec 2013

Motivation And The Sat: What Factors Help Determine College Success Past Standardized Testing, Alexandra Vartanian

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects motivation plays in determining the success of a student in post secondary education. The relationship between high school GPA (HSGPA), SAT Scores, college GPA (CGPA), and motivation factors were examined. Motivation was measured on the Motivational Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) developed by Paul Pintrich and Elizabeth de Groot. Ninety-two participants responded to the survey. Results corroborated findings from previous research. SAT scores correlate with CGPA; relationships were also observed across several other factors, including HSGPA and CGPA, SAT and Motivation, and HSGPA and SAT scores.


Family Processes As Moderators Of The Impact Of Peer, School, And Neighborhood Influences On Adolescent Aggression, Alison Kramer-Kuhn Dec 2013

Family Processes As Moderators Of The Impact Of Peer, School, And Neighborhood Influences On Adolescent Aggression, Alison Kramer-Kuhn

Theses and Dissertations

Despite theoretical support for the role of the family in providing a foundation to protect youth against risks for aggression, there is little published literature examining a protective influence. This study examined family functioning and perceived parental messages about fighting and nonviolence as moderators of the relation between risk factors and adolescent aggression. The specific risk factors included affiliating with a delinquent group of peers, attending a school with norms that support aggression, and witnessing violence within the community. Secondary analyses were conducted on data collected from a high-risk sample of 537 adolescents in 2 cohorts from 18 schools. Adolescents ...


Maternal Monitoring And Maternal Psychological Well-Being: Important Components In Treating Conduct Disorder, Benjamin Rosen Dec 2013

Maternal Monitoring And Maternal Psychological Well-Being: Important Components In Treating Conduct Disorder, Benjamin Rosen

Theses and Dissertations

Conduct disorder is characterized by behaviors that take a large toll on the individuals, families, and communities afflicted. Thus, improving treatment effectiveness should be a high priority. Currently, common intervention programs do not address parental depression, even though it has been linked to adolescent conduct disorder behaviors in some studies. The current study assessed whether the relation between maternal depression and adolescent conduct disorder behaviors is mediated by another factor which has been linked to conduct disorder behaviors, maternal monitoring. Results did not support the hypothesized mediated association, but did show significant individual associations for both maternal depression and maternal ...


Disparity Of Principal Accountability, Mary Kathryn Taylor Dec 2013

Disparity Of Principal Accountability, Mary Kathryn Taylor

Theses and Dissertations

This study begins with a review of court cases that have helped shape public education in America. Following the review is an analysis of federal reform in education from 1965 to the present, paired with educational leadership literature to highlight a disparity in what federal mandates and state policies have in place for accountability measures. The study ends with a state analysis of Illinois and Iowa to find the strengths and weaknesses of state policy in the area of principal accountability.

As policymakers have worked to increase accountability in K-12 education, efforts have focused on a variety of measures to ...


Context And Target Search Reversal: Implicit Flexibility And Rapid Adaptation Of Relational Memories Using Visual Search, Ryan Hanson Dec 2013

Context And Target Search Reversal: Implicit Flexibility And Rapid Adaptation Of Relational Memories Using Visual Search, Ryan Hanson

Theses and Dissertations

Repeated perceptual exposure leads to increased accuracy and decreased response latency - referred to as perceptual facilitation or priming - and generally occurs in the absence of conscious memory experience. One example of a priming task which depends upon contextual relations is termed contextual cuing. It has long been held that context-dependent relations can only be acquired with deliberative or explicit processes. While context learning has historically been attributed to declarative memory, the existence of implicit context learning tasks may be better explained as an implicit relational learning process. Although implicit memories have long been characterized as relatively rigid, such tasks raise ...


Landscape Ecological Analysis Of Patterns Influencing Bat Activity In Southeast Glacial Plains Of Wisconsin, Angela Leckie Jackson Dec 2013

Landscape Ecological Analysis Of Patterns Influencing Bat Activity In Southeast Glacial Plains Of Wisconsin, Angela Leckie Jackson

Theses and Dissertations

Nearly half of the world's bat species are threatened by anthropogenic land use. To contribute to the conservation of these cryptic mammals, it is imperative to understand bat habitat selection in human-dominated landscapes. Bat activity was calculated using active acoustic surveys conducted June and July for three years along river and lake transects in an agricultural matrix. Using multiple logistic regression and ANOVA regression tree analyses, I examined the relationship between bat activity of four species and habitat structure at multiple scales.

Aquatic features were determined to be the greatest predictor of bat activity with rivers supporting greater amount ...


An Early Christian Reliquary In The Shape Of A Sarcophagus In The University Of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Art Collection, Anne O'Connor Dec 2013

An Early Christian Reliquary In The Shape Of A Sarcophagus In The University Of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Art Collection, Anne O'Connor

Theses and Dissertations

This paper seeks to introduce a relatively unknown example of a small fifth or sixth century AD reliquary object in the shape of a sarcophagus now in the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Art Collection. Its material - mostly likely Prokonnesian marble - a highly prized stone in the Roman Empire - speaks to strength, permanence, endurance, and the concept of romanitas. The form, as derived from Roman burial practice, provides apotropaic powers for the viewer and for the holy person whose remains were contained within. Its design also facilitates the offering of votives and veneration, as well as requests for intercessions between the earthly ...


Teaching Braille Letters, Numbers, Punctuation, And Contractions To Sighted Individuals, Brittany C. Putnam Dec 2013

Teaching Braille Letters, Numbers, Punctuation, And Contractions To Sighted Individuals, Brittany C. Putnam

Theses and Dissertations

Sighted teachers who can read braille visually can provide better instruction and feedback to students with visual impairments who are learning to read braille tactually. Due to the overwhelmingly low ratio of certified braille instructors to children with visual impairments, instruction in visual braille is socially relevant and would greatly improve literacy instruction for children with visual impairments. We conducted a study that used the principles of behavior analysis to teach visual braille reading to sighted teachers. The computer-based teaching program employed a matching-to-sample approach in which participants selected the correct answer from an array. Four undergraduate participants completed the ...


Effects Of A Forgiveness Intervention On Lesbian And Gay Adolescents Hurt By Homophobia, Mark William Charles Dec 2013

Effects Of A Forgiveness Intervention On Lesbian And Gay Adolescents Hurt By Homophobia, Mark William Charles

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact a group level intervention based on Robert Enright's (2001) forgiveness model would have on LGBT adolescents hurt by homophobic offenses. The purposive sample consisted of 26 LGBT- identified adolescents recruited from community-based organizations located in the Midwest and randomly placed in either an experimental group or a wait-list control group. The group intervention consisted of six weekly sessions, each lasting 90 minutes. Participants completed an assessment battery that measured levels of forgiveness and mental health symptomology at three time points: pre-intervention, post-intervention, and approximately one month after completion of ...


Essays In Capital Mobility, Growth, And Macroeconomic Volatility, Ping-Hang Fan Dec 2013

Essays In Capital Mobility, Growth, And Macroeconomic Volatility, Ping-Hang Fan

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation comprises three chapters in international macroeconomics. Specifically, we focus on international financial integration and its linkage to economic growth and volatility. In Chapter 1, we revisit the Feldstein-Horioka (1980) puzzle that saving-investment correlation exhibits a pattern contrary to expectation, being higher among the OECD countries that are more financially integrated and lower among emerging markets economies with less financial integration and greater capital controls. We find that the evolution of FH coefficient is highly consistent with increased financial integration over time, thus resolving the puzzle dynamically. We also explain the cross-country component of the puzzle by showing that ...


A Developmental Systems Approach To Exploring The Plasticity And Diversity Of Teen Childbearers' Parenting Behaviors, Andrea Gromoske Dec 2013

A Developmental Systems Approach To Exploring The Plasticity And Diversity Of Teen Childbearers' Parenting Behaviors, Andrea Gromoske

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Many empirical studies indicate that teen childbearers, in comparison to adult childbearers, are more likely to exhibit maladaptive parenting behaviors, including low responsivity, harsh discipline, and child maltreatment. Yet, it is unclear whether teen childbearers are likely to engage consistently in poor parenting over time, why they may continue to engage in poor parenting, and which teen childbearers are most likely to engage in poor parenting persistently. Methods: This study used secondary data to investigate the person-in-context, temporality, plasticity, and diversity of teen childbearers' parenting behaviors using cross-sectional regressions, latent growth curve models, and joint longitudinal cluster analysis. Results ...


Cyberbullying In 'Left 4 Dead 2': A Study In Collaborative Play, Kimberly L. Kulovitz Dec 2013

Cyberbullying In 'Left 4 Dead 2': A Study In Collaborative Play, Kimberly L. Kulovitz

Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to further our understanding of the role of cyberbullying in the cooperative team-based game Left 4 Dead 2 (L4D2). A sample of 41 4-person groups generated a total n = 415 messages used for evaluating the behavioral content of game play. Four hypotheses were advanced assessing cyberbullying behavior and game outcome (success vs. failure), group cohesion, target participation, and perceptions of bullies. Out of the 41 groups 25 groups had cyberbullying behavior present and 16 groups had prosocial behavior. Overall, cyberbullying behavior had little effect on game outcome, group cohesion and target participation. Groups using only prosocial messages ...


Investigating User Search Tactic Patterns And System Support In Using Digital Libraries, Soohyung Joo Dec 2013

Investigating User Search Tactic Patterns And System Support In Using Digital Libraries, Soohyung Joo

Theses and Dissertations

This study aims to investigate users' search tactic application and system support in using digital libraries. A user study was conducted with sixty digital library users. The study was designed to answer three research questions: 1) How do users engage in a search process by applying different types of search tactics while conducting different search tasks?; 2) How does the system support users to apply different types of search tactics?; 3) How do users' search tactic application and system support for different types of search tactics affect search outputs? Sixty student subjects were recruited from different disciplines in a state ...


The Role Of The Amygdala, Retrosplenial Cortex, And Medial Prefrontal Cortex In Trace Fear Extinction And Reconsolidation, Janine Lynn Kwapis Dec 2013

The Role Of The Amygdala, Retrosplenial Cortex, And Medial Prefrontal Cortex In Trace Fear Extinction And Reconsolidation, Janine Lynn Kwapis

Theses and Dissertations

A wealth of research has outlined the neural circuits responsible for the consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction of standard "delay" fear conditioning, in which awareness is not required for learning. Far less is understood about the neural circuit supporting more complex, explicit associations. "Trace" fear conditioning is considered to be a rodent model of explicit fear because it relies on the cortex and hippocampus and requires explicit contingency awareness in humans for successful acquisition. In the current set of studies, we aimed to better characterize the neural circuit supporting the consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction of trace fear in order to better ...


Northern Flint, Southern Roots: A Diachronic Analysis Of Paleoethnobotanical Remains And Maize Race At The Aztalan Site (47-Je-0001), Jennifer L. Picard Dec 2013

Northern Flint, Southern Roots: A Diachronic Analysis Of Paleoethnobotanical Remains And Maize Race At The Aztalan Site (47-Je-0001), Jennifer L. Picard

Theses and Dissertations

Located in Southeast Wisconsin on the west bank of the Crawfish River, the Aztalan site was first settled by horticultural Late Woodland peoples. By the mid-eleventh century A.D., Middle Mississippian migrants arrived from the south. The site was eventually transformed into a fortified village with three platform mounds. During the later component, Middle Mississippian and Late Woodland peoples appear to have coexisted. This thesis consists of a diachronic comparison of floral subsistence remains and maize race at the site. The results of the analysis indicate that while the Late Woodland inhabitants grew maize, food production involving maize and native ...


Resolving Public Records Disputes In Wisconsin: The Role Of The Attorney General's Office, Jonathan Anderson Dec 2013

Resolving Public Records Disputes In Wisconsin: The Role Of The Attorney General's Office, Jonathan Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates how the Wisconsin attorney general reviews and sometimes intervenes in access disputes over the state's public records law. The study posed three primary questions: How do the attorney general's administrative review mechanisms operate in practice? To what extent are the mechanisms effective at resolving disclosure disputes? And do the mechanisms help people unable to hire a lawyer to litigate? The study analyzed correspondence in 304 cases over six years to generate data on the quantity and nature of the attorney general's caseload in that time period. The study also interviewed 17 requesters to understand ...


Giving To Be Seen: The Influence Of Facebook Charitable Advertisements On Conspicuous Donation Behavior, Lei Jia Dec 2013

Giving To Be Seen: The Influence Of Facebook Charitable Advertisements On Conspicuous Donation Behavior, Lei Jia

Theses and Dissertations

The arduous financial environments that nonprofit organizations face today motivate nonprofits to continuously search and leverage new communication platforms such as social media to approach a wider individual donor base. This thesis examines whether a Facebook charitable appeal promoting a donation via Facebook Gifts may attract

Facebook users to give for conspicuousness (a public display of a donation behavior). Findings of this thesis revealed a gender difference in responses to the Facebook charitable appeal due to the gender difference in self-construals such that men were more likely to give via Facebook Gifts when the ad promoting the donation via Facebook ...


Walk It Off!: The Relationship Between Physically Active And Passive Coping Style And Perseverative Cognition, Michelle Rosalie Di Paolo Dec 2013

Walk It Off!: The Relationship Between Physically Active And Passive Coping Style And Perseverative Cognition, Michelle Rosalie Di Paolo

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

WALK IT OFF!: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE AND PASSIVE COPING STYLE AND PERSEVERATIVE COGNITION

by

Michelle R. Di Paolo

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2013

Under the Supervision of Professor Marcellus Merritt

The main aim of the current study is to assess if a relationship exists between self-selected coping styles and levels of perseverative cognition (PC). Recent pilot studies have revealed a relative distinction between the coping styles people choose when coping with stress, i.e., those that are physically active (PAC) like going for a walk, jogging, or lifting weights, and those that are physically passive (PPC) like ...


Neural Responses During Trace Conditioning With Face And Non-Face Stimuli Recorded With Magnetoencephalography, Nicholas Lee Balderston Dec 2013

Neural Responses During Trace Conditioning With Face And Non-Face Stimuli Recorded With Magnetoencephalography, Nicholas Lee Balderston

Theses and Dissertations

During fear conditioning a subject is presented with an initially innocuous stimulus like an image (conditioned stimulus; CS) that predicts an aversive outcome like a mild electric shock (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). Subjects rapidly learn that the CS predicts the UCS, and show autonomic fear responses (CRs) during the presentation of the CS. When the CS and the UCS coterminate, as is the case for delay conditioning, individuals can acquire CRs even if they are unable to predict the occurrence of the UCS. However when there is a temporal gap between the CS and the UCS, CR expression is typically dependent ...


Food Fight: Sharing Meals And Confronting Biopolitics In The Disciplinary City, Jeremy Sorenson Dec 2013

Food Fight: Sharing Meals And Confronting Biopolitics In The Disciplinary City, Jeremy Sorenson

Theses and Dissertations

This project interrogates the tensions surrounding food provision in Las Vegas, Nevada. More precisely, groups of ad hoc individuals, unaffiliated with local shelters or social service provision agencies intervene in homelessness and hunger in the city by showing up in places where homeless individuals congregate and provide food, water, basic medical sundries and companionship to those on the streets. Conversely, local officials and shelter administrators conceptualize these activities as damaging to homeless individuals and have acted to prohibit these acts of care. Engaging with key contributions in the geographic literature, I employ specific frameworks - critical poverty research, disciplinary bio- and ...


Reliability And Validity Of The Implicit Association Test Measuring Shame, Kathleen Marie Grout Dec 2013

Reliability And Validity Of The Implicit Association Test Measuring Shame, Kathleen Marie Grout

Theses and Dissertations

Shame plays a significant role in the development and maintenance of mental health diagnoses including: depression, eating disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Goss & Allan, 2009; Izard, 1991; Lee, Scragg, & Turner, 2001). However, utilizing explicit self-reports to measure shame leaves researchers vulnerable to demand characteristics and introspective limitations of the participants. Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz (1998) developed the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess implicit attitudes instead of explicit reports. The objective of the current study was to develop an IAT-Shame and to determine its internal and test-retest reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. Our central hypothesis was that explicit self-reports of ...


Vessel Form And Function In The Ceramic Assemblages From Bilbao And Santa Lucia Cotzumalhuapa, Guatemala, Amy Kaczmarek Dec 2013

Vessel Form And Function In The Ceramic Assemblages From Bilbao And Santa Lucia Cotzumalhuapa, Guatemala, Amy Kaczmarek

Theses and Dissertations

My investigation of two ceramic assemblages from Santa Lucia Cotzumalhuapa in the Guatemala piedmont zone builds on previous ceramic studies; however, my research focuses on vessel form and decoration as possible indicators related to human activity and site development in the region. I compared data from the Pacific Coast Archaeological Project Relational Database (2002), which include type names, vessel forms, dimensions, and contextual information, with Parsons' findings from the Milwaukee Public Museum Bilbao Project (1967). My quantitative analysis focused on functional vessel attributes related to ceramic types, forms, and decorations from the Santa Lucia Cotzumalhuapa ceramic assemblages to examine the ...


Understanding Wisconsin Legislators' Use Of Social Media, Christian T. Moran Dec 2013

Understanding Wisconsin Legislators' Use Of Social Media, Christian T. Moran

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis used quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the use of social media by legislative offices of the Wisconsin State Assembly. A survey of legislators and their staff documented the extent to which each office uses Facebook or Twitter. In addition, multivariate analysis of the survey data provided an understanding of which kinds of legislators are more likely to use Facebook or Twitter. There were three important findings. First, most Wisconsin legislators whose offices use Facebook or Twitter do not seem to be doing so to reach the news media. Second, overall, the characteristics of a Wisconsin legislator are ...


Influence Of Genetic Variation In The Biotic Environment On Phenotypic Variation In A Plant-Feeding Insect, Darren Rebar Dec 2013

Influence Of Genetic Variation In The Biotic Environment On Phenotypic Variation In A Plant-Feeding Insect, Darren Rebar

Theses and Dissertations

While many species spend much of their lives in close association with other organisms, only recently have biologists started to explore the implications of the biotic nature of environments for their role as causes of variation in phenotypes. This means that the genotypes of individuals that constitute the biotic environment may influence the phenotypes of individuals that live in that environment. These are called indirect genetic effects (IGEs) when they occur between conspecifics, and interspecific indirect genetic effects (IIGEs) when they occur between heterospecifics. However, the impact of genetic variation in biotic environments remains largely unknown. I used a member ...


Oral History And Archaeology Of The Keith's Siding Site Location, Amanda Kay Flannery Dec 2013

Oral History And Archaeology Of The Keith's Siding Site Location, Amanda Kay Flannery

Theses and Dissertations

At the beginning of the 20th century railroad logging camp settlements dotted the landscape in Northern Wisconsin in order to supply growing city populations and immigrants moving west with building materials. Many temporary towns were created in order to house the workers and their families and provide basic amenities needed to survive in an isolated environment. These communities typically lasted until the extraction of the hardwood was complete and then communities would abandon their makeshift dwellings and move on to the next stand of trees. Very few of the lumber siding settlements have been documented within the archaeological record. Great ...


An Anthropological Investigation Of The Dynamic Human-Vervet Monkey (Chlorocebus Aethiops Sabaeus) Interface In St. Kitts, West Indies, Kerry M. Dore Dec 2013

An Anthropological Investigation Of The Dynamic Human-Vervet Monkey (Chlorocebus Aethiops Sabaeus) Interface In St. Kitts, West Indies, Kerry M. Dore

Theses and Dissertations

Over 350 years ago, the ecology of St. Kitts was dramatically altered by the advent of sugar cane production and the introduction of a highly adaptable, invasive animal species: the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus). This project employed both primatological and ethnoprimatological techniques to assess conflict between vervet monkeys and Kittitian farmers. Methodological tools from primatology allowed for the creation of a predictive model of monkey crop-raiding behavior. The model was highly informative about monkeys' current raiding patterns; however, viewing Kittitian farmers and vervet monkeys as interconnected through an ethnoprimatological perspective revealed the significance of history with regard to this ...


Lunch Buddy Mentoring For Bullied Children: Four Case Studies And A Thematic Analysis, Samantha Gregus Dec 2013

Lunch Buddy Mentoring For Bullied Children: Four Case Studies And A Thematic Analysis, Samantha Gregus

Theses and Dissertations

Lunch Buddy (LB) mentoring, a type of school-based mentoring, holds promise as a selective intervention for children who are chronically bullied (Elledge, Cavell, Ogle, & Newgent, 2010). This study expanded upon previous research (Elledge et al., 2010) by utilizing a case-study approach combining qualitative and quantitative methods to gain more evidence about the palatability of the intervention and to uncover possible mechanisms by which the intervention is working. Participants were four elementary school children in grades four and five who had been identified as bullied based on child and teacher reports. Quantitative data were collected at multiple points during the course ...


Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Habitat Selection In Northwestern Wyoming And Stable Isotope Analysis Of Fecal Material, Andrea Renee Green Dec 2013

Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Habitat Selection In Northwestern Wyoming And Stable Isotope Analysis Of Fecal Material, Andrea Renee Green

Theses and Dissertations

Dramatic range-wide declines in Greater Sage-Grouse populations have prompted efforts to determine habitat characteristics that are selected by sage-grouse for foraging, nesting and brood-rearing areas in an effort to conserve this species. Managers at Heart Mountain and Y U Bench in northwestern Wyoming expressed the need to quantify various habitat characteristics and to determine key use areas at both study sites. Data were collected on a variety of habitat variables in spots selected by grouse for foraging, nesting, and brood-rearing activities. These variables were compared to the same variables measured at random points at both study sites. Significant differences existed ...