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2013

Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Effects Of A Cross-Age Peer Tutoring Program On Reading Performance Of Hispanic Title I Second And Third Grade Students, Ana Isabel Rodriguez Dec 2013

Effects Of A Cross-Age Peer Tutoring Program On Reading Performance Of Hispanic Title I Second And Third Grade Students, Ana Isabel Rodriguez

Theses and Dissertations

Hispanic students are falling behind their peers in reading fluency and are struggling to close the gap. This study examined the reading fluency influence on 73 Hispanic second and third grade students while receiving reading fluency support from middle school Hispanic tutors. These students were compared to Hispanic second and third grade students not receiving tutoring reading support. All students were assessed before the tutors gave reading support, mid-year and after the reading support finished using a school district fluency measurement. Findings found that students made rapid growth in reading fluency from the beginning of the tutoring support to mid-year ...


Tutor Assisted Vocabulary Support: Easing The Vocabulary Load For Burundian Refugees Studying For The U.S. Citizenship Test, Eleanor Anne Clark Dec 2013

Tutor Assisted Vocabulary Support: Easing The Vocabulary Load For Burundian Refugees Studying For The U.S. Citizenship Test, Eleanor Anne Clark

Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this thesis was to develop vocabulary materials to supplement those already in use for emergent literate Burundian refugees preparing for the U.S. Citizenship Test. These learners study in conjunction with the International Rescue Committee in Salt Lake City, Utah, and with volunteer tutors who help them study. The flashcards and supporting activities were designed to better enable tutors to teach learners highly-dense vocabulary items, as well as to provide vocabulary scaffolding support for both learners and tutors and to increase depth of vocabulary knowledge with the target vocabulary. The U.S. Citizenship Test Vocabulary Flashcards and ...


Tattoo Stigma And Job Discrimination, Phil Drazewski Dec 2013

Tattoo Stigma And Job Discrimination, Phil Drazewski

Theses and Dissertations

Recent research (Madera & Hebl, 2011) has found that visible stigmas can lead to discrimination against stigmatized individuals in the form of lower job applicant ratings. Tattooed individuals may be one group that faces such discrimination. People with tattoos are perceived less positively than non-tattooed people (Martin & Dula, 2010; Resenhoeft, Villa, & Wiseman, 2008), which may be the result of a tattoo stigma. Pryor & Reeder (2011) suggested that one hallmark of stigmas is that they evoke implicit negative attitudes. In a pilot study, participants implicitly and explicitly evaluated tattooed and non-tattooed individuals, and a tattoo stigma was supported. In the present study, tattooed (vs. non-tattooed) applicants were rated lower on overall effectiveness. However, unlike Madera & Hebl (2011), the present study did not find memory to mediate the tattoo condition-effectiveness ratings relationship. Implicit tattoo-related attitudes, explicit tattoo-related attitudes, and participant gender were found to moderate the relationship between ...


Couple Implicit Rules For Facilitating Disclosure And Relationship Quality With Romantic Relational Aggression As A Mediator, Karl Nathan Meng Dec 2013

Couple Implicit Rules For Facilitating Disclosure And Relationship Quality With Romantic Relational Aggression As A Mediator, Karl Nathan Meng

Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the association between couple implicit rules related to facilitating disclosure and marital quality with husband and wife romantic relational aggression as potential mediators. Couples (N-353 couples) who participated in the Flourishing Families Project, reported on their use of couple implicit rules related to disclosure. Results indicated that implicit rules for couple disclosure were positively related to marital quality for both husbands and wives. Those couples who reported more use of implicit rules related to disclosure were also likely to use less romantic relational aggression. In turn, both husband and wife romantic relational aggression was negatively related to ...


“Cause That’S The Only Skills In School You Need” A Qualitative Analysis Of Revenge Goals In Poor Urban Youth, Lena Janina Jäggi Dec 2013

“Cause That’S The Only Skills In School You Need” A Qualitative Analysis Of Revenge Goals In Poor Urban Youth, Lena Janina Jäggi

Theses and Dissertations

Ample research shows that revenge goals are correlated with maladjustment and retaliation is an important factor driving youth violence. Still, in environments with limited institutionalized interventions revenge might be an indispensable tool to maintain social equilibrium. This qualitative secondary analysis of 50 (30 Boys) revenge scenarios from a larger longitudinal study (N=358 dyads of youth/maternal caregiver) expands existing one-dimensional knowledge of revenge from closed-answer vignettes to the rich real world experience of 10-16 year old youth from an urban community sample. Key findings showed significant qualitative differences in both cognition and emotions of revenge scenarios. Ten distinct patterns ...


A Teacher's Guide To Academic Reading: Focusing On The Academic Reading Demands Of Esl Learners, Rebecca Jean Stone Dec 2013

A Teacher's Guide To Academic Reading: Focusing On The Academic Reading Demands Of Esl Learners, Rebecca Jean Stone

Theses and Dissertations

With over 765,000 English-as-a-second-language (ESL) students studying in the United States, a greater understanding of the academic requirements and demands these students face while studying in the US is needed. Some of the biggest challenges they face include the amount of reading required and the various tasks employed with academic reading. University reading tasks require more than an understanding of the text. These tasks place a strong emphasis on text comprehension, summary, synthesis, and critical analysis. This is problematic as students, especially ESL learners, lack experience with academic tasks, and many additionally struggle with low metacognitive awareness, limited or ...


How Social Media Affect The Social Identity Of Mexican Americans, Kaitlin Eve Felsted Dec 2013

How Social Media Affect The Social Identity Of Mexican Americans, Kaitlin Eve Felsted

Theses and Dissertations

This is a thesis conducted qualitatively using the Grounded Theory approach where in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 legal Mexican Americans in order to understand how social media affect Mexican Americans' social identity. This effect was understood by discovering the relationships between social identity theory and integration. Results showed that Mexican Americans felt that social media helped them with their English skills and connected them to their friends and family in Mexico. Mexican Americans were able to use social media to connect to their in-group community, and Mexican American community leaders were able to connect Mexicans to their in-group within ...


Motivation And The Sat: What Factors Help Determine College Success Past Standardized Testing, Alexandra Vartanian Dec 2013

Motivation And The Sat: What Factors Help Determine College Success Past Standardized Testing, Alexandra Vartanian

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects motivation plays in determining the success of a student in post secondary education. The relationship between high school GPA (HSGPA), SAT Scores, college GPA (CGPA), and motivation factors were examined. Motivation was measured on the Motivational Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) developed by Paul Pintrich and Elizabeth de Groot. Ninety-two participants responded to the survey. Results corroborated findings from previous research. SAT scores correlate with CGPA; relationships were also observed across several other factors, including HSGPA and CGPA, SAT and Motivation, and HSGPA and SAT scores.


The Effects Of Professional Development On High School Teachers' Implementation Of The Problem-Solving Process, Brandon Y. Jackson Dec 2013

The Effects Of Professional Development On High School Teachers' Implementation Of The Problem-Solving Process, Brandon Y. Jackson

Theses and Dissertations

The majority of schools use punitive and reactive strategies to deal with maladaptive behaviors. This descriptive study was a replication of Wilmott (2012) and occurred in a multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS) high school. Professional development was provided to 22 teachers from a high school located in the western United States. This included 61% males and 39% females. Measures included the frequency of praise notes and ODRs, the quality of praise notes based on a praise note rubric, and a social validity questionnaire. The ODR and praise note frequencies were compared using the Spearman correlational coefficient that resulted in a ...


Infidelity And Forgiveness: Therapists' Views On Reconciliation And Restoration Of Trust Following Disclosure Of Infidelity, Miranda Mae Goldie Dec 2013

Infidelity And Forgiveness: Therapists' Views On Reconciliation And Restoration Of Trust Following Disclosure Of Infidelity, Miranda Mae Goldie

Theses and Dissertations

Infidelity is one of the most prevalent presenting problems in relational therapy. There are many conceptualizations of the healing process following infidelity and suggested interventions and treatment plans. Forgiveness is an essential part of relationship growth and healing interpersonal hurts. Reconciliation is relationship repair that can accompany forgiveness. In addition, restoring trust is essential to reconciliation. Means to accomplish rebuilding trust must be established. This study seeks to expand understanding of the treatment of infidelity specifically on the topics of forgiveness, reconciliation, and restoration of trust through disclosure. The Forgiveness vs. Reconciliation and Trust Scale (FvRTS) was developed as a ...


The Relationship Between Insecure Attachment And Premarital Sexual Timing, Carly Ostler Dec 2013

The Relationship Between Insecure Attachment And Premarital Sexual Timing, Carly Ostler

Theses and Dissertations

Recent studies are beginning to show evidence of marital problems for couples that have engaged in early premarital sexual activity compared to those who do not. Adult attachment theory plays an important role in explaining many kinds of distress for couples and helps explain sexual interaction, thus, in this study it is posited that attachment may influence sexual timing patterns. This study focuses on the relationship between insecure attachment styles and early premarital sexual timing. The sample consisted of 256 couples who took the Relationship Evaluation (RELATE) to measure their attachment styles and sexual timing while controlling for length of ...


Couple Attachment And Sexual Desire Discrepancy: A Longitudinal Study Of Non-Clinical Married Couples At Mid-Life, Anthony Allen Hughes Dec 2013

Couple Attachment And Sexual Desire Discrepancy: A Longitudinal Study Of Non-Clinical Married Couples At Mid-Life, Anthony Allen Hughes

Theses and Dissertations

Using latent growth curve modeling, this longitudinal study examined the patterns of the discrepancy between desired and actual frequency of sexual intercourse for 331 married couples over a period of 5 years. In addition, couple insecure attachment and control variables such as age, length of relationship, income, race, and education were used to predict each partner's sexual desire discrepancy (SDD) and its change over the 5 year time period. Participants were asked to report their actual frequency of sexual intercourse and their desired frequency in each wave of data collection. Discrepancy scores were created for each year by subtracting ...


Family Processes As Moderators Of The Impact Of Peer, School, And Neighborhood Influences On Adolescent Aggression, Alison Kramer-Kuhn Dec 2013

Family Processes As Moderators Of The Impact Of Peer, School, And Neighborhood Influences On Adolescent Aggression, Alison Kramer-Kuhn

Theses and Dissertations

Despite theoretical support for the role of the family in providing a foundation to protect youth against risks for aggression, there is little published literature examining a protective influence. This study examined family functioning and perceived parental messages about fighting and nonviolence as moderators of the relation between risk factors and adolescent aggression. The specific risk factors included affiliating with a delinquent group of peers, attending a school with norms that support aggression, and witnessing violence within the community. Secondary analyses were conducted on data collected from a high-risk sample of 537 adolescents in 2 cohorts from 18 schools. Adolescents ...


Maternal Monitoring And Maternal Psychological Well-Being: Important Components In Treating Conduct Disorder, Benjamin Rosen Dec 2013

Maternal Monitoring And Maternal Psychological Well-Being: Important Components In Treating Conduct Disorder, Benjamin Rosen

Theses and Dissertations

Conduct disorder is characterized by behaviors that take a large toll on the individuals, families, and communities afflicted. Thus, improving treatment effectiveness should be a high priority. Currently, common intervention programs do not address parental depression, even though it has been linked to adolescent conduct disorder behaviors in some studies. The current study assessed whether the relation between maternal depression and adolescent conduct disorder behaviors is mediated by another factor which has been linked to conduct disorder behaviors, maternal monitoring. Results did not support the hypothesized mediated association, but did show significant individual associations for both maternal depression and maternal ...


Disparity Of Principal Accountability, Mary Kathryn Taylor Dec 2013

Disparity Of Principal Accountability, Mary Kathryn Taylor

Theses and Dissertations

This study begins with a review of court cases that have helped shape public education in America. Following the review is an analysis of federal reform in education from 1965 to the present, paired with educational leadership literature to highlight a disparity in what federal mandates and state policies have in place for accountability measures. The study ends with a state analysis of Illinois and Iowa to find the strengths and weaknesses of state policy in the area of principal accountability.

As policymakers have worked to increase accountability in K-12 education, efforts have focused on a variety of measures to ...


Context And Target Search Reversal: Implicit Flexibility And Rapid Adaptation Of Relational Memories Using Visual Search, Ryan Hanson Dec 2013

Context And Target Search Reversal: Implicit Flexibility And Rapid Adaptation Of Relational Memories Using Visual Search, Ryan Hanson

Theses and Dissertations

Repeated perceptual exposure leads to increased accuracy and decreased response latency - referred to as perceptual facilitation or priming - and generally occurs in the absence of conscious memory experience. One example of a priming task which depends upon contextual relations is termed contextual cuing. It has long been held that context-dependent relations can only be acquired with deliberative or explicit processes. While context learning has historically been attributed to declarative memory, the existence of implicit context learning tasks may be better explained as an implicit relational learning process. Although implicit memories have long been characterized as relatively rigid, such tasks raise ...


Landscape Ecological Analysis Of Patterns Influencing Bat Activity In Southeast Glacial Plains Of Wisconsin, Angela Leckie Jackson Dec 2013

Landscape Ecological Analysis Of Patterns Influencing Bat Activity In Southeast Glacial Plains Of Wisconsin, Angela Leckie Jackson

Theses and Dissertations

Nearly half of the world's bat species are threatened by anthropogenic land use. To contribute to the conservation of these cryptic mammals, it is imperative to understand bat habitat selection in human-dominated landscapes. Bat activity was calculated using active acoustic surveys conducted June and July for three years along river and lake transects in an agricultural matrix. Using multiple logistic regression and ANOVA regression tree analyses, I examined the relationship between bat activity of four species and habitat structure at multiple scales.

Aquatic features were determined to be the greatest predictor of bat activity with rivers supporting greater amount ...


An Early Christian Reliquary In The Shape Of A Sarcophagus In The University Of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Art Collection, Anne O'Connor Dec 2013

An Early Christian Reliquary In The Shape Of A Sarcophagus In The University Of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Art Collection, Anne O'Connor

Theses and Dissertations

This paper seeks to introduce a relatively unknown example of a small fifth or sixth century AD reliquary object in the shape of a sarcophagus now in the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Art Collection. Its material - mostly likely Prokonnesian marble - a highly prized stone in the Roman Empire - speaks to strength, permanence, endurance, and the concept of romanitas. The form, as derived from Roman burial practice, provides apotropaic powers for the viewer and for the holy person whose remains were contained within. Its design also facilitates the offering of votives and veneration, as well as requests for intercessions between the earthly ...


Teaching Braille Letters, Numbers, Punctuation, And Contractions To Sighted Individuals, Brittany C. Putnam Dec 2013

Teaching Braille Letters, Numbers, Punctuation, And Contractions To Sighted Individuals, Brittany C. Putnam

Theses and Dissertations

Sighted teachers who can read braille visually can provide better instruction and feedback to students with visual impairments who are learning to read braille tactually. Due to the overwhelmingly low ratio of certified braille instructors to children with visual impairments, instruction in visual braille is socially relevant and would greatly improve literacy instruction for children with visual impairments. We conducted a study that used the principles of behavior analysis to teach visual braille reading to sighted teachers. The computer-based teaching program employed a matching-to-sample approach in which participants selected the correct answer from an array. Four undergraduate participants completed the ...


Effects Of A Forgiveness Intervention On Lesbian And Gay Adolescents Hurt By Homophobia, Mark William Charles Dec 2013

Effects Of A Forgiveness Intervention On Lesbian And Gay Adolescents Hurt By Homophobia, Mark William Charles

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact a group level intervention based on Robert Enright's (2001) forgiveness model would have on LGBT adolescents hurt by homophobic offenses. The purposive sample consisted of 26 LGBT- identified adolescents recruited from community-based organizations located in the Midwest and randomly placed in either an experimental group or a wait-list control group. The group intervention consisted of six weekly sessions, each lasting 90 minutes. Participants completed an assessment battery that measured levels of forgiveness and mental health symptomology at three time points: pre-intervention, post-intervention, and approximately one month after completion of ...


Essays In Capital Mobility, Growth, And Macroeconomic Volatility, Ping-Hang Fan Dec 2013

Essays In Capital Mobility, Growth, And Macroeconomic Volatility, Ping-Hang Fan

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation comprises three chapters in international macroeconomics. Specifically, we focus on international financial integration and its linkage to economic growth and volatility. In Chapter 1, we revisit the Feldstein-Horioka (1980) puzzle that saving-investment correlation exhibits a pattern contrary to expectation, being higher among the OECD countries that are more financially integrated and lower among emerging markets economies with less financial integration and greater capital controls. We find that the evolution of FH coefficient is highly consistent with increased financial integration over time, thus resolving the puzzle dynamically. We also explain the cross-country component of the puzzle by showing that ...


A Developmental Systems Approach To Exploring The Plasticity And Diversity Of Teen Childbearers' Parenting Behaviors, Andrea Gromoske Dec 2013

A Developmental Systems Approach To Exploring The Plasticity And Diversity Of Teen Childbearers' Parenting Behaviors, Andrea Gromoske

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Many empirical studies indicate that teen childbearers, in comparison to adult childbearers, are more likely to exhibit maladaptive parenting behaviors, including low responsivity, harsh discipline, and child maltreatment. Yet, it is unclear whether teen childbearers are likely to engage consistently in poor parenting over time, why they may continue to engage in poor parenting, and which teen childbearers are most likely to engage in poor parenting persistently. Methods: This study used secondary data to investigate the person-in-context, temporality, plasticity, and diversity of teen childbearers' parenting behaviors using cross-sectional regressions, latent growth curve models, and joint longitudinal cluster analysis. Results ...


Cyberbullying In 'Left 4 Dead 2': A Study In Collaborative Play, Kimberly L. Kulovitz Dec 2013

Cyberbullying In 'Left 4 Dead 2': A Study In Collaborative Play, Kimberly L. Kulovitz

Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to further our understanding of the role of cyberbullying in the cooperative team-based game Left 4 Dead 2 (L4D2). A sample of 41 4-person groups generated a total n = 415 messages used for evaluating the behavioral content of game play. Four hypotheses were advanced assessing cyberbullying behavior and game outcome (success vs. failure), group cohesion, target participation, and perceptions of bullies. Out of the 41 groups 25 groups had cyberbullying behavior present and 16 groups had prosocial behavior. Overall, cyberbullying behavior had little effect on game outcome, group cohesion and target participation. Groups using only prosocial messages ...


Investigating User Search Tactic Patterns And System Support In Using Digital Libraries, Soohyung Joo Dec 2013

Investigating User Search Tactic Patterns And System Support In Using Digital Libraries, Soohyung Joo

Theses and Dissertations

This study aims to investigate users' search tactic application and system support in using digital libraries. A user study was conducted with sixty digital library users. The study was designed to answer three research questions: 1) How do users engage in a search process by applying different types of search tactics while conducting different search tasks?; 2) How does the system support users to apply different types of search tactics?; 3) How do users' search tactic application and system support for different types of search tactics affect search outputs? Sixty student subjects were recruited from different disciplines in a state ...


The Role Of The Amygdala, Retrosplenial Cortex, And Medial Prefrontal Cortex In Trace Fear Extinction And Reconsolidation, Janine Lynn Kwapis Dec 2013

The Role Of The Amygdala, Retrosplenial Cortex, And Medial Prefrontal Cortex In Trace Fear Extinction And Reconsolidation, Janine Lynn Kwapis

Theses and Dissertations

A wealth of research has outlined the neural circuits responsible for the consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction of standard "delay" fear conditioning, in which awareness is not required for learning. Far less is understood about the neural circuit supporting more complex, explicit associations. "Trace" fear conditioning is considered to be a rodent model of explicit fear because it relies on the cortex and hippocampus and requires explicit contingency awareness in humans for successful acquisition. In the current set of studies, we aimed to better characterize the neural circuit supporting the consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction of trace fear in order to better ...


Northern Flint, Southern Roots: A Diachronic Analysis Of Paleoethnobotanical Remains And Maize Race At The Aztalan Site (47-Je-0001), Jennifer L. Picard Dec 2013

Northern Flint, Southern Roots: A Diachronic Analysis Of Paleoethnobotanical Remains And Maize Race At The Aztalan Site (47-Je-0001), Jennifer L. Picard

Theses and Dissertations

Located in Southeast Wisconsin on the west bank of the Crawfish River, the Aztalan site was first settled by horticultural Late Woodland peoples. By the mid-eleventh century A.D., Middle Mississippian migrants arrived from the south. The site was eventually transformed into a fortified village with three platform mounds. During the later component, Middle Mississippian and Late Woodland peoples appear to have coexisted. This thesis consists of a diachronic comparison of floral subsistence remains and maize race at the site. The results of the analysis indicate that while the Late Woodland inhabitants grew maize, food production involving maize and native ...


Resolving Public Records Disputes In Wisconsin: The Role Of The Attorney General's Office, Jonathan Anderson Dec 2013

Resolving Public Records Disputes In Wisconsin: The Role Of The Attorney General's Office, Jonathan Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates how the Wisconsin attorney general reviews and sometimes intervenes in access disputes over the state's public records law. The study posed three primary questions: How do the attorney general's administrative review mechanisms operate in practice? To what extent are the mechanisms effective at resolving disclosure disputes? And do the mechanisms help people unable to hire a lawyer to litigate? The study analyzed correspondence in 304 cases over six years to generate data on the quantity and nature of the attorney general's caseload in that time period. The study also interviewed 17 requesters to understand ...


Walk It Off!: The Relationship Between Physically Active And Passive Coping Style And Perseverative Cognition, Michelle Rosalie Di Paolo Dec 2013

Walk It Off!: The Relationship Between Physically Active And Passive Coping Style And Perseverative Cognition, Michelle Rosalie Di Paolo

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

WALK IT OFF!: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE AND PASSIVE COPING STYLE AND PERSEVERATIVE COGNITION

by

Michelle R. Di Paolo

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2013

Under the Supervision of Professor Marcellus Merritt

The main aim of the current study is to assess if a relationship exists between self-selected coping styles and levels of perseverative cognition (PC). Recent pilot studies have revealed a relative distinction between the coping styles people choose when coping with stress, i.e., those that are physically active (PAC) like going for a walk, jogging, or lifting weights, and those that are physically passive (PPC) like ...


Neural Responses During Trace Conditioning With Face And Non-Face Stimuli Recorded With Magnetoencephalography, Nicholas Lee Balderston Dec 2013

Neural Responses During Trace Conditioning With Face And Non-Face Stimuli Recorded With Magnetoencephalography, Nicholas Lee Balderston

Theses and Dissertations

During fear conditioning a subject is presented with an initially innocuous stimulus like an image (conditioned stimulus; CS) that predicts an aversive outcome like a mild electric shock (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). Subjects rapidly learn that the CS predicts the UCS, and show autonomic fear responses (CRs) during the presentation of the CS. When the CS and the UCS coterminate, as is the case for delay conditioning, individuals can acquire CRs even if they are unable to predict the occurrence of the UCS. However when there is a temporal gap between the CS and the UCS, CR expression is typically dependent ...


Food Fight: Sharing Meals And Confronting Biopolitics In The Disciplinary City, Jeremy Sorenson Dec 2013

Food Fight: Sharing Meals And Confronting Biopolitics In The Disciplinary City, Jeremy Sorenson

Theses and Dissertations

This project interrogates the tensions surrounding food provision in Las Vegas, Nevada. More precisely, groups of ad hoc individuals, unaffiliated with local shelters or social service provision agencies intervene in homelessness and hunger in the city by showing up in places where homeless individuals congregate and provide food, water, basic medical sundries and companionship to those on the streets. Conversely, local officials and shelter administrators conceptualize these activities as damaging to homeless individuals and have acted to prohibit these acts of care. Engaging with key contributions in the geographic literature, I employ specific frameworks - critical poverty research, disciplinary bio- and ...