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2013

Psychology Faculty Publications

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Articles 1 - 30 of 97

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Beyond Perceptual Expertise: Revisiting The Neural Substrates Of Expert Object Recognition, Assaf Harel, Dwight J. Kravitz, Chris I. Baker Dec 2013

Beyond Perceptual Expertise: Revisiting The Neural Substrates Of Expert Object Recognition, Assaf Harel, Dwight J. Kravitz, Chris I. Baker

Psychology Faculty Publications

Real-world expertise provides a valuable opportunity to understand how experience shapes human behavior and neural function. In the visual domain, the study of expert object recognition, such as in car enthusiasts or bird watchers, has produced a large, growing, and often-controversial literature. Here, we synthesize this literature, focusing primarily on results from functional brain imaging, and propose an interactive framework that incorporates the impact of high-level factors, such as attention and conceptual knowledge, in supporting expertise. This framework contrasts with the perceptual view of object expertise that has concentrated largely on stimulus-driven processing in visual cortex. One prominent version of ...


Less Acting, More Doing: How Surface Acting Relates To Perceived Meeting Effectiveness And Other Employee Outcomes, Linda R. Shanock, Joseph A. Allen, Alexandra M. Dunn, Benjamin E. Baran, Cliff W. Scott, Steven G. Rogelberg Dec 2013

Less Acting, More Doing: How Surface Acting Relates To Perceived Meeting Effectiveness And Other Employee Outcomes, Linda R. Shanock, Joseph A. Allen, Alexandra M. Dunn, Benjamin E. Baran, Cliff W. Scott, Steven G. Rogelberg

Psychology Faculty Publications

This study adds to the growing body of research on work meetings and extends the emotional labour literature beyond a service context by examining the relationship between surface acting during meetings and perceived meeting effectiveness. Additionally, the relationships of surface acting during meetings and perceived meeting effectiveness with time-lagged reports of intention to quit and emotional exhaustion 3 months later were investigated. Structural equation modelling of data from 178 working adults revealed negative relationships between surface acting and perceptions of meeting effectiveness. Perceived meeting effectiveness partially mediated the relationship between surface acting and both intention to quit and emotional exhaustion ...


Using The Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument–Version 2 On A Community Sample Of African American And Latino/A Juvenile Offenders To Identify Mental Health And Substance Abuse Treatment Needs, Kendell Coker, Jamie Wernsman, Uduakobong N. Ikpe, Jeannie S. Brooks, Lynn Bushell, Barbara Kahn Nov 2013

Using The Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument–Version 2 On A Community Sample Of African American And Latino/A Juvenile Offenders To Identify Mental Health And Substance Abuse Treatment Needs, Kendell Coker, Jamie Wernsman, Uduakobong N. Ikpe, Jeannie S. Brooks, Lynn Bushell, Barbara Kahn

Psychology Faculty Publications

The Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Version 2 (MAYSI-2) is a brief screening tool used to identify youth in the juvenile justice system that are at-risk for mental health related difficulties. The MAYSI-2 was administered to 5,205 African American and Latino/a youth throughout Chicago, Illinois who were on probation and residing in the community. This study investigated differences (i.e., legal status, gender, age, race/ethnicity) in reporting of mental health symptoms and substance use on the MAYSI-2. Females scored above the clinical cutoffs more frequently than males and there were few differences found between diverted and adjudicated youth. Age ...


Qualitative Perspectives Towards Prostitution's Perceived Lifestyle Addictiveness, Michael W. Firmin, Alisha D. Lee, Ruth L. Firmin, Lauren Mccotter Deakin, Hannah J. Holmes Oct 2013

Qualitative Perspectives Towards Prostitution's Perceived Lifestyle Addictiveness, Michael W. Firmin, Alisha D. Lee, Ruth L. Firmin, Lauren Mccotter Deakin, Hannah J. Holmes

Psychology Faculty Publications

The aim of the present study was to provide a phenomenological perspective of individuals who actively engage in street-level prostitution and identified a lifestyle addiction associated with their activities. Methods: We interviewed 25 women who were incarcerated in American county jails (at the time of interviews) for prostitution crimes. The transcripts were analyzed for themes that represented the shared consensus of the research participants. Results: Four negative psychological dynamics related to prostitution. First, participants described accounts of physical and emotional violence which they experienced at the hand of clients and others involved in the lifestyle. Second, interviewees explained an extreme ...


The Sound Of Social Cognition: Toddlers’ Understanding Of How Sound Influences Others, Rebecca Williamson, Rechele Brooks, Andrew N. Meltzoff Oct 2013

The Sound Of Social Cognition: Toddlers’ Understanding Of How Sound Influences Others, Rebecca Williamson, Rechele Brooks, Andrew N. Meltzoff

Psychology Faculty Publications

Understanding others’ perceptions is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Children’s construal of visual perception is well investigated, but there is little work on children’s understanding of others’ auditory perception. The current study assesses toddlers’ recognition that producing different sounds can affect others differentially—auditory perspective taking. Two- and three-year-olds were familiarized with two objects, one loud and one quiet. The adult then introduced a doll, and children were randomly assigned to one of two goals: either to wake the doll or to let her sleep. Children’s object choice and the sound intensity they produced significantly varied ...


The Impact Of Genome-Wide Supported Schizophrenia Risk Variants In The Neurogranin Gene On Brain Structure And Function, Esther Walton, Daniel Geisler, Johanna Hass, Jingyu Liu, Jessica Turner, Anastasia Yendiki, Michael N. Smolka, Beng-Choon Ho, Dara S. Manoach, Randy L. Gollub, Veit Roessner, Vince D. Calhoun, Stefan Ehrlich Oct 2013

The Impact Of Genome-Wide Supported Schizophrenia Risk Variants In The Neurogranin Gene On Brain Structure And Function, Esther Walton, Daniel Geisler, Johanna Hass, Jingyu Liu, Jessica Turner, Anastasia Yendiki, Michael N. Smolka, Beng-Choon Ho, Dara S. Manoach, Randy L. Gollub, Veit Roessner, Vince D. Calhoun, Stefan Ehrlich

Psychology Faculty Publications

The neural mechanisms underlying genetic risk for schizophrenia, a highly heritable psychiatric condition, are still under investigation. New schizophrenia risk genes discovered through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), such as neurogranin (NRGN), can be used to identify these mechanisms. In this study we examined the association of two common NRGN risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with functional and structural brain-based intermediate phenotypes for schizophrenia. We obtained structural, functional MRI and genotype data of 92 schizophrenia patients and 114 healthy volunteers from the multisite Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium study. Two schizophrenia-associated NRGN SNPs (rs12807809 and rs12541) were tested for association with working ...


Manager-Led Group Meetings: A Context For Promoting Employee Engagement, Joseph A. Allen, Steven G. Rogelberg Oct 2013

Manager-Led Group Meetings: A Context For Promoting Employee Engagement, Joseph A. Allen, Steven G. Rogelberg

Psychology Faculty Publications

Employee engagement is a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Using Kahn’s theory of engagement, we look at an organizational context where employee engagement may be promoted—the workgroup meeting. Two time-separated Internet-based surveys were used to query a sample of working adults (N = 319). The findings provide support that the psychological conditions for engagement mediate the relationship between manager usage/facilitation of meetings and overall employee engagement. Specifically, as managers make their workgroup meetings relevant, allow for employee voice in their meetings where possible, and manage the meeting from a time perspective ...


Ambiguity And Freedom Of Dissent In Post-Incident Discussion, Cliff Scott, Joseph A. Allen, Daniel L. Bonilla, Benjamin E. Baran, Dave Murphy Oct 2013

Ambiguity And Freedom Of Dissent In Post-Incident Discussion, Cliff Scott, Joseph A. Allen, Daniel L. Bonilla, Benjamin E. Baran, Dave Murphy

Psychology Faculty Publications

The after-action review (AAR) is a discussion technique some high-reliability organizations employ to encourage learning via collective retrospection. AARs are an effective communication tool for promoting reliability if they are held regularly. One way to encourage frequent AARs is to increase participants’ satisfaction with these meetings. This study examined the impact of post-incident, pre-discussion ambiguity and freedom of dissent on participant satisfaction with AARs. Firefighters (N = 119) completed a survey on their most recent AAR. As predicted, the level of post-incident, pre-discussion ambiguity was negatively related to AAR satisfaction. Freedom of dissent, however, attenuated the negative influence of ambiguity on ...


When Given The Opportunity, Chimpanzees Maximize Personal Gain Rather Than "Level The Playing Field", Lydia M. Hopper, Susan P. Lambeth, Steven J. Schapiro, Sarah F. Brosnan Sep 2013

When Given The Opportunity, Chimpanzees Maximize Personal Gain Rather Than "Level The Playing Field", Lydia M. Hopper, Susan P. Lambeth, Steven J. Schapiro, Sarah F. Brosnan

Psychology Faculty Publications

We provided chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the ability to improve the quality of food rewards they received in a dyadic test of inequity.We were interested to see if this provision influenced their responses and, if so, whether it was mediated by a social partner’s outcomes. We tested eight dyads using an exchange paradigm in which, depending on the condition, the chimpanzees were rewarded with either high-value (a grape) or low-value (a piece of celery) food rewards for each completed exchange. We included four conditions. In the first, “Different” condition, the subject received different, less-preferred, rewards than their partner ...


Sources Of Interference In Recognition Testing, Jeffrey Annis, Kenneth J. Malmberg, Amy Criss, Richard M. Shiffrin Sep 2013

Sources Of Interference In Recognition Testing, Jeffrey Annis, Kenneth J. Malmberg, Amy Criss, Richard M. Shiffrin

Psychology Faculty Publications

Recognition memory accuracy is harmed by prior testing (a.k.a., output interference [OI]; Tulving & Arbuckle, 1966). In several experiments, we interpolated various tasks between recognition test trials. The stimuli and the tasks were more similar (lexical decision [LD] of words and nonwords) or less similar (gender identification of male and female faces) to the stimuli and task used in recognition testing. Not only did the similarity between the interpolated and recognition tasks not affect recognition accuracy but performance of the interpolated task caused no interference in subsequent recognition testing. Only the addition of recognition trials caused OI. When we ...


Eye-Catching Odors: Olfaction Elicits Sustained Gazing To Faces And Eyes In 4-Month-Old Infants, Karine Durand, Jean-Yves Baudouin, David J. Lewkowicz, Nathalie Goubet, Benoist Schaal Aug 2013

Eye-Catching Odors: Olfaction Elicits Sustained Gazing To Faces And Eyes In 4-Month-Old Infants, Karine Durand, Jean-Yves Baudouin, David J. Lewkowicz, Nathalie Goubet, Benoist Schaal

Psychology Faculty Publications

This study investigated whether an odor can affect infants’ attention to visually presented objects and whether it can selectively direct visual gaze at visual targets as a function of their meaning. Four-month-old infants (n = 48) were exposed to their mother’s body odors while their visual exploration was recorded with an eye-movement tracking system. Two groups of infants, who were assigned to either an odor condition or a control condition, looked at a scene composed of still pictures of faces and cars. As expected, infants looked longer at the faces than at the cars but this spontaneous preference for faces ...


Predictors Of Online And Offline Sexual Activities And Behaviors Among Adolescents, Anna Ševčíková, Alexander T. Vazsonyi, Janelle Širůček, Štěpán Konečný Aug 2013

Predictors Of Online And Offline Sexual Activities And Behaviors Among Adolescents, Anna Ševčíková, Alexander T. Vazsonyi, Janelle Širůček, Štěpán Konečný

Psychology Faculty Publications

Despite the fact that many adolescents spend much time on the Internet, it is unknown who engages in sexually related online activities (SROA) and how these affect adolescent sexual development. The present longitudinal study on 323 adolescents (51.1% girls) aimed to explore how peer attachment processes predicted both SROA and offline sexual behaviors at the age of 17, while also considering puberty and prior offline sexual experiences in order to elucidate potential similarities or differences. Findings based on hierarchical, binary logistic regression analyses revealed that SROA were predicted by alienation attachment to peers (OR=3.36, p<0.05), puberty (OR=1.03, p<0.05), and prior SROA (OR=0.56, p ...


A Multi-Site Resting State Fmri Study On The Amplitude Of Low Frequency Fluctuations In Schizophrenia, Jessica Turner, Eswar Damaraju, Theo G. M. Van Erp, Daniel H. Mathalon, Judith Ford, James Voyvodic, Bryon A. Mueller, Aysenil Belger, Juan Bustillo, Sarah Mcewin, Steven G. Potkin, Vince D. Calhoun Aug 2013

A Multi-Site Resting State Fmri Study On The Amplitude Of Low Frequency Fluctuations In Schizophrenia, Jessica Turner, Eswar Damaraju, Theo G. M. Van Erp, Daniel H. Mathalon, Judith Ford, James Voyvodic, Bryon A. Mueller, Aysenil Belger, Juan Bustillo, Sarah Mcewin, Steven G. Potkin, Vince D. Calhoun

Psychology Faculty Publications

Background: This multi-site study compares resting state fMRI amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) between patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC). Methods: Eyes-closed resting fMRI scans (5:38 min; n = 306, 146 SZ) were collected from 6 Siemens 3T scanners and one GE 3T scanner. Imaging data were pre-processed using an SPM pipeline. Power in the low frequency band (0.01–0.08 Hz) was calculated both for the original pre-processed data as well as for the pre-processed data after regressing out the six rigid-body motion parameters, mean white matter (WM) and cerebral spinal ...


Using Mouse Tracking To Examine The Time Course Of An Auditory Lexical Decision Task, Maura Krestar, Sara Incera, Conor T. Mclennan Aug 2013

Using Mouse Tracking To Examine The Time Course Of An Auditory Lexical Decision Task, Maura Krestar, Sara Incera, Conor T. Mclennan

Psychology Faculty Publications

Mouse-tracking studies demonstrate that hand movements reveal the progression of responses over time during
psychological tasks. In the present study, we examined the time course of cognitive processing during an auditory lexical
decision task. The following predicted results emerged to indicate facilitation for words relative to nonwords: 1) shorter
reaction times; 2) fewer direction changes, and, compared to the ideal trajectory; 3) smaller deviation; and, 4) area under
the curve for words relative to nonwords. We also found predicted differences between words and nonwords in velocity
throughout the trials, providing a greater understanding of the real-time processing dynamics throughout the ...


Mouse-Tracking Reveals When The Stroop Effect Happens., Sara Incera, Theresa A. Markis, Conor T. Mclennan Aug 2013

Mouse-Tracking Reveals When The Stroop Effect Happens., Sara Incera, Theresa A. Markis, Conor T. Mclennan

Psychology Faculty Publications

We examined the continuous dynamics of the Stroop task using mouse-tracking. Participants moved the computer mouse to indicate the color of words presented on the computer screen in both congruent (blue in blue font) and incongruent (blue in yellow font) conditions. Mouse-tracking data revealed significant differences in reaction times, spatial attraction, and velocity. In the Stroop effect, word reading and color processing influenced performance, but they did so differently: Word reading influenced the early part of the mouse trajectory, but color processing influenced later parts. The data provide important new information about the real time processing dynamics underlying the effect.


Observing Culture: Differences In U.S.-American And German Team Meeting Behaviors, Nale Lehmann-Willenbrock, Joseph A. Allen, Annika L. Meinecke Aug 2013

Observing Culture: Differences In U.S.-American And German Team Meeting Behaviors, Nale Lehmann-Willenbrock, Joseph A. Allen, Annika L. Meinecke

Psychology Faculty Publications

Although previous research has theorized about team interaction differences between the German and U.S. cultures, actual behavioral observations of such differences are sparse. This study explores team meetings as a context for examining intercultural differences. We analyzed a total of 5,188 meeting behaviors in German and U.S. student teams. All teams discussed the same task to consensus. Results from behavioral process analyses showed that German teams focused significantly more on problem analysis, whereas U.S. teams focused more on solution production. Moreover, U.S. teams showed significantly more positive socioemotional meeting behavior than German teams. Finally, German ...


Reduced Neural Activation During An Inhibition Task Is Associated With Impaired Fear Inhibition In A Traumatized Civilian Sample, Tanja Jovanovic, Tim Ely, Negar Fani, Ebony Glover, David Gutman, Erin Tone, Seth D. Norrholm, Bekh Bradley, Kerry J. Ressler Jul 2013

Reduced Neural Activation During An Inhibition Task Is Associated With Impaired Fear Inhibition In A Traumatized Civilian Sample, Tanja Jovanovic, Tim Ely, Negar Fani, Ebony Glover, David Gutman, Erin Tone, Seth D. Norrholm, Bekh Bradley, Kerry J. Ressler

Psychology Faculty Publications

Introduction: Impaired inhibition of fear in the presence of safety cues and a deficiency in the extinction of fear cues are increasingly thought to be important biological markers of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Other studies have suggested that there may be altered neural activation during behavioral inhibition tasks in subjects with PTSD. The current study aimed to see whether neural activation during inhibition was reduced in a highly traumatized civilian population, and whether atypical activation was associated with impaired fear inhibition.

Methods: The participants were 41 traumatized women (20 PTSD+, 21 PTSD-) recruited from Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, GA ...


Time Doesn’T Change Everything: The Longitudinal Course Of Distress Tolerance And Its Relationship With Internalizing And Externalizing Symptoms During Early Adolescence, Jenna R. Cummings, Marina Bornovalova, Tiina Ojanen, Elizabeth Hunt, Laura Macpherson, Carl W. Lejuez Jul 2013

Time Doesn’T Change Everything: The Longitudinal Course Of Distress Tolerance And Its Relationship With Internalizing And Externalizing Symptoms During Early Adolescence, Jenna R. Cummings, Marina Bornovalova, Tiina Ojanen, Elizabeth Hunt, Laura Macpherson, Carl W. Lejuez

Psychology Faculty Publications

Although distress tolerance is an emerging construct of empirical interest, we know little about its temporal change, developmental trajectory, and prospective relationships with maladaptive behaviors. The current study examined the developmental trajectory (mean- and individual-level change, and rank-order stability) of distress tolerance in an adolescent sample of boys and girls (N = 277) followed over a four-year period. Next we examined if distress tolerance influenced change in Externalizing (EXT) and Internalizing (INT) symptoms, and if EXT and INT symptoms in turn influenced change in distress tolerance. Finally, we examined if any of these trends differed by gender. Results indicated that distress ...


Salivary Cortisol And Interpersonal Functioning: An Event-Contingent Recording Study In The Offspring Of Parents With Bipolar Disorder, Mark A. Ellenbogen, Anne-Marie Linnen, Jonathan Bruce Santo, Marije Aan Het Rot, Sheilagh Hodgins, Simon N. Young Jul 2013

Salivary Cortisol And Interpersonal Functioning: An Event-Contingent Recording Study In The Offspring Of Parents With Bipolar Disorder, Mark A. Ellenbogen, Anne-Marie Linnen, Jonathan Bruce Santo, Marije Aan Het Rot, Sheilagh Hodgins, Simon N. Young

Psychology Faculty Publications

Despite a large body of research in non-human primates, the relationship between naturalistic patterns of social behaviour and basal cortisol levels has been understudied in humans. The present study examined the relationship between patterns of interpersonal functioning and cortisol levels in 23 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), at high risk for the development of an affective disorder, and 22 offspring of parents with no affective disorder (controls) in late adolescence and young adulthood. Using event-contingent recording, participants rated their dominance, submissiveness, quarrelsomeness, and agreeableness in naturally occurring social interactions over 14 consecutive days and provided salivary cortisol twice ...


Animals Represent The Past And The Future, Thomas R. Zentall Jul 2013

Animals Represent The Past And The Future, Thomas R. Zentall

Psychology Faculty Publications

It has been proposed by some that only humans have the ability to mentallytravel back in time (i.e., have episodic memory) and forward in time (i.e., have the ability to simulate the future). However, there is evidence from a variety of nonhuman animals (e.g., primates, dolphins, scrub jays, rats, and pigeons) that they have some ability to recover personal memories of what-where-when an event occurred (an earlier requirement of the ability to recover an episodic memory) and answer unexpected questions (another requirement to distinguish between semantic and episodic memory). Also, perhaps more critically, according to Tulving’s ...


Are All Types Of Expertise Created Equal? Car Experts Use Different Spatial Frequency Scales For Subordinate Categorization Of Cars And Faces, Assaf Harel, Shlomo Bentin Jun 2013

Are All Types Of Expertise Created Equal? Car Experts Use Different Spatial Frequency Scales For Subordinate Categorization Of Cars And Faces, Assaf Harel, Shlomo Bentin

Psychology Faculty Publications

A much-debated question in object recognition is whether expertise for faces and expertise for non-face objects utilize common perceptual information. We investigated this issue by assessing the diagnostic information required for different types of expertise. Specifically, we asked whether face categorization and expert car categorization at the subordinate level relies on the same spatial frequency (SF) scales. Fifteen car experts and fifteen novices performed a category verification task with spatially filtered images of faces, cars, and airplanes. Images were categorized based on their basic (e.g. ‘‘car’’) and subordinate level (e.g. ‘‘Japanese car’’) identity. The effect of expertise was ...


Large-Scale Network Organization In The Avian Forebrain: A Connectivity Matrix And Theoretical Analysis, Verner Peter Bingman, Murray Shanahan, Toru Shimizu, Martin Wild, Onur Güntürkün Jun 2013

Large-Scale Network Organization In The Avian Forebrain: A Connectivity Matrix And Theoretical Analysis, Verner Peter Bingman, Murray Shanahan, Toru Shimizu, Martin Wild, Onur Güntürkün

Psychology Faculty Publications

Many species of birds, including pigeons, possess demonstrable cognitive capacities, and some are capable of cognitive feats matching those of apes. Since mammalian cortex is laminar while the avian telencephalon is nucleated, it is natural to ask whether the brains of these two cognitively capable taxa, despite their apparent anatomical dissimilarities, might exhibit common principles of organization on some level. Complementing recent investigations of macro-scale brain connectivity in mammals, including humans and macaques, we here present the first large-scale "wiring diagram" for the forebrain of a bird. Using graph theory, we show that the pigeon telencephalon is organized along similar ...


Synthetic Task Environments And The Three Body Problem, John M. Flach May 2013

Synthetic Task Environments And The Three Body Problem, John M. Flach

Psychology Faculty Publications

The challenge for our panel was to address the opportunities and challenges of synthetic task environments for basic research on human performance in sociotechnical systems. In doing this, the classical three-body problem from physics is used as a metaphor to illustrate the contrast between dyadic and triadic semiotic models of cognitive systems. In the context of this metaphor, synthetic task environments offer a means to bring some of the additional complexities of triadic semiotic systems under experimental control where converging empirical methods can help to titrate through the additional complexity to distill basic theoretical insights that will potentially have practical ...


Conceptual Distinction Between The Critical P Value And The Type I Error Rate In Permutation Testing, Richard B. Anderson May 2013

Conceptual Distinction Between The Critical P Value And The Type I Error Rate In Permutation Testing, Richard B. Anderson

Psychology Faculty Publications

To counter past assertions that permutation testing is not distribution-free, this article clarifies that the critical p value (alpha) in permutation testing is not a Type I error rate and that a test's validity is independent of the concept of Type I error.


A Theory-Driven, Longitudinal Evaluation Of The Impact Of Team Training On Safety Culture In 24 Hospitals, Katherine J. Jones, Anne M. Skinner, Robin High, Roni Reiter-Palmon May 2013

A Theory-Driven, Longitudinal Evaluation Of The Impact Of Team Training On Safety Culture In 24 Hospitals, Katherine J. Jones, Anne M. Skinner, Robin High, Roni Reiter-Palmon

Psychology Faculty Publications

Effective teamwork facilitates collective learning, which is integral to safety culture. There are no rigorous evaluations of the impact of team training on the four components of safety culture—reporting, just, flexible and learning cultures. We evaluated the impact of a year-long team training programme on safety culture in 24 hospitals using two theoretical frameworks.


Score Reliability And Factor Similarity Of The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (Sataq-3) Among Four Ethnic Groups, Cortney S. Warren, David H. Gleaves, Liya M. Rakhkovskaya Apr 2013

Score Reliability And Factor Similarity Of The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (Sataq-3) Among Four Ethnic Groups, Cortney S. Warren, David H. Gleaves, Liya M. Rakhkovskaya

Psychology Faculty Publications

Background:This study evaluated the score reliability and equivalence of factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) [1] in a sample of female college students from the four largest ethnic groups in the USA.Methods:Participants were 1245 women who self-identified as European American/White (n = 543), African American/Black (n = 137), Asian American (n = 317), or Latina/Hispanic (n = 248). All completed the SATAQ-3 and a demographic questionnaire. To test the factor similarity and score reliability across groups, we used exploratory factor analysis and calculated Cronbach’s alphas (respectively).Results:Score reliability was high for all ...


The Protectors And The Protected: What Regulators And Researchers Can Learn From Irb Members And Subjects, Ann Freeman Cook, Helena Hoas, Jane Clare Joyner Apr 2013

The Protectors And The Protected: What Regulators And Researchers Can Learn From Irb Members And Subjects, Ann Freeman Cook, Helena Hoas, Jane Clare Joyner

Psychology Faculty Publications

Clinical research is increasingly conducted in settings that include private physicians’ offices, clinics, community hospitals, local institutes, and independent research centers. The migration of such research into this new, non–academic environment has brought new cadres of researchers into the clinical research enterprise and also broadened the pool of potential research participants. Regulatory approaches for protecting human subjects who participate in research have also evolved. Some institutions retain their own Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), but Independent IRBs, community hospital IRBs and community–based IRBs also fulfill oversight responsibilities. This article sheds light on this evolving world by discussing the findings ...


Fkbp5 Modulates Attention Bias For Threat: Associations With Hippocampal Function And Morphology, Negar Fani, David Gutman, Erin Tone, Lynn Almli, Kristina B. Mercer, Jennifer Davis, Ebony Glover, Tanja Jovanovic, Bekh Bradley, Ivo D. Dinov, Alen Zamanyan, Arthur W. Toga, Elisabeth B. Binder, Kerry J. Ressler Apr 2013

Fkbp5 Modulates Attention Bias For Threat: Associations With Hippocampal Function And Morphology, Negar Fani, David Gutman, Erin Tone, Lynn Almli, Kristina B. Mercer, Jennifer Davis, Ebony Glover, Tanja Jovanovic, Bekh Bradley, Ivo D. Dinov, Alen Zamanyan, Arthur W. Toga, Elisabeth B. Binder, Kerry J. Ressler

Psychology Faculty Publications

Context: The FKBP5 gene product regulates glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity and hypothalamicpituitary‐adrenal axis functioning, and has been associated with a number of stress‐related psychiatric disorders. The study of intermediate phenotypes, such as emotion‐processing biases and their neural substrates, provides a way to clarify the mechanisms by which FKBP5 dysregulation mediates psychopathology risk.

Objective: To examine whether allelic variations for a putatively functional SNP associated with FKBP5 gene regulation (rs1360780) would relate differentially to attentional bias for threat; this was measured through behavioral response on a dot probe task and hippocampal activation during task performance. Morphological substrates of ...


Increased Cnv-Region Deletions In Mild Cognitive Impairment (Mci) And Alzheimer's Disease (Ad) Subjects In The Adni Sample, Guia Guffanti, Federica Torri, Jerod Rasmussen, Andrew P. Clark, Anita Lakatos, Jessica Turner, James H. Fallon, Andew Saykin, Michael Weiner, Marquis P. Vawter, James A. Knowles, Steven G. Potkin, Fabio Macciardi Apr 2013

Increased Cnv-Region Deletions In Mild Cognitive Impairment (Mci) And Alzheimer's Disease (Ad) Subjects In The Adni Sample, Guia Guffanti, Federica Torri, Jerod Rasmussen, Andrew P. Clark, Anita Lakatos, Jessica Turner, James H. Fallon, Andew Saykin, Michael Weiner, Marquis P. Vawter, James A. Knowles, Steven G. Potkin, Fabio Macciardi

Psychology Faculty Publications

We investigated the genome-wide distribution of CNVs in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) Neuroimaging Initia- tive (ADNI) sample (146 with AD, 313 with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and 181 controls). Comparison of single CNVs between cases (MCI and AD) and controls shows overrepresentation of large hetero- zygous deletions in cases (p-value b 0.0001). The analysis of CNV-Regions identifies 44 copy number variable loci of heterozygous deletions, with more CNV-Regions among affected than controls (p = 0.005). Seven of the 44 CNV-Regions are nominally significant for association with cognitive impairment. We validated and con- firmed our main findings with genome ...


Potential Impact Of Mir-137 And Its Targets In Schizophrenia, Carrie Wright, Jessica Turner, Vince D. Calhoun, Nora I. Perrone-Bizzozero Apr 2013

Potential Impact Of Mir-137 And Its Targets In Schizophrenia, Carrie Wright, Jessica Turner, Vince D. Calhoun, Nora I. Perrone-Bizzozero

Psychology Faculty Publications

The significant impact of microRNAs (miRNAs) on disease pathology is becoming increas- ingly evident. These small non-coding RNAs have the ability to post-transcriptionally silence the expression of thousands of genes. Therefore, dysregulation of even a single miRNA could confer a large polygenic effect. Schizophrenia is a genetically complex illness thought to involve multiple genes each contributing a small risk. Large genome-wide association studies identified miR-137, a miRNA shown to be involved in neuronal maturation, as one of the top risk genes. To assess the potential mechanism of impact of miR-137 in this disorder and identify its targets, we used a ...