Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2013

Masters Theses

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 129

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Feasibility Study Of Installing Artificial Bathing Platforms At The Northeast Coast Of Malta, Darren Bianco Dec 2013

Feasibility Study Of Installing Artificial Bathing Platforms At The Northeast Coast Of Malta, Darren Bianco

Masters Theses

The need to create additional bathing areas at rugged karst rocky shores of the northeast coast of Malta could be met by installing temporary wooden decking platforms, since current sandy beaches are very crowded in the peak summer season. Wooden decking platforms are also an acceptable alternative to beach nourishment projects, where the latter can have permanent negative environmental impacts. The old and eroded concrete platforms which cover large areas of the northeast coast of Malta represent an eyesore to the public. The option of overlaying these concrete platforms with a permanent rock amalgam composed of fiber-reinforced concrete which mimics ...


The Integration Of 18th And 19th Century Subsistence Farming Practices Into The Planning And X-Zoning Laws Of The City And County Of Baltimore, Clayton A. Hayes Dec 2013

The Integration Of 18th And 19th Century Subsistence Farming Practices Into The Planning And X-Zoning Laws Of The City And County Of Baltimore, Clayton A. Hayes

Masters Theses

The Industrial Revolution divorced the majority of urban dwellers from the land in the United States. Today, people rely upon industrial food products from global food systems. These systems cause environmental pollution, land degradation, and loss of biodiversity. Additionally, there is unequal food distribution in these systems with poor farmers growing for production and not consumption. The rigid distribution system through grocery stores often leaves poor economic areas without access to fresh, healthy food. The solution to these problems is a return to local food systems, where people can grow or have access to fresh, local food. However, local food ...


Assessment Of Seawater Quality: Do Public Perceptions Of Seawater Quality Match Indications Given By Macroalgae?, Angela Bartolo Dec 2013

Assessment Of Seawater Quality: Do Public Perceptions Of Seawater Quality Match Indications Given By Macroalgae?, Angela Bartolo

Masters Theses

Determination of seawater quality is an essential activity in coastal areas especially in ones that attract bathers. This study aims to investigate whether the Ecological Quality Status (EQS) of seawater in bathing areas in the Maltese Islands differs across sites. The study also aims to investigate the correlation between public perceptions and objective measures of seawater quality as well as factors affecting perception of seawater quality. Another objective of this study is to investigate the public’s knowledge about macroalgae and opinion on macroalgae. The EQS of seawater in six coastal sites in the Maltese Islands is investigated using the ...


Internalized Heterosexism, Social Support, And Career Development In Lesbian, Gay, And Bisexual Undergraduate And Graduate Students: An Application Of Social Cognitive Career Theory, James Edward Arnett Dec 2013

Internalized Heterosexism, Social Support, And Career Development In Lesbian, Gay, And Bisexual Undergraduate And Graduate Students: An Application Of Social Cognitive Career Theory, James Edward Arnett

Masters Theses

Using a the framework of Social Cognitive Career Theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), we examined the relationships between one potential career-related barrier, internalized heterosexism (IH), and social support on career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) and vocational outcome expectations in lesbian, gay, and bisexual undergraduate and graduate students. Specifically, we predicted that internalized heterosexism would be negatively related to CDMSE and vocational outcome expectations, and that social support would serve as a buffer that moderates these relationships. Results indicated that IH and social support were both unique predictors of outcome expectations. There was also a significant interaction effect between IH and social ...


Are Supervisory Feedback Messages A Motivational Factor To Enhance Employee Retention?, Yang Yali Dec 2013

Are Supervisory Feedback Messages A Motivational Factor To Enhance Employee Retention?, Yang Yali

Masters Theses

Employee retention is one of most valuable resources in an organization. Feedback from supervisors provides opportunities to clarify expectations, adjust goal difficulty, improve job performance, and enhance job satisfaction. The present study is intended to investigate the role that supervisory feedback messages play in employee retention decisions. The participants took a three-session survey that aimed to examine their perception of supervisory feedback received through direction-giving messages, empathy-giving messages, and meaning-making messages, as well as the effect that each kind of message had on each participant's retention intent. The follow-up interviews were conducted to explore in-depth insights on the factors ...


"This Is Exactly Why We Sweep Things Under The Rug:" A Polite Approach To Abc's Modern Family, Andrea Fasciano Dec 2013

"This Is Exactly Why We Sweep Things Under The Rug:" A Polite Approach To Abc's Modern Family, Andrea Fasciano

Masters Theses

The sitcom has remained a popular choice for television viewers since its inception. They have evolved in their methods of entertaining their audiences, often depicting unlikeable characters engaging in antisocial behaviors. This study examines one such sitcom, Modern Family, through the lens of Brown and Levinson's politeness theory, and related concepts contributed by other theorists. These theorists maintain that a primary motive behind any interaction is the presentation and maintenance of a chosen identity or "face." Those actions that fail to maintain face, for either participant are called "face-threatening acts." This study attempts to determine if the characters behave ...


Personal And Group Environment Factors Of Water Polo Players, Shelby Morgan Reyes Dec 2013

Personal And Group Environment Factors Of Water Polo Players, Shelby Morgan Reyes

Masters Theses

This study examined to see if Division I female water polo players (n = 113) had a distinct personality profile when compared to their counterpart of other female college students (n = 170). Also, this study analyzed to see the impact personality traits and team cohesion variables had on overall athletic satisfaction in female water polo players. The measures used were as follows: for personality, the Personal Style Inventory for College Students (PSI, Lounsbury & Gibson, 2008); for team cohesion, Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ, Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) ; and for athletic satisfaction, Athletes Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASQ, Riemer & Chelladurai, 1998). The results looking at the differences between means ...


Temperament In Mothers With Borderline Personality Disorder And In Their Young Children Aged 4-7, Christina Gabriela Mena Dec 2013

Temperament In Mothers With Borderline Personality Disorder And In Their Young Children Aged 4-7, Christina Gabriela Mena

Masters Theses

In this study we sampled mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and their young children ages 4-7 (n = 36), as well as normative comparisons (n = 34). We assessed temperament in both mothers and their children. Mothers reported on their own and on their children’s temperament. Controlling for maternal current major depressive disorder and education, mothers with BPD reported more negative affectivity, less effortful control, and less positive affect than did normative comparison mothers. Children whose mothers had BPD had more negative affectivity (fear and frustration) and less effortful control, but not less smiling and laughter. When controlling for maternal ...


Adolescents’ Definitions Of Cheating In Romantic Relationships, Jerika C. Norona Dec 2013

Adolescents’ Definitions Of Cheating In Romantic Relationships, Jerika C. Norona

Masters Theses

Cheating is a common occurrence in dating relationships. However, less is known about cheating in adolescence, a time when many individuals first experience romantic relationships. An important initial step for research is examining how adolescents define cheating in their romantic relationships. The present study used Thematic Analysis, a qualitative analytic method, to explore adolescents’ definitions of cheating and how these definitions might differ across age and gender. Furthermore, the present study examined patterns that emerged within definitions. Results indicate that definitions of cheating included a range of behaviors, such as engaging in physical activity, romantic/intimate involvement, spending time with ...


Cobb Creek Church: Changing Perspectives In A Serpent-Handling Congregation In East Tennessee, Michael Noel Reid Dec 2013

Cobb Creek Church: Changing Perspectives In A Serpent-Handling Congregation In East Tennessee, Michael Noel Reid

Masters Theses

In the last year, the traditional practice of handling venomous snakes in Pentecostal church services has returned to the forefront of popular media attention. With the death of renowned handler Randy “Mack” Wolford in West Virginia in May, the news has been rife with stories of the century-old tradition. New, younger groups of handlers have also been instrumental in raising attention to the practice. One congregation in particular has been a key focus for media outlets around the nation. The Cobb Creek Church of God has been featured in The Tennessean, The Wall Street Journal, USA Today, and National Geographic ...


Issues Of Commingling Within The Gold Mine Site (16ri13) Collection: Adult Human Humeri And Tibiae, Kinsey Brett Stewart Dec 2013

Issues Of Commingling Within The Gold Mine Site (16ri13) Collection: Adult Human Humeri And Tibiae, Kinsey Brett Stewart

Masters Theses

Gold Mine (16RI13) is a Troyville ossuary mound site (circa CE 825) in northeastern Louisiana. Approximately 10-20% of the primary mound (Mound A) was excavated over the course of three field seasons (1978-1980), yielding a host of human skeletal remains. Extensively commingled secondary burials make up the majority of interments. The number of individuals represented within the collection (N) has been estimated at 150+ (McGimsey 2004:214), but attempts to quantitatively determine N have produced varied results. Formal analysis of the skeletal collection is complicated by the loss of provenience for many remains as well as additional post-excavation fragmentation and ...


The Relationships Between Internalized Heterosexism, Spirituality, And Mental Health In Lesbian, Gay, And Bisexual Young Adults, Jon Raymond Bourn Dec 2013

The Relationships Between Internalized Heterosexism, Spirituality, And Mental Health In Lesbian, Gay, And Bisexual Young Adults, Jon Raymond Bourn

Masters Theses

Minority stressors like internalized heterosexism have been found to be related to suicidality among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals (e.g., Savin-Williams & Ream, 2003). Additional research is needed, however, to better understand the factors that may serve as moderators (i.e., protective factors) in the relationships between minority stressors and negative mental health outcomes, such as depression and suicidality (e.g., Szymanski et al., 2008). The current study attempted to examine the relationships between internalized heterosexism and two negative mental health outcomes associated with suicide, psychache (defined as unbearable psychological pain) and depression, in a sample of LGB young ...


The Impact Of Rumination Induction On Iq Performance, Kerry Margaret Cannity Dec 2013

The Impact Of Rumination Induction On Iq Performance, Kerry Margaret Cannity

Masters Theses

Performance deficits on cognitive tasks have been demonstrated consistently in depressed and anxious individuals. Processing efficiency theory asserts that these deficits might be accounted for by task-irrelevant processes, including the negative impact of rumination. This study was designed to better understand the relationship between cognitive deficits and depression by creating a ruminative state in healthy control subjects to determine if they would exhibit performance deficits similar to those observed in patients with depression. Specifically, the effect of rumination induction on select subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) was examined. Participants were college students with no current ...


Affect Regulation Mediators Of Associations Between Attachment, Cortisol, And Psychological Symptoms, Ji-Sun Jeong Dec 2013

Affect Regulation Mediators Of Associations Between Attachment, Cortisol, And Psychological Symptoms, Ji-Sun Jeong

Masters Theses

This study investigated affect regulation as a mediator of the relationship between insecure attachment and (a) psychological symptoms of distress, and (b) cortisol levels, in a sample of first year undergraduate students. Participants (N = 125) attended group data collection sessions on campus where they completed both salivary collection and a paper and pencil survey. Survey measures included the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale to assess adult attachment, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale to assess emotional intelligence as a positive coping resource, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale to assess affect regulation problems, and the Outcome Questionnaire 30.2 to assess psychological ...


Lights, Camera, Vote: An Agenda-Setting Analysis Of Celebrity Endorsements And News Correlation During The 2012 Presidential Election, Amanda Jacobsen Nov 2013

Lights, Camera, Vote: An Agenda-Setting Analysis Of Celebrity Endorsements And News Correlation During The 2012 Presidential Election, Amanda Jacobsen

Masters Theses

Many studies have been done in order to prove the idea that celebrity endorsements can affect elections; however little research has exposed the ongoing correlation between entertainment and news media in America. This research investigates the strong correlation between entertainment websites and mainstream news websites during the 2012 United States presidential election by way of celebrity endorsements. The sources examined included celebrity, entertainment journalism sites such as The Huffington Post, People and E! as compared to networks; ABC News, NBC News, Fox News, CNN and CBS News. Twelve celebrities were chosen by means of their given Q Score. Their announced ...


A Study Of How Selected Public School Junior-High Students Perceive The Effect Of Popular Music On Classroom Behavior, Christopher Mc Allister Aug 2013

A Study Of How Selected Public School Junior-High Students Perceive The Effect Of Popular Music On Classroom Behavior, Christopher Mc Allister

Masters Theses

The objective of this study is to further the understanding of how junior-high students in the public schools perceive the effects of popular music on their behavior in the classroom. Two primary research questions serve as the foundation for this study. The first question investigates how themes disclosed in interviews of selected public school junior high students help to explain their personal perceptions of how popular music affects their behavior in the academic environment. The second question seeks to determine whether students that listen to a particular genre of popular music have different or similar perceptions of how music affects ...


An Assessment Of The Effect Of X-Ray Radiation On Dna Marker Profiles Obtained From Human Teeth, Erin Lynn Knapp Aug 2013

An Assessment Of The Effect Of X-Ray Radiation On Dna Marker Profiles Obtained From Human Teeth, Erin Lynn Knapp

Masters Theses

X-ray radiation is known to destroy cells and damage DNA, yet human remains from forensic anthropology cases are routinely exposed to X-ray radiation as part of the documentation and evidence collection process. If X-ray radiation significantly impacts the quality of DNA extracted from human remains in forensic cases, then the validity of a resulting forensic profile is called into question. To better understand how X-ray radiation affects forensic genetic profiles, this study followed standard forensic X-ray and genetic profiling protocols to obtain genetic marker profiles on individual cases, represented by molar teeth, before and after they were exposed to a ...


Coaches’ Attitudes Towards Sport Psychology Services: A Study Of Ncaa Division I Head Golf Coaches, Justin Robert Smedley Aug 2013

Coaches’ Attitudes Towards Sport Psychology Services: A Study Of Ncaa Division I Head Golf Coaches, Justin Robert Smedley

Masters Theses

In this study a sample of NCAA Division I (D-I) head golf coaches (n = 84) completed a web-based survey assessing their attitudes toward sport psychology (SP) services (i.e., confidence in SP consulting, personal openness, stigma tolerance, and cultural preference), willingness to utilize SP services, previous use and perceived satisfaction with SP services, and if coaches’ attitudes predicted their willingness to utilize SP services. This study also explored participating coaches’ self-reported leadership behaviors (i.e., democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, training and instruction, social support, positive feedback, and situational consideration). Results indicated that coaches who more frequently used and perceived more ...


The Vertebrate Fauna Of Zebree’S Big Lake Phase, Lydia Dorsey Carmody Aug 2013

The Vertebrate Fauna Of Zebree’S Big Lake Phase, Lydia Dorsey Carmody

Masters Theses

Excavated during the late 1960’s and mid 1970’s, Zebree (3MS20) serves as a well-known yet under-analyzed example of a Terminal Late Woodland/Early Mississippian (A.D. 800 to 1000) site in the Eastern Lowlands of the Central Mississippi Valley. In particular, a large portion of the vertebrate fauna collected during Zebree’s multi-season excavations has remained unidentified and unanalyzed since the initial site report. This research seeks to readdress the Terminal Late Woodland/Early Mississippian Big Lake phase (A.D. 800 to 1050) faunal collection in order to gain a more in-depth understanding of subsistence strategies at the ...


Two Essays On The Empirical Analysis Of Microeconomic Data: Household Donation And Individual Body Weight, Yanghao Wang Aug 2013

Two Essays On The Empirical Analysis Of Microeconomic Data: Household Donation And Individual Body Weight, Yanghao Wang

Masters Theses

This thesis consists of two essays on empirical analysis of microeconomic data for household donation and individual body weight.

The first essay investigates determinants of donations to religious, charitable, and educational/political organizations amongU.S.households using data from the 2010 and 2011 Consumer Expenditure Survey. To address issues of censoring, selection biases, and correlations among different types of donations, a sample selection system is estimated. Average marginal effects are calculated to further explain the effects of covariates on household donations. Price is negatively associated with charitable and educational/political donations but not with religious donations. The effects of household ...


Comparing Stress Responses In Generalized Anxiety Disorder Vs. Non-Clinical Populations: A Cortisol And Alpha-Amylase Study, Dominic Joseph Di Loreto Aug 2013

Comparing Stress Responses In Generalized Anxiety Disorder Vs. Non-Clinical Populations: A Cortisol And Alpha-Amylase Study, Dominic Joseph Di Loreto

Masters Theses

Debilitating anxiety affects 6.8 million Americans. Cortisol is an established measure of the stress response which reflects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. However, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is a relatively new measure of the stress response, and it reflects the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary pathway (SAM pathway) activity. Our aim was to compare these two aspects of the stress response in a Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and a non-clinical population under a stressful stimulus (Knee replacement surgery video). To our knowledge this is the first time anyone has looked at both sAA and cortisol together with respect to GAD. We hypothesized that both ...


Two Of A Kind: Implications Of Bilateral Directional Asymmetry On Pair Matching Of Human Limb Bones., Lauren Ashley Garroway Aug 2013

Two Of A Kind: Implications Of Bilateral Directional Asymmetry On Pair Matching Of Human Limb Bones., Lauren Ashley Garroway

Masters Theses

The task of sorting and analyzing commingled remains can be daunting, depending on the degree of fragmentation, distribution, and contents of the assemblage. The Most Likely Number of Individuals (MLNI) calculation for quantifying the contents of human skeletal assemblages is dependent upon the ability to properly match bilateral elements into pairs. Anthropologists employ numerous methods to reassociate commingled remains into discrete individuals, but the guiding principle used to match sided elements is “general symmetry” (Adams and Konigsberg, 2008; Byrd, 2008). However, different skeletal elements and regions within those elements are variably responsive to a combination of environmental and genetic factors ...


Considering The Role Of Children’S Levels Of Responsiveness And Resistance On The Relations Between Maternal Interaction Behaviors And Children’S Interaction Behaviors With Peers At School, Daniela Andrea Salinas Maturana Aug 2013

Considering The Role Of Children’S Levels Of Responsiveness And Resistance On The Relations Between Maternal Interaction Behaviors And Children’S Interaction Behaviors With Peers At School, Daniela Andrea Salinas Maturana

Masters Theses

Developmental theorists usually agree that children’s peer relationships have their roots in family relationships and they have suggested different models of influence between these two major socializing spheres. However, most studies have not included the role that children may play during these social exchanges. The present study focuses on the relative importance of children’s levels of responsiveness and/or resistance during mother-child interactions and offers a novel framework of direct and indirect relations between mother interaction behaviors and children's social behaviors with peers. Findings indicated that children of more controlling mothers were likely to be more controlling ...


Assessing The Influence Of Conservation Agriculture On Household Wellbeing And Maize Marketing In Tete And Manica Mozambique, William Edward Mcnair Aug 2013

Assessing The Influence Of Conservation Agriculture On Household Wellbeing And Maize Marketing In Tete And Manica Mozambique, William Edward Mcnair

Masters Theses

In recent years there has been a movement on the part of farmers, governments, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), and the international community to promote the use of sustainable agricultural practices. In Sub-Saharan Africa, this has translated into programs with the expressed aim of increasing smallholder farmer adoption rates of conservation agriculture (CA). This thesis contributes to the analysis of the adoption of conservation agriculture by smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa by assessing the economic status of CA adopters in the providences of Manica and Tete, Mozambique.

Chapter II of the thesis examines the ceteris paribus correlation between smallholder farm household economic ...


Plant Remains From The Smokemont Site In The Appalachian Mountains Of North Carolina, Gabrielle Casio Purcell Aug 2013

Plant Remains From The Smokemont Site In The Appalachian Mountains Of North Carolina, Gabrielle Casio Purcell

Masters Theses

Smokemont (31Sw393) is a multicomponent site consisting of deposits from Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian, Cherokee, and Euro-American occupations. Located in Swain County in the Smoky Mountains in western North Carolina, two structures have been identified at Smokemont, one as a Mississippian Pisgah phase house, and the other a Contact period Qualla phase house. Beneath the Pisgah house are several Connestee period pit features. Archaeobotanical remains have been collected from Woodland, Mississippian, and Cherokee contexts. Floral analysis of Middle Woodland features indicate some horticultural activity, with wild plants remaining important but supplementary to maize agriculture during the Mississippian and Cherokee occupations. This ...


“I Am Working For The Good Guys:” Street-Level Enforcement Of The Clean Water Act In East Tennessee, Kayla Marie Stover Aug 2013

“I Am Working For The Good Guys:” Street-Level Enforcement Of The Clean Water Act In East Tennessee, Kayla Marie Stover

Masters Theses

Environmental policies are designed to be governmental attempts to change social behaviors that have negative environmental consequences; they are intended to protect natural resources and the interests of U.S. citizens. However, the reality of policy enforcement rarely reflects these goals. Research shows that enforcement is often unequal, more stringent in some areas and weaker in others. The resulting environmental injustices are the manifestation of political interference and organizational impediments in the policy process. Most environmental policy analyses focus on the macro, federal-level of policy. In doing so, they neglect the final, crucial step in which policy is made real ...


Hey! Give Me A Boost: The Impact Of Conflict Joining On The Rally 'Round The Flag In The United Kingdom, 1948-2000, Marissa Kathleen Wilson Aug 2013

Hey! Give Me A Boost: The Impact Of Conflict Joining On The Rally 'Round The Flag In The United Kingdom, 1948-2000, Marissa Kathleen Wilson

Masters Theses

International Relations has long sought to identify the causes of conflict. Two popular theories that suggest leaders use conflict for domestic purposes – that of diversion and policy availability – rest on the assumption that conflict does in fact lead to domestic political benefits. Chief among these benefits is the boost in public approval ratings, known as the “rally-‘round-the-flag.” Large-N statistical studies testing the rally effect are few and seldom look beyond the United States. Further, there are no studies that examine the varying rally effects of joining ongoing conflicts versus conflict initiation or participation. The postulated theory suggests conflict joining ...


Investigator Disturbance And Buried Remains: An Experimental Study On Buried Nonhuman Decomposition, Lindsay Nicole Sliwa Aug 2013

Investigator Disturbance And Buried Remains: An Experimental Study On Buried Nonhuman Decomposition, Lindsay Nicole Sliwa

Masters Theses

The experimental study of buried remains presents a unique set of problems for the investigator. With uncovered remains, visual and non-invasive/non-destructive methods alone can be utilized with no direct interaction between the investigator and the body, and thus allows for the repeated use of that body throughout the study. Usually presented as a group of categories or stages of decomposition, these methods are used as a basis for comparison among the sample and between studies. Buried remains, however, cannot be assessed, either visually or through other methods, without intentional disruption of the grave environment by the investigator. The removal ...


Clovis Lithic Manufacturing Variability At The Allendale Chert Quarries: A Preliminary View From 38al228, Allendale County, South Carolina, Andrew James Weidman Aug 2013

Clovis Lithic Manufacturing Variability At The Allendale Chert Quarries: A Preliminary View From 38al228, Allendale County, South Carolina, Andrew James Weidman

Masters Theses

This research is the result of archaeological testing that occurred from 2010–2012 at 38AL228, a multi-component quarry related site in Allendale County, South Carolina. This thesis 1) provides a summary of the testing in order to define the cultural sequence and isolate the Clovis component for further analysis, and 2) compares the Clovis lithic assemblage from 38AL228 with the Clovis lithic assemblage from the Topper site (38AL23) to explore possible manufacturing variability based on distance from the source of raw material within the Allendale chert quarries.

The premise for the comparative analysis is framed around the concept of differential ...


The Diabetes Partner Support Questionnaire: Psychometric Scale Development, Katie Cassandra Wischkaemper Aug 2013

The Diabetes Partner Support Questionnaire: Psychometric Scale Development, Katie Cassandra Wischkaemper

Masters Theses

This study examines the effects of social support, specifically from intimate, committed partners, for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Integrating social learning theory and health, this study aims to develop a measure of the frequency of diabetes-specific supportive behaviors and the perceived quality of those behaviors as perceived by patients with diabetes (Bandura, 1977). Developing a psychometrically sound instrument will assist future research examining intimate relationships and diabetes-related health outcomes. The Diabetes Partner Support Questionnaire (DPSQ), contains modified items from a scale measuring parental support for children with type 1 diabetes (La Greca & Bearman, 2002). The present study involved development ...