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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Systematic Enso-Driven Nutrient Variability Recorded By Central Equatorial Pacific Corals, Michele Lavigne, Intan S. Nurhati, Kim M. Cobb, Helen V. Mcgregor, Daniel Sinclair, Robert M. Sherrell Aug 2013

Systematic Enso-Driven Nutrient Variability Recorded By Central Equatorial Pacific Corals, Michele Lavigne, Intan S. Nurhati, Kim M. Cobb, Helen V. Mcgregor, Daniel Sinclair, Robert M. Sherrell

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

[1] Variations in ocean productivity are driven largely by nutrient supply to the photic zone, but temporal records of nutrient variability are sparse. Here we show scleractinian coral P/Ca proxy records of variations in phosphate concentrations during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles in the central equatorial Pacific. Covarying P/Ca records in Porites corals from Christmas and Fanning Islands show a regional ~40% decrease during the upwelling relaxation of the 1997–1998 El Niño, consistent with less frequent nutrient measurements from this area. Similar ~35–45% skeletal P/Ca decreases occur during the 1982–1983 and 1986–1987 ...


Rapid Cascade Synthesis Of Poly-Heterocyclic Architectures From Indigo, Alireza Shakoori Ghasabi, John Bremner, Anthony C. Willis, Rachada Haritakun, Paul A. Keller Jun 2013

Rapid Cascade Synthesis Of Poly-Heterocyclic Architectures From Indigo, Alireza Shakoori Ghasabi, John Bremner, Anthony C. Willis, Rachada Haritakun, Paul A. Keller

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The base-induced propargylation of the dye indigo results in the rapid and unprecedented one-pot synthesis of highly functionalized representatives of the pyrazino[1,2-a:4,3-a′]diindole, pyrido[1,2-a:3,4-b′]diindole and benzo[b]indolo[1,2-h]naphthyridine heterocyclic systems, with the last two reflecting the core skeleton of the anticancer/antiplasmodial marine natural products fascaplysin and homofascaplysins and a ring B-homologue, respectively. The polycyclic compounds 6–8, whose structures were confirmed through single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis, arise from sequential inter/intramolecular substitution–addition reactions, and in some cases, ring rearrangement reactions. Preliminary studies on controlling the reaction ...


Rates Of Shoreline Change Along The Coast Of Bangladesh, Md. Golam Mahabub Sarwar, Colin D. Woodroffe May 2013

Rates Of Shoreline Change Along The Coast Of Bangladesh, Md. Golam Mahabub Sarwar, Colin D. Woodroffe

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Bangladesh, at the confluence of the sediment-laden Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers, supports an enormous and rapidly growing population (>140 million in 2011), across low-lying alluvial and delta plains that have accumulated over the past few thousand years. It has been identified as one of the most vulnerable places in the world to the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise. Although abundant sediment supply has resulted in accretion on some parts of the coast of Bangladesh, others are experiencing rapid erosion. We report a systematic assessment of rates of shoreline change over a 20-year period from 1989 to 2009, using ...


Concise Synthesis Of (-)-Steviamine And Analogues And Their Glycosidase Inhibitory Activities, Nadechanok Jiangseubchatveera, Marc E. Bouillon, Boonsom Liawruangrath, Saisunee Liawruangrath, Robert J. Nash, Stephen G. Pyne Apr 2013

Concise Synthesis Of (-)-Steviamine And Analogues And Their Glycosidase Inhibitory Activities, Nadechanok Jiangseubchatveera, Marc E. Bouillon, Boonsom Liawruangrath, Saisunee Liawruangrath, Robert J. Nash, Stephen G. Pyne

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

A concise synthesis of (−)-steviamine is reported along with the synthesis of its analogues 10-nor-steviamine, 10-nor-ent-steviamine and 5-epi-ent-steviamine. These compounds were tested against twelve glycosidases (at 143 μg mL−1 concentrations) and were found to have in general poor inhibitory activity against most enzymes. The 10-nor analogues however, showed 50–54% inhibition of α-L-rhamnosidase from Penicillium decumbens while one of these, 10-nor-steviamine, showed 51% inhibition of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (from Jack bean) at the same concentration (760 μM).


Uv Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy Of Haloanilinium Ions In A Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, Christopher S. Hansen, Benjamin B. Kirk, Stephen J. Blanksby, Richard A. J O'Hair, Adam J. Trevitt Apr 2013

Uv Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy Of Haloanilinium Ions In A Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, Christopher S. Hansen, Benjamin B. Kirk, Stephen J. Blanksby, Richard A. J O'Hair, Adam J. Trevitt

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

UV-vis photodissociation action spectroscopy is becoming increasingly prevalent because of advances in, and commercial availability of, ion trapping technologies and tunable laser sources. This study outlines in detail an instrumental arrangement, combining a commercial ion-trap mass spectrometer and tunable nanosecond pulsed laser source, for performing fully automated photodissociation action spectroscopy on gas-phase ions. The components of the instrumentation are outlined, including the optical and electronic interfacing, in addition to the control software for automating the experiment and performing online analysis of the spectra. To demonstrate the utility of this ensemble, the photodissociation action spectra of 4-chloroanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 4-iodoanilinium cations ...


Switching Radical Stability By Ph-Induced Orbital Conversion, Ganna Gryn'ova, David L. Marshall, Stephen J. Blanksby, Michelle L. Coote Apr 2013

Switching Radical Stability By Ph-Induced Orbital Conversion, Ganna Gryn'ova, David L. Marshall, Stephen J. Blanksby, Michelle L. Coote

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

In most radicals the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) is the highest-energy occupied molecular orbital (HOMO); however, in a small number of reported compounds this is not the case. In the present work we expand significantly the scope of this phenomenon, known as SOMO–HOMO energy-level conversion, by showing that it occurs in virtually any distonic radical anion that contains a sufficiently stabilized radical (aminoxyl, peroxyl, aminyl) non-π-conjugated with a negative charge (carboxylate, phosphate, sulfate). Moreover, regular orbital order is restored on protonation of the anionic fragment, and hence the orbital configuration can be switched by pH. Most importantly, our ...


Five Practical Uses Of Spatial Autocorrelation For Studies Of Coral Reef Ecology, S Hamylton Mar 2013

Five Practical Uses Of Spatial Autocorrelation For Studies Of Coral Reef Ecology, S Hamylton

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The organisation of benthic communities across coral reefs is underpinned by spatially structured ecological processes and neighbourhood interactions such as larval dispersal, migration, competition and the spread of disease. These give rise to spatial autocorrelation in reef communities. This paper demonstrates how the measurement of spatial autocorrelation can profitably be incorporated into studies of coral reef ecology through a series of 5 simple statistical exercises: for the generation of maps depicting the strength of spatial relationships between ecological communities, as an indicator of optimal dimensions for sampling ecological communities on coral reefs, as a diagnostic tool for model misspecification, as ...


Biofabrication: An Overview Of The Approaches Used For Printing Of Living Cells, Cameron J. Ferris, Kerry G. Gilmore, Gordon G. Wallace, Marc In Het Panhuis Mar 2013

Biofabrication: An Overview Of The Approaches Used For Printing Of Living Cells, Cameron J. Ferris, Kerry G. Gilmore, Gordon G. Wallace, Marc In Het Panhuis

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The development of cell printing is vital for establishing biofabrication approaches as clinically relevant tools. Achieving this requires bio-inks which must not only be easily printable, but also allow controllable and reproducible printing of cells. This review outlines the general principles and current progress and compares the advantages and challenges for the most widely used biofabrication techniques for printing cells: extrusion, laser, microvalve, inkjet and tissue fragment printing. It is expected that significant advances in cell printing will result from synergistic combinations of these techniques and lead to optimised resolution, throughput and the overall complexity of printed constructs.


Carbon Dioxide Rebreathing In Respiratory Protective Devices: Influence Of Speech And Work Rate In Full-Face Masks, Carmen L. Smith, Jane L. Whitelaw, Brian Davies Mar 2013

Carbon Dioxide Rebreathing In Respiratory Protective Devices: Influence Of Speech And Work Rate In Full-Face Masks, Carmen L. Smith, Jane L. Whitelaw, Brian Davies

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Carbon dioxide (CO2) rebreathing has been recognised as a concern regarding respirator use and is related to symptoms of discomfort, fatigue, dizziness, headache, muscular weakness and drowsiness. Previous investigations are limited by small sample size and have not evaluated the relationship between CO2 inhalation and phonic respiration (breathing during speech) in respiratory protective devices (RPDs). A total of 40 workers trained in the use of RPDs performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergonometer that increased in workload every 5 min. During the third minute of each stage, participants read aloud a prepared text. Measures of mixed expired CO2 ...


Diversifying Ethnicity In Australia's Population And Environment Debates, Natascha Klocker, Lesley Head Feb 2013

Diversifying Ethnicity In Australia's Population And Environment Debates, Natascha Klocker, Lesley Head

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Population–environment debates in Australia are at an impasse. While the ability of this continent to sustain more migrants has attracted persistent scrutiny, nuanced explorations of diverse migrant cultures and their engagements with Australian landscapes have scarcely begun. Yet as we face the challenges of a climate changing world we would undoubtedly benefit from the most varied knowledges we can muster. This paper brings together three arenas of environmental debate circulating in Australia—the immigration/carrying capacity debate, comparisons between Indigenous and Anglo-European modes of environmental interaction, and research on household sustainability dilemmas—to demonstrate the exclusionary tendencies of each ...


Welcome To Bogan-Ville: Reframing Class And Place Through Humour, Chris Gibson Feb 2013

Welcome To Bogan-Ville: Reframing Class And Place Through Humour, Chris Gibson

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

On August 4, 2009, Australian online news commentary website the Punch announced that Albion Park, in the Australian industrial city of Wollongong, was one of the nation's top ten “most bogan” places. This paper explores what it means to be bogan in Australia, tracing historical antecedents, local debate at the time of this media event, and the manner in which the politics of class and place identity are negotiated through humour. Some local residents railed against associations with “lower-class” culture or feared damaged reputations for their neighbourhoods; others responded in sometimes unexpected and creative ways—through humour, and by ...


Effects Of Atmospheric Light Scattering On Spectroscopic Observations Of Greenhouse Gases From Space. Part 2: Algorithm Intercomparison In The Gosat Data Processing For Co2 Retrievals Over Tccon Sites, Sergey Oshchepkov, Andrey Bril, Tatsuya Yokota, Paul O. Wennberg, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Debra Wunch, Geoffrey C. Toon, Yukio Yoshida, Christopher W. O'Dell, David Crisp, Charles E. Miller, Christian Frankenberg, Andre Butz, Ilse Aben, Sandrine Guerlet, Otto Hasekamp, Hartmut Boesch, Austin Cogan, Robert Parker, David Griffith, Ronald Macatangay, Justus Notholt, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Vanessa Sherlock, John Robinson, Esko Kyro, Pauli Heikkinen, Dietrich G. Feist, Isamu Morino, Nikolay Kadygrov, Dmitry Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Osamu Uchino, Hiroshi Watanabe Feb 2013

Effects Of Atmospheric Light Scattering On Spectroscopic Observations Of Greenhouse Gases From Space. Part 2: Algorithm Intercomparison In The Gosat Data Processing For Co2 Retrievals Over Tccon Sites, Sergey Oshchepkov, Andrey Bril, Tatsuya Yokota, Paul O. Wennberg, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Debra Wunch, Geoffrey C. Toon, Yukio Yoshida, Christopher W. O'Dell, David Crisp, Charles E. Miller, Christian Frankenberg, Andre Butz, Ilse Aben, Sandrine Guerlet, Otto Hasekamp, Hartmut Boesch, Austin Cogan, Robert Parker, David Griffith, Ronald Macatangay, Justus Notholt, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Vanessa Sherlock, John Robinson, Esko Kyro, Pauli Heikkinen, Dietrich G. Feist, Isamu Morino, Nikolay Kadygrov, Dmitry Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Osamu Uchino, Hiroshi Watanabe

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

This report is the second in a series of companion papers describing the effects of atmospheric light scattering in observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), in orbit since 23 January 2009. Here we summarize the retrievals from six previously published algorithms; retrieving column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 (XCO2) during 22 months of operation of GOSAT from June 2009. First, we compare data products from each algorithm with ground-based remote sensing observations by Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Our GOSAT-TCCON coincidence criteria select satellite observations within a 5° radius of 11 ...


Dinosaur Lactation?, Paul L. Else Feb 2013

Dinosaur Lactation?, Paul L. Else

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young ...


Sequential Extraction Procedures For The Determination Of Phosphorus Forms In Sediment, Changyou Wang, Yong Zhang, Hongli Li, R John Morrison Jan 2013

Sequential Extraction Procedures For The Determination Of Phosphorus Forms In Sediment, Changyou Wang, Yong Zhang, Hongli Li, R John Morrison

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

This article summarizes the main extraction methods for sedimentary phosphorus (P) determination. With sequential chemical extractions, P is supposed to be selectively removed from different compounds in the sediments. Extraction schemes using strong acids and alkaline solutions have been tested on different sediments and found not to extract well-defined fractions. In addition, several systematic errors in these schemes have been detected. Thus, these schemes have been modified and simplified accordingly. The Standards Measurements and Testing Program of the European Commission (SMT) method is a popular modification of these extraction schemes, as it is simple to handle, allows laboratories to achieve ...


Single Molecule Characterization Of The Interactions Between Amyloid-Β Peptides And The Membranes Of Hippocampal Cells, Priyanka Narayan, Kristina A. Ganzinger, James Mccoll, Laura Weimann, Sarah Meehan, Seema Qamar, John A. Carver, Mark R. Wilson, Peter St George-Hyslop, Christopher M. Dobson, David Klenerman Jan 2013

Single Molecule Characterization Of The Interactions Between Amyloid-Β Peptides And The Membranes Of Hippocampal Cells, Priyanka Narayan, Kristina A. Ganzinger, James Mccoll, Laura Weimann, Sarah Meehan, Seema Qamar, John A. Carver, Mark R. Wilson, Peter St George-Hyslop, Christopher M. Dobson, David Klenerman

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Oligomers of the 40 and 42 residue amyloid-β peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42) have been implicated in the neuronal damage and impaired cognitive function associated with Alzheimer’s disease. However, little is known about the specific mechanisms by which these misfolded species induce such detrimental effects on cells. In this work, we use single-molecule imaging techniques to examine the initial interactions between Aβ monomers and oligomers and the membranes of live cells. This highly sensitive method enables the visualization of individual Aβ species on the cell surface and characterization of their oligomerization state, all at biologically relevant, nanomolar concentrations. The results ...


Maternal Obesity Is Associated With The Formation Of Small Dense Ldl And Hypoadiponectinemia In The Third Trimester, Barbara J. Meyer, Frances M. Stewart, Elizabeth A. Brown, Josephine Cooney, Solveig Nilsson, Gunilla Olivecrona, Jane E. Ramsay, Bruce A. Griffin, Muriel J. Caslake, Dilys J. Freeman Jan 2013

Maternal Obesity Is Associated With The Formation Of Small Dense Ldl And Hypoadiponectinemia In The Third Trimester, Barbara J. Meyer, Frances M. Stewart, Elizabeth A. Brown, Josephine Cooney, Solveig Nilsson, Gunilla Olivecrona, Jane E. Ramsay, Bruce A. Griffin, Muriel J. Caslake, Dilys J. Freeman

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

CONTEXT: Maternal obesity is associated with high plasma triglyceride, poor vascular function, and an increased risk for pregnancy complications. In normal-weight pregnant women, higher triglyceride is associated with increased small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL). HYPOTHESIS: In obese pregnancy, increased plasma triglyceride concentrations result in triglyceride enrichment of very low-density lipoprotein-1 particles and formation of small dense LDL via lipoprotein lipase. DESIGN: Women (n = 55) of body mass index of 18-46 kg/m(2) were sampled longitudinally at 12, 26, and 35 weeks' gestation and 4 months postnatally. SETTING: Women were recruited at hospital antenatal appointments, and study visits were in ...


Food Synergy: The Key To A Healthy Diet, David R. Jacobs Jr, Linda C. Tapsell Jan 2013

Food Synergy: The Key To A Healthy Diet, David R. Jacobs Jr, Linda C. Tapsell

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Food synergy is the concept that the non-random mixture of food constituents operates in concert for the life of the organism eaten and presumably for the life of the eater. Isolated nutrients have been extensively studied in well-designed, long-term, large randomised clinical trials, typically with null and sometimes with harmful effects. Therefore, although nutrient deficiency is a known phenomenon, serious for the sufferer, and curable by taking the isolated nutrient, the effect of isolated nutrients or other chemicals derived from food on chronic disease, when that chemical is not deficient, may not have the same beneficial effect. It appears that ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Photophysics Of Oxadiazole- And Diphenylaniline-Substituted Re(I) And Cu(I) Complexes, Raphael Horvath, Michael G. Fraser, Scott A. Cameron, Allan G. Blackman, Pawel Wagner, David L. Officer, Keith C. Gordon Jan 2013

Synthesis, Characterization, And Photophysics Of Oxadiazole- And Diphenylaniline-Substituted Re(I) And Cu(I) Complexes, Raphael Horvath, Michael G. Fraser, Scott A. Cameron, Allan G. Blackman, Pawel Wagner, David L. Officer, Keith C. Gordon

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Transition-metal complexes of the types [Re(CO)3Cl(NN)], [Re(CO)3py(NN)]+, and [Cu(PPh3)2(NN)]+, where NN = 4,4′-bis(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine (OX) and 4,4′-bis(N,N-diphenyl-4-[ethen-1-yl]-aniline)-2,2′-bipyridine (DPA), have been synthesized and characterized. Crystal structures for [Re(CO)3Cl(DPA)] and [Cu(PPh3)2(OX)]BF4 are presented. The crystal structure of the rhenium complex shows a trans arrangement of the ethylene groups, in agreement with density functional theory calculations. The structure of the copper complex displays the planar aromatic nature of the bpy–oxadiazole ligand ...


Concise Synthesis Of Α-Substituted 2-Benzofuranmethamines And Other 2-Subsituted Benzofurans Via Α-Substituted 2-Benzofuranmethyl Carbocation Intermediates, Nikhom Wongsa, Ubonta Sommart, Thunwadee Ritthiwigrom, Arife Yazici, Somdej Kanokmedhakul, Kwanjai Kanokmedhakul, Anthony C. Willis, Stephen G. Pyne Jan 2013

Concise Synthesis Of Α-Substituted 2-Benzofuranmethamines And Other 2-Subsituted Benzofurans Via Α-Substituted 2-Benzofuranmethyl Carbocation Intermediates, Nikhom Wongsa, Ubonta Sommart, Thunwadee Ritthiwigrom, Arife Yazici, Somdej Kanokmedhakul, Kwanjai Kanokmedhakul, Anthony C. Willis, Stephen G. Pyne

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Propargyl amines 4, where R3 is aryl, undergo 5-exo-dig cyclization reactions under relatively mild conditions (AgNO3, DMF, 60 °C, 1 h) to give 3-amino-2,3-dihydro-2-arylmethylidenebenzofurans 5 (R3 = aryl). In contrast, substrates where R3 is alkyl undergo competing 6-endo-dig and 5-exo-dig cyclization processes. The hydroxymethyl substrate 4 (R3 = CH2OH), however, was smoothly converted to its corresponding 5-exo-dig cyclization product 5, likely due to the assistance of the primary hydroxyl group in the 5-exo-dig cyclization process by silver cation coordination. Under more enforcing conditions (AgNO3, DMF, 100 °C, 18 h), the initially formed products 5 undergo a 1,3-allylic rearrangement to their ...


Genetic Research Shows Single Approach To Obesity Won't Work, Arthur Jenkins, Lesley V. Campbell Jan 2013

Genetic Research Shows Single Approach To Obesity Won't Work, Arthur Jenkins, Lesley V. Campbell

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The holy grail of obesity research is a simple, single solution that could stem the tide of this epidemic. But research we published in PLOS ONE today shows that this is an implausible, if not impossible, goal.


Final Frontiers: The Deep Sea, Andrew R. Davis Jan 2013

Final Frontiers: The Deep Sea, Andrew R. Davis

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

With the global population now well over seven billion people there are few remaining parts of the world relatively untouched by human activity. We assess the current state and future prospects of five final frontiers: rainforests, Antarctica, the Arctic, the deep sea and space.


Carbon Farming Could Restore Australia's Southern Coastal Wetlands, Catherine Lovelock, Justine Bell, Kerrylee Rogers Jan 2013

Carbon Farming Could Restore Australia's Southern Coastal Wetlands, Catherine Lovelock, Justine Bell, Kerrylee Rogers

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Australia's southern coastal wetlands are more diverse than most people realise. In a recent paper, Paul Boon suggests they provide valuable ecological services that exceed those of inland wetland ecosystems. But these wetlands face enormous pressures from urban development and climate change. Fifty percent of coastal wetlands have been lost from the east coast of Australia.


Reducing Bushfire Risk: Don't Forget The Science, Owen Price Jan 2013

Reducing Bushfire Risk: Don't Forget The Science, Owen Price

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The early start to the bushfire season in NSW - 80 fires were burning yesterday across the state - will prompt many rural residents and the fire authorities to worry about whether this summer will see a repeat of last season's drama in NSW or the terrifying ferocity of the 2009 Victorian bushfires.


Effect Of Doll Therapy In Managing Challenging Behaviours In People With Dementia: A Systematic Review Protocol, Ritin Fernandez, Bronwyn Arthur, Richard Fleming Jan 2013

Effect Of Doll Therapy In Managing Challenging Behaviours In People With Dementia: A Systematic Review Protocol, Ritin Fernandez, Bronwyn Arthur, Richard Fleming

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Review question/objective What is the effect of doll therapy on challenging behaviors (including agitation and verbal or physical aggression) in patients with dementia? Inclusion criteria Types of participants Adults (age >18years) diagnosed with dementia and living in any care setting will be included. Adults with dementia receiving antipsychotics will also be included and analyzed separately. Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest This review will include studies that evaluate the effects of giving dolls to persons with dementia for the management of BPSD. The review will include doll therapy delivered by either health professionals or carers. Studies will be ...


What Are The Effects Of Spending Time Outdoors In Daylight On The Physical Health Of Older People And Family Carers: A Systematic Review Protocol, Victoria Traynor, Ritin Fernandez, Katherine Caldwell Jan 2013

What Are The Effects Of Spending Time Outdoors In Daylight On The Physical Health Of Older People And Family Carers: A Systematic Review Protocol, Victoria Traynor, Ritin Fernandez, Katherine Caldwell

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Review question/objective The overall objective of this research is to undertake a systematic review of the effects of spending time outdoors in daylight on the physical health of older adults and family carers. The specific questions to be addressed are: Which aspects of physical health are affected by spending time outdoors in daylight for older adults and family carers? To what extent is spending time outdoors in daylight effective for improving aspects of physical health in older adults and family carers?


Fine-Grained Climate Data Alters The Interpretation Of A Trait-Based Cline, John R. Gollan, Michael B. Ashcroft, Daniel Ramp Jan 2013

Fine-Grained Climate Data Alters The Interpretation Of A Trait-Based Cline, John R. Gollan, Michael B. Ashcroft, Daniel Ramp

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Investigating responses to climate often rely on macroclimatic models. This is problematic because of the potential to miss or wrongly attribute relationships. Here we compare the explanatory power of macroclimatic models and near-surface topoclimatic models. Body-size measurements of the ant species, Iridomyrmex purpureus, were collected from separate colonies spanning a range of climatic conditions in a large region (∼75,000 km2) of Australia. Regional regression was used to derive two topoclimatic variables, while ANUCLIM was used to derive macroclimatic variables. Relationships were tested using linear mixed-effect models with Akaike information criterion used as an indication of the relative goodness of ...


Moisture, Thermal Inertia, And The Spatial Distributions Of Near-Surface Soil And Air Temperatures: Understanding Factors That Promote Microrefugia, Michael B. Ashcroft, John R. Gollan Jan 2013

Moisture, Thermal Inertia, And The Spatial Distributions Of Near-Surface Soil And Air Temperatures: Understanding Factors That Promote Microrefugia, Michael B. Ashcroft, John R. Gollan

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Climate change poses significant threats to biodiversity, but some species may be able to escape its effects in small locations with unusual and stable climates (microrefugia). However, there are still great uncertainties about where microrefugia are located, and the exact role that moisture plays in buffering extreme temperatures. In this study we quantified the effects of moisture on the distribution and variability of near-surface soil and air temperatures. We collected hourly 1 cm soil and 5 cm air temperatures and humidities at 111 sites from May 2011 to March 2012. Sites were diverse in terms of elevation (2-1428 m), distance ...


The Sensitivity Of Topoclimatic Models To Fine-Scale Microclimatic Variability And The Relevance For Ecological Studies, Michael B. Ashcroft, John R. Gollan Jan 2013

The Sensitivity Of Topoclimatic Models To Fine-Scale Microclimatic Variability And The Relevance For Ecological Studies, Michael B. Ashcroft, John R. Gollan

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Microclimatic loggers are increasingly used to collect data from various habitats and interpolate ecologically meaningful landscape-scale topoclimatic grids. However, it is unknown how sensitive these grids are to finer-scale variations in microclimate. We performed a sensitivity analysis using three microclimatic loggers at 27 sites for 5 months in a semi-arid region of Western Australia. We partitioned the within- and between-site variance in temperature and produced 100 different topoclimatic models using a random sensor from each site. For the coldest temperatures, we found within-site variance was negligible (3 %), and models were strong (r 2 = 0.74) and the coefficients consistent. However ...


Importance Of Matrix Permeability And Quantity Of Core Habitat For Persistence Of A Threatened Saltmarsh Bird, Michael B. Ashcroft, Richard E. Major Jan 2013

Importance Of Matrix Permeability And Quantity Of Core Habitat For Persistence Of A Threatened Saltmarsh Bird, Michael B. Ashcroft, Richard E. Major

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Species habitat preferences can be obscured when individuals have been recorded in non-core habitats because of dispersal, spillover effects or spatial errors in observation locations. Disentangling the direct effects of the habitats species are observed in from the effects of proximity to other nearby habitats is especially challenging in fragmented landscapes, as many fragmentation metrics are correlated and it is difficult to prove independent effects. In this paper we addressed this issue by comparing a number of models based on predefined ecological theories. We compared models based on quantity of core habitat surrounding observations, proximity to core habitat, or a ...


Real-Time Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals A Direct Interaction Between Uvrc And Uvrb On Dna Tightropes, Craig D. Hughes, Hong Wang, Harshad Ghodke, Michelle Simons, Atif Towheed, Ye Peng, Bennett Van Houten, Neil M. Kad Jan 2013

Real-Time Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals A Direct Interaction Between Uvrc And Uvrb On Dna Tightropes, Craig D. Hughes, Hong Wang, Harshad Ghodke, Michelle Simons, Atif Towheed, Ye Peng, Bennett Van Houten, Neil M. Kad

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Nucleotide excision DNA repair is mechanistically conserved across all kingdoms of life. In prokaryotes, this multi-enzyme process requires six proteins: UvrA-D, DNA polymerase I and DNA ligase. To examine how UvrC locates the UvrB-DNA pre-incision complex at a site of damage, we have labeled UvrB and UvrC with different colored quantum dots and quantitatively observed their interactions with DNA tightropes under a variety of solution conditions using oblique angle fluorescence imaging. Alone, UvrC predominantly interacts statically with DNA at low salt. Surprisingly, however, UvrC and UvrB together in solution bind to form the previously unseen UvrBC complex on duplex DNA ...