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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Work Stress Reactivity And Health Outcomes: A Study Of Nurses, Laurie Marie Jacobs Dec 2013

Work Stress Reactivity And Health Outcomes: A Study Of Nurses, Laurie Marie Jacobs

Dissertations and Theses

Negative events encountered in daily life influence individual well-being. Individuals vary in their reactivity to these events, the extent to which they are behaviorally, physiologically, and psychologically influenced by them (Almeida, 2005; Neupert, Almeida, & Charles, 2007). Reactivity to events in the form of changes in health behavior could represent either an attempt at coping (Cooper, Frone, Russell, & Mudar, 1995) or a stressor-related failure of self-control (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000). Such changes in behavior could have later effects on health.

Although a great deal of attention has been paid to both the immediate and long-term effects of stressors on individuals, little is understood about the potential relationship between these immediate and long-term consequences. Exploration of this connection could not only expand the understanding of the relationships between stressors, behavior, and well-being, but also inform intervention strategies.

One important domain in which stressors occur is work; certain occupations such as nursing expose individuals to a greater likelihood of experiencing stressors simply by nature of the tasks and/or environment involved. As a nursing shortage continues, stress is in fact one of the most-often cited reasons for nurses to leave the profession (Cangelosi, Markham, & Bounds, 1998). Using a sample drawn from the Oregon Nurse Retention Project and the relatively novel statistical method of slopes-as-predictors, I examined the relationships between work stressors and nurses' health behaviors (alcohol consumption, diet, exercise) and then used those relationships as predictors of follow-up outcomes (depression, life satisfaction, perceived health).

Significant variability was found for five combinations of stressors and health behaviors, indicating that varying patterns of health behavior reactivity were indeed present in this sample; moreover four of those five stressor-behavior (reactivity) slopes emerged as significant predictors of later health and well-being. Notably, reactivity ...


Emotion Regulation And Strain In Corrections Officers: Examining The Role Of Recovery Experiences And Coping Mechanisms, Frankie Guros Aug 2013

Emotion Regulation And Strain In Corrections Officers: Examining The Role Of Recovery Experiences And Coping Mechanisms, Frankie Guros

Dissertations and Theses

Research has begun to identify recovery experiences during nonwork time as an important mechanism explaining the relationship between job characteristics and strain (Geurts & Sonnentag, 2006; Kinnunen, Feldt, Siltaloppi, Sonnentag, 2011). Corrections officers face challenges unique to their occupation (Armstrong & Griffin, 2004) that may contribute to the high levels of strain that currently characterize their occupation (i.e., short life expectancy, high suicide rates; Spinaris & Denhof, 2011; Stack & Tsoudis, 1997). Though previous research has not examined emotion regulation, recovery experiences, and coping within corrections officers, these constructs may be of particular importance to an occupation that requires employees to navigate the complex demands of managing an incarcerated population of individuals. Emotion regulation - managing one's emotions - is an important aspect of many jobs, and has been linked with employee ...