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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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2013

Dissertations and Theses

Medicine and Health Sciences

Institution
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Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Factors Influencing Youth Self-Perceptions Of Overweight And Obesity, Caitlin Helen Sommers Dec 2013

Factors Influencing Youth Self-Perceptions Of Overweight And Obesity, Caitlin Helen Sommers

Dissertations and Theses

This study sought to examine whether participation in physical activity affects the ability to correctly classify body size, based on body mass index classifications. Secondarily, this study determined whether adolescents who incorrectly classified their body size overestimated or underestimated their size. Self-report data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were analyzed. Logistic regression was performed to examine relationships between self-perception of body size and physical activity, television viewing time, computer/video game use, physical education class time, and extracurricular sports activities. Significance was set to p<0.05. Physical activity was the only statistically significant independent variable (p=0.058, OR = 1.060). Although physical activity was shown to be statistically significant, it did not appear to meaningfully increase the ability of youth to correctly classify body size. Secondary analysis showed that adolescents who incorrectly classified their body size were more likely to underestimate their body size. Females more frequently underestimated their body size (females=673; males=384).


Exploring The Effects Of Multi-Level Protective And Risk Factors On Child And Parenting Outcomes In Families Participating In Healthy Start/Healthy Families Oregon (Hs/Hfo), Peggy Nygren Dec 2013

Exploring The Effects Of Multi-Level Protective And Risk Factors On Child And Parenting Outcomes In Families Participating In Healthy Start/Healthy Families Oregon (Hs/Hfo), Peggy Nygren

Dissertations and Theses

While many studies focus on the links between multiple risk factors and negative outcomes such as child maltreatment, less is known about the influence of protective factors in the face of risks. The theoretical base of this study was a social ecological model of interactive influences including individual parent, family, and neighborhood level factors to predict outcomes. Protective Factor Index (PFI) and Risk Factor Index (RFI) predictors were developed to explore potential multi-level protective factor buffering effects on key child development and parenting outcomes. Participants were first time mothers enrolled in a randomized controlled study of the Healthy Start/ Healthy ...


Work Stress Reactivity And Health Outcomes: A Study Of Nurses, Laurie Marie Jacobs Dec 2013

Work Stress Reactivity And Health Outcomes: A Study Of Nurses, Laurie Marie Jacobs

Dissertations and Theses

Negative events encountered in daily life influence individual well-being. Individuals vary in their reactivity to these events, the extent to which they are behaviorally, physiologically, and psychologically influenced by them (Almeida, 2005; Neupert, Almeida, & Charles, 2007). Reactivity to events in the form of changes in health behavior could represent either an attempt at coping (Cooper, Frone, Russell, & Mudar, 1995) or a stressor-related failure of self-control (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000). Such changes in behavior could have later effects on health.

Although a great deal of attention has been paid to both the immediate and long-term effects of stressors on individuals, little is understood about the potential relationship between these immediate and long-term consequences. Exploration of this connection could not only expand the understanding of the relationships between stressors, behavior, and well-being, but also inform intervention strategies.

One important domain in which stressors occur is work; certain occupations such as nursing expose individuals to a greater likelihood of experiencing stressors simply by nature of the tasks and/or environment involved. As a nursing shortage continues, stress is in fact one of the most-often cited reasons for nurses to leave the profession (Cangelosi, Markham, & Bounds, 1998). Using a sample drawn from the Oregon Nurse Retention Project and the relatively novel statistical method of slopes-as-predictors, I examined the relationships between work stressors and nurses' health behaviors (alcohol consumption, diet, exercise) and then used those relationships as predictors of follow-up outcomes (depression, life satisfaction, perceived health).

Significant variability was found for five combinations of stressors and health behaviors, indicating that varying patterns of health behavior reactivity were indeed present in this sample; moreover four of those five stressor-behavior (reactivity) slopes emerged as significant predictors of later health and well-being. Notably, reactivity ...


Batterer Intervention Programs' Response To State Standards, Ashley Lynn Boal Dec 2013

Batterer Intervention Programs' Response To State Standards, Ashley Lynn Boal

Dissertations and Theses

The study of policy implementation has recently garnered research and federal attention highlighting the importance of implementation in achieving desired policy and program outcomes (Durlak & DuPre, 2008; Meyers, Durlak & Wandersman, 2012; National Institutes of Health, 2013). Psychology is one discipline that is well poised to guide the study of policy implementation as it can inform the creation, development, and outcomes associated with the introduction of a policy (Esses & Dovidio, 2011; Fischhoff, 1990). Given that batterer intervention programs (BIPs) have been developed to prevent future intimate partner violence (IPV) and improve victim safety, ensuring these programs have successfully implemented state standards for practice is immensely important. Despite ...


The Impacts Of Change In Governance On Faculty And Staff At Higher Education Institutions: A Case Study Of Ohsu, Dana L. Director Nov 2013

The Impacts Of Change In Governance On Faculty And Staff At Higher Education Institutions: A Case Study Of Ohsu, Dana L. Director

Dissertations and Theses

In the early 1990s, Oregon Health and Science University leadership examined the political and economic landscape and determined it needed a new operational model to survive and thrive. In 1995 OHSU separated from the state higher education system and became a public corporation, with goals of increased efficiency, customer-focus, ability to attract world-class researchers and physicians, and salaries commensurate with an urban academic health center.

This research examines the internal impacts when universities undergo significant change, using OHSU's governance change as a case study. Central is the question: what effect(s) did OHSU's decision to become a unique ...


Bringing Functional Family Probation Services To The Community: A Qualitative Case Study, Denise Lynmarie Austin Oct 2013

Bringing Functional Family Probation Services To The Community: A Qualitative Case Study, Denise Lynmarie Austin

Dissertations and Theses

In March 2011, Multnomah County's Juvenile Services Division (JSD) in Portland, Oregon implemented a new program model called Functional Family Probation Services, a case management model based on the principles of Functional Family Therapy. Under this model JSD Juvenile Court Counselors deliver Functional Family Probation Services to medium and high-risk youth on probation; both to the youth and their family in their home. This qualitative case study examined the extent to which the Juvenile Court Counselors and Community Justice Managers implemented Functional Family Probation Service's components and recorded their opinions regarding Functional Family Probation Services as a case ...


"Who Would Have Thought, With A Diagnosis Like This, I Would Be Happy?": Portraits Of Perceived Strengths And Resources In Early-Stage Dementia, Jutta Elisabeth Ataie Aug 2013

"Who Would Have Thought, With A Diagnosis Like This, I Would Be Happy?": Portraits Of Perceived Strengths And Resources In Early-Stage Dementia, Jutta Elisabeth Ataie

Dissertations and Theses

This study used photovoice methodology to explore how people with early-stage dementia use their perceived strength and resources to cope with the illness. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants. Thirteen women and seven men age 57 to 90 (mean 73.4) with MMSE scores ranging from 20 to 28 (mean 25.6) participated in the project. Participants were provided with a disposable camera and invited to take photographs relevant to their well-being. The photographs provided the means for participants to take the lead in dialogue sessions about their coping response.

Grounded theory analysis revealed that initially, early-stage dementia precipitated ...


Metaphor Use In Interpersonal Communication Of Body Perception In The Context Of Breast Cancer, Jennifer Mary Fillion Jul 2013

Metaphor Use In Interpersonal Communication Of Body Perception In The Context Of Breast Cancer, Jennifer Mary Fillion

Dissertations and Theses

Female breast cancer patients are often confused, frustrated, and devastated by changes occurring in their bodies and the treatment process. Many women express frustration and concern with the inability to know what the next phases of their life will bring. Previous research also states that many women struggle to communicate with others about treatment as well as side effects. This research examined how woman are use metaphors to describe their experience with breast cancer, specifically throughout the treatment period related to body image struggles. I qualitatively conducted interviews with women who were either currently in treatment or just finishing. My ...


The Historical, Political, Social, And Individual Factors That Have Influenced The Development Of Aging And Disability Resource Centers And Options Counseling, Sheryl Dejoy Elliott Jul 2013

The Historical, Political, Social, And Individual Factors That Have Influenced The Development Of Aging And Disability Resource Centers And Options Counseling, Sheryl Dejoy Elliott

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis reports on the perspectives and experiences of policymakers, advocates, agency supervisors, and experts in the field of gerontology, about the development of Aging and Disability Resource Centers (ADRC) programs and Options Counseling (OC). By examining the foundations upon which ADRCs and OC are built, this study sought to inform future research about the effectiveness of existing practice, increase understanding of best practices, and clarify whether these emerging services are accomplishing original goals.

ADRCs and OC intend to address long-term care issues and healthcare needs by providing a single entry point to the social service system. ADRCs offer information ...


The Identification And Classification Of Flow Disruptions In The Operating Room During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy And Open Hernia Repair Procedures, Sacha N. Duff Jul 2013

The Identification And Classification Of Flow Disruptions In The Operating Room During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy And Open Hernia Repair Procedures, Sacha N. Duff

Dissertations and Theses

The operating room is one of the most complex work environments in healthcare; it is estimated that at least 7% of adverse events due to medical error occur in the operating room. Flow disruptions are events that cause a "break" in the primary surgical task, or the loss of any team member's situational awareness. An empirical link between flow disruptions and surgical errors in the OR has been established; therefore, identifying and classifying the specific flow disruptions present during different types of procedures should facilitate the development of evidence-based interventions. The goal of this study was to identify and ...


International And Domestic Student Health-Information Seeking And Satisfaction, Stacy Theodora Austin Mar 2013

International And Domestic Student Health-Information Seeking And Satisfaction, Stacy Theodora Austin

Dissertations and Theses

This study examines two groups -international and domestic students at Portland State University (PSU) - in terms of their motivations to seek university-health services, and their satisfaction with university-health services. The Theory of Motivated Information Management (W. A. Afifi & Weiner, 2004) served as the foundation for this study to examine the preferences of students in terms of the ways they seek information about their health concerns. Differences in international and domestic students' anxiety, efficacy, and satisfaction with physicians were supported. International students reported more anxiety than domestic students. Domestic students reported being more efficacious than international students when talking to a ...


Exploring Four Barriers Experienced By African Americans In Healthcare: Perceived Discrimination, Medical Mistrust, Race Discordance, And Poor Communication, Adolfo Gabriel Cuevas Jan 2013

Exploring Four Barriers Experienced By African Americans In Healthcare: Perceived Discrimination, Medical Mistrust, Race Discordance, And Poor Communication, Adolfo Gabriel Cuevas

Dissertations and Theses

For many health conditions, African Americans bear a disproportionate burden of disease, injury, death, and disability compared to European Americans. African Americans also use health services less frequently than do European Americans and this underuse of services contributes to health disparities in the United States. Studies have shown that some disparities are present not as a result of poor access to care, but, to a certain extent, as a result of the experiences patients have at their doctors' offices. It is, therefore, essential to understand African American patients' perspectives and experiences with healthcare providers. Past studies have shown that four ...


Empowerment In Community-Based Participatory Research With Persons With Developmental Disabilities: Perspectives Of Community Researchers, Erin Elizabeth Stack Jan 2013

Empowerment In Community-Based Participatory Research With Persons With Developmental Disabilities: Perspectives Of Community Researchers, Erin Elizabeth Stack

Dissertations and Theses

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a research approach that benefits from the expertise of community members being involved in the research along all stages of a project (Israel et al., 2003). CBPR is often utilized with marginalized populations in order to amplify a community's voice on important issues in their lives (Bastida, Tseng, McKeever, & Jack, 2010; Minkler & Wallerstein, 2008). In the past, persons with disability have been excluded from research in order to protect them from exploitation. This practice of exclusion undermines opportunities for persons with disabilities to be independent and make decisions that are important for themselves and their communities. Exclusion also limits the generation of new knowledge that can benefit them (McDonald & Keys, 2008). Through involvement on a CBPR project, persons with disabilities are given the opportunity to become empowered within the context of the project (Atkinson, 2004; Oden, Hernandez, & Hidalgo, 2010). This study examined empowerment definitions, evolution of empowerment definitions, and facilitators and barriers to community partners with and without disabilities becoming empowered through their work on a CBPR project. Overall, community partners' definitions of empowerment related to individual and setting-level ...