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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

"Do Not Disturb": A Micro-Macro Examination Of Intrusions At Work, Bing Chun Lin Nov 2013

"Do Not Disturb": A Micro-Macro Examination Of Intrusions At Work, Bing Chun Lin

Dissertations and Theses

Intrusions, or interruptions by others, are a common phenomenon in the modern workplace (Grove, 1983; Jett & George, 2003), particularly in the computing and information-technology (CIT) industry, as cross-specialty, and cross-team collaborations become more common (Beck et al., 2001). The present study examines the relationship between day-to-day intrusions (measured Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday) and strain reactions and perceived job performance over the week (measured on Thursday) among 150 CIT employees. Using a number of resource-based theories (i.e., Conservation of Resources, Ego Depletion Model, Cognitive Fatigue Model), I hypothesize that participants experiencing more frequent intrusions on a day-to-day basis will experience greater levels of overall strain reactions (i.e., fatigue, self-regulation failure, and cognitive failure), and lower levels of overall perceived job performance for the week. To test these hypotheses, I applied a micro-macro multi-wave design, such that intrusions were measured at the end of three consecutive workdays (Level-1 Predictors) and strain reactions and performance measured on the fourth day (Level-2 Outcomes). Using Structural Equation Modeling and the technique put forth by Croon and van Veldhoven (2007), I specified four models to test my hypotheses, wherein level-1 variables (i.e., day-to-day intrusions) predicted level-2 outcomes (i.e., week-level fatigue, self-regulation failure, cognitive failure, and perceived performance).

I found that day-to-day intrusions were significantly positively associated with fatigue, self-regulation failure, and perceived performance. However, day-to-day intrusions were not significantly associated with cognitive failure. These results suggest that intrusions may consume time and self-regulatory resources but may not consume cognitive resources, and that although intrusions cause impairment from a physical and self-regulatory perspective, they may not inhibit cognitive functioning. Future research should further investigate the relationship between intrusions and cognitive functioning. The present study is one of the first to explicitly study intrusions and recognize it as a stressor that influences both strain and performance variables. This is critical as intrusions become a more prominent fixture in the American workplace. This study also contributes to our understanding of the use of micro-macro approaches to statistical analyses, and provides additional insight into how occupational health psychologists can test long-held assumptions; namely day-to-day stressors contribute to long-term strain.


Emotion Regulation And Strain In Corrections Officers: Examining The Role Of Recovery Experiences And Coping Mechanisms, Frankie Guros Aug 2013

Emotion Regulation And Strain In Corrections Officers: Examining The Role Of Recovery Experiences And Coping Mechanisms, Frankie Guros

Dissertations and Theses

Research has begun to identify recovery experiences during nonwork time as an important mechanism explaining the relationship between job characteristics and strain (Geurts & Sonnentag, 2006; Kinnunen, Feldt, Siltaloppi, Sonnentag, 2011). Corrections officers face challenges unique to their occupation (Armstrong & Griffin, 2004) that may contribute to the high levels of strain that currently characterize their occupation (i.e., short life expectancy, high suicide rates; Spinaris & Denhof, 2011; Stack & Tsoudis, 1997). Though previous research has not examined emotion regulation, recovery experiences, and coping within corrections officers, these constructs may be of particular importance to an occupation that requires employees to navigate the complex demands of managing an incarcerated population of individuals. Emotion regulation - managing one's emotions - is an important aspect of many jobs, and has been linked with employee ...


Work Design Characteristics As Moderators Of The Relationship Between Proactive Personality And Engagement, Damon Thomas Drown Jun 2013

Work Design Characteristics As Moderators Of The Relationship Between Proactive Personality And Engagement, Damon Thomas Drown

Dissertations and Theses

This study examines which and how trait relevant work design characteristics moderate the relationship between proactive personality and engagement. Proactive personality is defined as an individual's tendency to intentionally and directly affect change in their environment (Bateman & Crant, 1993; Crant, 2000). Previous research has been primarily focused on the positive aspects of proactive personality; to fill this gap, I used trait activation theory (Tett & Burnett, 2003) to identify which work characteristics will activate proactive personality to affect engagement and developed specific hypotheses about which work characteristics will attenuate the proactive personality engagement relationship. In the study I identified five work characteristics ...


Attitudes Toward Science (Ats): An Examination Of Scientists' And Native Americans' Cultural Values And Ats And Their Effect On Action Priorities, Adam T. Murry Apr 2013

Attitudes Toward Science (Ats): An Examination Of Scientists' And Native Americans' Cultural Values And Ats And Their Effect On Action Priorities, Adam T. Murry

Dissertations and Theses

Science has been identified as a crucial element in the competitiveness and sustainability of America in the global economy. American citizens, especially minority populations, however, are not pursuing science education or careers. Past research has implicated `attitudes toward science' as an important factor in the public's participation in science. I applied Ajzen's (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior to attitudes toward science to predict science-related sustainability-action intentions and evaluated whether scientists and Native Americans differed in their general attitudes toward science, cultural values, and specific beliefs about science. Analyses revealed that positive attitude toward science and the cultural value ...


Examining The Mechanisms Of The Work-Nonwork Boundary Fit And Health Relationship, Jenna Risa Lecomte-Hinely Feb 2013

Examining The Mechanisms Of The Work-Nonwork Boundary Fit And Health Relationship, Jenna Risa Lecomte-Hinely

Dissertations and Theses

This study examined the construct of work-nonwork boundary fit, or the congruence between an individual's work-nonwork boundary management preferences and the work-nonwork boundary management policies and practices supplied by their employer. The present study used boundary theory and person-environment (P-E) fit theory to propose that high levels of work-nonwork boundary fit would be beneficial to mental and physical health, both directly and indirectly via the dual mechanisms of conflict and enhancement. Survey methods and latent congruence modeling (LCM) were used to test these hypotheses, which were then supplemented by polynomial regression response surface mapping and qualitative analysis. Results showed ...


Supervisor-Subordinate Directional Age Differences And Employee Reactions To Formal Performance Feedback: Examining Mediating And Moderating Mechanisms In A Chinese Sample, Gabriela Burlacu Feb 2013

Supervisor-Subordinate Directional Age Differences And Employee Reactions To Formal Performance Feedback: Examining Mediating And Moderating Mechanisms In A Chinese Sample, Gabriela Burlacu

Dissertations and Theses

As a result of changing demographic trends in today's workforce, employees of all ages can now be found in all career stages. Consequently, the pairing of a younger supervisor with a relatively older employee is becoming increasingly more common. Research in the United States has shown that such demographically "non-normative" pairings have negative implications for employee attitudes and behaviors, and thus for employee performance management. However, little is known about the effects of such pairings in other nations and cultures, despite the fact that these demographic shifts are occurring on a global level. As such, this study examined the ...


Integrating Leader Fairness And Leader-Member Exchange In Predicting Work Engagement: A Contingency Approach, Fangyi Liao-Holbrook Jan 2013

Integrating Leader Fairness And Leader-Member Exchange In Predicting Work Engagement: A Contingency Approach, Fangyi Liao-Holbrook

Dissertations and Theses

Growing research attention has been devoted to understanding the implications of work engagement with an emphasis on its motivational mechanism linking its antecedents to consequences. Findings from such research efforts could inform intervention efforts. Integrating organizational justice theories within the leadership framework, this study examined the effects of supervisory interactional justice and supervisory procedural justice on subordinates' work engagement. Based on survey responses from 352 Chinese employees collected at two time points with three months in-between, moderated regression analyses were conducted to test hypotheses that there is a direct positive effect of supervisory interactional justice and supervisory procedural justice on ...


Horizontal Workplace Aggression And Coworker Social Support Related To Work-Family Conflict And Turnover Intentions, Sarah Elizabeth Van Dyck Jan 2013

Horizontal Workplace Aggression And Coworker Social Support Related To Work-Family Conflict And Turnover Intentions, Sarah Elizabeth Van Dyck

Dissertations and Theses

Horizontal workplace aggression is a workplace stressor that can have serious negative outcomes for employees and organizations. In the current study, hierarchical regression analyses were used to investigate the hypotheses that horizontal workplace aggression has a relationship with turnover intentions, work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict. Coworker social support was investigated as a potential moderator in these relationships. Surveys measuring these constructs were administered to a group of 156 direct-care workers (specifically, certified nursing assistants, or CNAs) in a long-term assisted living facility corporation in the Northwestern United States. Results indicated that horizontal workplace aggression had a significant and positive relationship ...