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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Factors Influencing Youth Self-Perceptions Of Overweight And Obesity, Caitlin Helen Sommers Dec 2013

Factors Influencing Youth Self-Perceptions Of Overweight And Obesity, Caitlin Helen Sommers

Dissertations and Theses

This study sought to examine whether participation in physical activity affects the ability to correctly classify body size, based on body mass index classifications. Secondarily, this study determined whether adolescents who incorrectly classified their body size overestimated or underestimated their size. Self-report data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were analyzed. Logistic regression was performed to examine relationships between self-perception of body size and physical activity, television viewing time, computer/video game use, physical education class time, and extracurricular sports activities. Significance was set to p<0.05. Physical activity was the only statistically significant independent variable (p=0.058, OR = 1.060). Although physical activity was shown to be statistically significant, it did not appear to meaningfully increase the ability of youth to correctly classify body size. Secondary analysis showed that adolescents who incorrectly classified their body size were more likely to underestimate their body size. Females more frequently underestimated their body size (females=673; males=384).


Work Stress Reactivity And Health Outcomes: A Study Of Nurses, Laurie Marie Jacobs Dec 2013

Work Stress Reactivity And Health Outcomes: A Study Of Nurses, Laurie Marie Jacobs

Dissertations and Theses

Negative events encountered in daily life influence individual well-being. Individuals vary in their reactivity to these events, the extent to which they are behaviorally, physiologically, and psychologically influenced by them (Almeida, 2005; Neupert, Almeida, & Charles, 2007). Reactivity to events in the form of changes in health behavior could represent either an attempt at coping (Cooper, Frone, Russell, & Mudar, 1995) or a stressor-related failure of self-control (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000). Such changes in behavior could have later effects on health.

Although a great deal of attention has been paid to both the immediate and long-term effects of stressors on individuals, little is understood about the potential relationship between these immediate and long-term consequences. Exploration of this connection could not only expand the understanding of the relationships between stressors, behavior, and well-being, but also inform intervention strategies.

One important domain in which stressors occur is work; certain occupations such as nursing expose individuals to a greater likelihood of experiencing stressors simply by nature of the tasks and/or environment involved. As a nursing shortage continues, stress is in fact one of the most-often cited reasons for nurses to leave the profession (Cangelosi, Markham, & Bounds, 1998). Using a sample drawn from the Oregon Nurse Retention Project and the relatively novel statistical method of slopes-as-predictors, I examined the relationships between work stressors and nurses' health behaviors (alcohol consumption, diet, exercise) and then used those relationships as predictors of follow-up outcomes (depression, life satisfaction, perceived health).

Significant variability was found for five combinations of stressors and health behaviors, indicating that varying patterns of health behavior reactivity were indeed present in this sample; moreover four of those five stressor-behavior (reactivity) slopes emerged as significant predictors of later health and well-being. Notably, reactivity ...


The Identification And Classification Of Flow Disruptions In The Operating Room During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy And Open Hernia Repair Procedures, Sacha N. Duff Jul 2013

The Identification And Classification Of Flow Disruptions In The Operating Room During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy And Open Hernia Repair Procedures, Sacha N. Duff

Dissertations and Theses

The operating room is one of the most complex work environments in healthcare; it is estimated that at least 7% of adverse events due to medical error occur in the operating room. Flow disruptions are events that cause a "break" in the primary surgical task, or the loss of any team member's situational awareness. An empirical link between flow disruptions and surgical errors in the OR has been established; therefore, identifying and classifying the specific flow disruptions present during different types of procedures should facilitate the development of evidence-based interventions. The goal of this study was to identify and ...


Effects Of Pack Weight On Endurance Of Long-Distance Hikers, Anthony T. Thomas Apr 2013

Effects Of Pack Weight On Endurance Of Long-Distance Hikers, Anthony T. Thomas

Dissertations and Theses

Hikers attempting long-distance trails, like the Appalachian Trail, load their backpacks down with gear that may exceed ideal limits on pack weight. Hikers pack clothing to deal with changing weather conditions, sleeping bags, tents, tarps, cooking gear, food, water and other accessories to compensate for the lack of comfort in the remote wilderness. These heavy weights may affect hikers' ability to walk in comfort and result in physical injuries such as ankle sprains, knee pain, muscular fatigue, and soft tissue damage. Heavy pack weights can cause injuries and possibly prevent hikers from completing long distance hikes.

This study evaluated pack ...