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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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2013

Dissertations

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Articles 1 - 30 of 148

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Advocates Of The Peace, A Qualitative Study Of Former Politically Motivated Female Prisoners And Conflict Resolution In Northern Ireland, Mary Mccourt Dec 2013

Advocates Of The Peace, A Qualitative Study Of Former Politically Motivated Female Prisoners And Conflict Resolution In Northern Ireland, Mary Mccourt

Dissertations

The Good Friday Agreement is extensively recognised and acknowledged as a successful model of conflict resolution. Prior to its implementation and in the aftermath of the agreement, former politically motivated female prisoners have been instrumental in securing support for the agreement and also sustaining the agreement in the grassroots communities in Northern Ireland. This study explores the roles in which former politically motivated female prisoners have undertaken in micro levels of conflict resolution and presents a gendered perspective of conflict resolution. Findings within this study reveal the grassroots activities of participants, which is aligned with preventing violence within interface communities ...


Diffusion Tensor Imaging In Hiv And Hepatitis C Coinfection, Jodi Michelle Heaps Dec 2013

Diffusion Tensor Imaging In Hiv And Hepatitis C Coinfection, Jodi Michelle Heaps

Dissertations

Previous studies have demonstrated that infection with both human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C (HCV) is associated with impaired cognitive function. It is unclear whether co-infection is associated with neuroimaging markers of brain dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to compare HIV+ individuals, HIV/HCV+ individuals, and seronegative controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the microstructural integrity of white matter tissue. Methods: Twenty-five HIV+ patients, 25 HIV/HCV+ patients, and 25 seronegative controls matched for age were included in the study. All participants completed an MRI session, neuropsychological testing, and an evaluation of clinical ...


How Do Specialized Units Affect The Outputs Of Police Organizations?: Investigating The Effect Of Community Policing Units On Community Policing Activities In Local Police Departments, Hyon Namgung Dec 2013

How Do Specialized Units Affect The Outputs Of Police Organizations?: Investigating The Effect Of Community Policing Units On Community Policing Activities In Local Police Departments, Hyon Namgung

Dissertations

A review of modern police history shows the trend of increased division of labor within police agencies. However, police organizations are often criticized for creating specialized police units when they are faced with specific problems or are not effectively tackling local problems. Other challenges from within the profession include potential inter-unit conflicts or indifference of officers from other units that may hinder program implementation by specialized units. The present study looked into the changing characteristics of specialized units within police departments between 2000 and 2007. This research also examined whether creation of specialized community policing units (CP Units) influences the ...


Lightning Strikes Twice: An Examination Of The Political Factors Associated With State-Level Death Sentences And Executions In The United States, 1930-2012, Ethan Christopher Amidon Dec 2013

Lightning Strikes Twice: An Examination Of The Political Factors Associated With State-Level Death Sentences And Executions In The United States, 1930-2012, Ethan Christopher Amidon

Dissertations

Over the course of the last 50 years, scholars have emphasized the role that political processes play in shaping the nature of capital punishment practices. Empirical studies that have examined the relationship between political factors and capital punishment have attributed variation in the imposition of death sentences and the execution of offenders across jurisdictions in the United States to the politicization of criminal justice policies and practices and the shift in public sentiment towards more punitive ideologies that began in the 1970s. Even though historians have argued that capital punishment practices have always been shaped by political considerations, empirical research ...


Role Breadth And Ocb: An Investigation Of Antecedents And Consequences, Kimberly M. Perry Dec 2013

Role Breadth And Ocb: An Investigation Of Antecedents And Consequences, Kimberly M. Perry

Dissertations

Two studies were conducted to further investigate how organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is conceptualized through the psychological mechanisms relating to OCB role definition, outcomes of OCB role definition, and the structure of OCB definition ratings. Previous research on OCB has suggested that organizational members have different perspectives, such that supervisors have a broader role definition than do their subordinates (Morrison, 1994). Study 1 tested a theoretical model using SEM that included the underlying psychological processes that relate to role breadth as well as individual-level and organizational-level outcome variables. The results supported a significant positive relationship between employee rated OCB definition ...


Coping Styles Among Individuals With Severe Mental Illness And Comorbid Ptsd, Shannon Ashley Mcneill Dec 2013

Coping Styles Among Individuals With Severe Mental Illness And Comorbid Ptsd, Shannon Ashley Mcneill

Dissertations

There is little known about the mechanisms by which persons with SMI cope with their stress, and virtually no research is available on the influence of comorbid PTSD (SMI-PTSD) on coping within the SMI population. The current study examined coping strategies utilized by individuals with SMI versus those with SMI-PTSD, while also investigating the role of PTSD symptom severity, overall psychological distress, and substance use on coping strategy usage. Participants included adults (N = 90) recruited through a metropolitan community mental health center, all describing current symptoms of an SMI, 48 of whom met criteria for SMI-PTSD. Results of this study ...


Connecting The Dots: Understanding Migration In The Context Of Other Periods Of The Annual Cycle, Kristina Lee Paxton Dec 2013

Connecting The Dots: Understanding Migration In The Context Of Other Periods Of The Annual Cycle, Kristina Lee Paxton

Dissertations

Migration is a fundamental characteristic of the life history of many organisms. Large-scale seasonal movements expose migratory species to an array of differing environmental conditions such that the ecology, behavior, and life history strategies of migratory species must balance selection pressures associated with each phase of the annual cycle. Therefore, scientists increasingly realize that to understand the ecology of a migratory species in any one phase of the annual cycle requires an understanding of how other phases may interact with and influence the period of interest. That said, following individuals throughout the year poses a serious challenge.

The focus of ...


A Comparison Of Behavioral And Academically-Focused Goals Within The Mystery Motivator: Effects On Disruptive Behavior And Academic Performance, Christina Michelle Hardy Dec 2013

A Comparison Of Behavioral And Academically-Focused Goals Within The Mystery Motivator: Effects On Disruptive Behavior And Academic Performance, Christina Michelle Hardy

Dissertations

Class-wide group contingencies are effective for decreasing inappropriate behavior and increasing academic performance. An interdependent group contingency, a subtype of group contingencies, sets a specific goal for performance across the class, and a reward is delivered only if the group meets the specified criterion. One interdependent group contingency, the Mystery Motivator, has been designed to target behavioral or academically-based goals; however these goals have guided the type of data collected. There are no published studies, to date, that compare behavioral and academic goals and the effects of each type of goal on both decreasing disruptive behavior as well as improving ...


The Relationship Between Perceived Servant Leadership Constructs And Collective Self-Esteem, Leann D. Howell Dec 2013

The Relationship Between Perceived Servant Leadership Constructs And Collective Self-Esteem, Leann D. Howell

Dissertations

Following Greenleaf’s (1977) seminal work in servant leadership, much has been written on the definition of servant leadership, but very little written on what it does. At the center of this research is a focus on how followers perceive servant leadership constructs/attributes, and the relationship between that perception and collective selfesteem as it relates to organizational membership. The central question guiding this research is: “Is there a relationship between perceived servant leadership constructs and collective self-esteem?” Followers’ perceptions of servant leadership constructs as defined by Patterson (2003) were investigated utilizing the Servant Leadership Assessment Instrument (SLAI) developed by ...


Predictive Admission Criteria In Graduate Programs In Speech-Language Pathology, Mary Lloyd Moore Dec 2013

Predictive Admission Criteria In Graduate Programs In Speech-Language Pathology, Mary Lloyd Moore

Dissertations

Speech-language pathology is a profession for which there is increasing demand as well as being one of the most desirable career paths in the United States. Graduation of qualified persons who can pass the Praxis exam is an essential outcome of all graduate programs in speech-language pathology. If predictors of competence could be identified before admission, graduate programs would be better able to select students who would maximize the expenditure of materials, energy, and expertise, thereby decreasing the potential failure for both students and universities. Therefore, this research addresses the extent to which selected variables may serve to predict success ...


A Comparative Analysis Of The Relationship Between Employee Perceptions Of An Organizational Leader's Commitment To Safety And Actual Injury Rates In A University Setting, David E. Oliver Dec 2013

A Comparative Analysis Of The Relationship Between Employee Perceptions Of An Organizational Leader's Commitment To Safety And Actual Injury Rates In A University Setting, David E. Oliver

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between employee perceptions of their supervisor’s commitment to safety (safety climate) and the actual rate of occupational injuries among the same employees. The study also aimed to examine the relationship between the employee perceptions of their supervisor’s leadership practices and the supervisor’s safety climate rating. In addition, this study examined the potential influence of employee demographic factors on their responses to survey questions. This research study sought to answer three primary questions: (1) Does a significant correlation exist between employee perceptions of his supervisor’s commitment to ...


The Effects On Students' Intercultural Competence From Intensive Intercultural Service-Learning Through The $100 Solution™ Model, Nadia De León Sautú Dec 2013

The Effects On Students' Intercultural Competence From Intensive Intercultural Service-Learning Through The $100 Solution™ Model, Nadia De León Sautú

Dissertations

This study evaluates the effects of an intensive intercultural service-learning program on the intercultural competence of undergraduate students enrolled in Cultural Diversity in the U.S., a general education course at Western Kentucky University. This program utilized The $100 Solution™ model, in which groups of students partnered with local immigrant and refugee families, to teach them about U.S. culture, learn about their cultures, and implement a project to assist them in their integration process. The program included two hours of out-of-classroom work for over twelve weeks. Through the principle of reciprocity, The $100 Solution™ model provided an interaction framework ...


Influences Of Tnt-Food Pairings On The Performance Of Mine Detection Rats In Early Training Stages, Timothy L. Edwards Dec 2013

Influences Of Tnt-Food Pairings On The Performance Of Mine Detection Rats In Early Training Stages, Timothy L. Edwards

Dissertations

Anti-Persoonsmijnen Ontmijnende Product Ontwikkeling (APOPO), a Belgian nongovernmental organization headquartered in Tanzania, trains giant African pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) to detect land mines and deploys the rats for operational use in countries afflicted with mines and explosive remnants of war. In the present study an evaluation of the influence of ongoing scent-food pairings on the performance of the rats in early mine detection training was conducted. Twenty young rats in APOPO’s mine detection rat program were divided into two groups and exposed to five daily stimulus-food pairing sessions each week. For the experimental group the stimulus was the scent ...


Exploring Police Active Shooter Preparedness In Michigan: A Grounded Study Of Police Preparedness To Active Shooter Incidents, Developing A Normative Model, Daryl Darwin Green Dec 2013

Exploring Police Active Shooter Preparedness In Michigan: A Grounded Study Of Police Preparedness To Active Shooter Incidents, Developing A Normative Model, Daryl Darwin Green

Dissertations

On September 22, 2013, at a memorial for people killed in a September 16, 2013 active shooter incident, President Barack Obama stated that the United States “can’t accept” the killing of 12 people at Washington’s Navy Yard as “inevitable” and that the shooting should “lead to some sort of transformation” (Merica, 2013). Active shooter incidents remain a constant societal concern that are deserving of continued academic research. The following grounded theory study examined the active shooter incident preparedness systems of police agencies in three Michigan counties. The principal investigator observed the strategic and tactical objectives of police agencies ...


Leadership Loss Within Independently-Controlled Protestant Churches: Protecting Against Leadership Turmoil And Turnover, Daniel L. Rundhaug Dec 2013

Leadership Loss Within Independently-Controlled Protestant Churches: Protecting Against Leadership Turmoil And Turnover, Daniel L. Rundhaug

Dissertations

Throughout leadership research, limited focus has been given to the highest levels within independently controlled Protestant churches. Specifically, what accounts for the quality of relationship that exists between the senior pastor (recognized as the CEO of the organization) and the governing board to which he or she is responsible? This study examines the leadership relationship issue through the lens of a complementary leadership approach using Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory with transformational leadership and transactional leadership theories. In addition, several other questions were asked to identify potential other independent variables that contribute to the quality of the relationship between the two ...


Hurting Leaders: The Lived Experiences Of African-American Clergy And Their Views, Attitudes, And Barriers To Help-Seeking, Bernice Suzette Patterson Dec 2013

Hurting Leaders: The Lived Experiences Of African-American Clergy And Their Views, Attitudes, And Barriers To Help-Seeking, Bernice Suzette Patterson

Dissertations

The help-seeking tendencies of African-Americans, as a whole, have long been a source of confusion to the field of counseling. Moreover, in the available literature on help-seeking, in the African-American community there is an apparent deficit of information on the help-seeking habits of its clergy members. Current literature focuses primarily on African-American clergy and their roles in facilitating the development of professional counseling relationships for their parishioners rather than on their ability to seek out professional counseling relationships for themselves.

The focus of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the lived experiences of African-American clergy related to ...


Evaluation Of Modafinil In Preclinical Behavioral Assays Of Abuse Liability, Amanda J. Quisenberry Dec 2013

Evaluation Of Modafinil In Preclinical Behavioral Assays Of Abuse Liability, Amanda J. Quisenberry

Dissertations

Modafinil is an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of narcolepsy with efficacy in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, and shift-work sleep disorder. Modafinil’s wake-promoting and cognitiveenhancing effects are reportedly similar to those of traditional psychostimulants, but without the side effects typically associated with these substances. Modafinil has also been investigated as an agonist replacement therapy for psychostimulant dependence, although results of clinical trials are equivocal. Few studies have examined its behavioral effects in combination with psychostimulants and the neuropharmacological actions of modafinil are not well understood. The primary aim of this study was to assess ...


A Qualitative Study Of Counselors Who Work With Spanish-Speaking Clients: Implications For Counselor Training And Practice, Daniel Rolando Romero Dec 2013

A Qualitative Study Of Counselors Who Work With Spanish-Speaking Clients: Implications For Counselor Training And Practice, Daniel Rolando Romero

Dissertations

The Spanish-speaking population in the United States is growing. As the population grows, need for competent mental health services may also expand. Counselors are currently underprepared to provide these services (Furman, 2006; Lebrón-Striker, 2012). The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of counselors who work with Spanish-speaking clients, focusing on their motivations, preparation and work experiences, and recommendations for counselor education.

Two groups were selected for this phenomenological study: Counselors who use interpreters (CWUI) and counselors who do not use interpreters (CWDNUI). Themes that emerged related to motivation included helping others, inspirational and affirmative experiences, vocational ...


Foreign Aid Effectiveness: Three Essays On Aid-For-Trade And Export Performance Of Developing Countries, Shanka Prasad Ghimire Dec 2013

Foreign Aid Effectiveness: Three Essays On Aid-For-Trade And Export Performance Of Developing Countries, Shanka Prasad Ghimire

Dissertations

This dissertation examines the effectiveness of foreign aid in enhancing international trade in developing countries. In that light, it presents three essays that focus on foreign aid targeted towards improving trade capacity of developing countries (Aid-for-Trade or AfT) and analyzes its impact on export performance of 121 AfT-recipient countries over a period of 16 years [1995-2010].

The first essay examines whether aggregate AfT helps aid recipients improve their aggregate export performance. The analysis using System-GMM shows a positive and significant impact of AfT on the level and growth of exports as well as export volume relative to GDP. These findings ...


The War Against Joblessness: U.S. Intervention In State Labor Markets In Response To Economic Recessions, Latasha Y. Chaffin Dec 2013

The War Against Joblessness: U.S. Intervention In State Labor Markets In Response To Economic Recessions, Latasha Y. Chaffin

Dissertations

In comparative political economy, nations whose governing institutions direct economic behavior towards the market are classified as liberal market economies, whereas those nations that direct economic behavior toward coordinated efforts between stakeholders, often amongst business, labor and the government, are categorized as coordinated market economies (Amberg 2008; Hall and Soskice 2001). In spite of the United States’ classification as a liberal market economy, during the recent global recession from 2007 to 2009, and in other critical times of economic decline such as the 1990–91 and 2001 recessions, the national government and state governments have mobilized their resources in order ...


Simo: Modeling And Measuring The Relationships Between Strategy, It/Mission Alignment Maturity And Nonprofit Organizational Outcomes, Kelly Ann Trusty Dec 2013

Simo: Modeling And Measuring The Relationships Between Strategy, It/Mission Alignment Maturity And Nonprofit Organizational Outcomes, Kelly Ann Trusty

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to adapt Croteau and Bergeron’s (2001) Information Technology Trilogy model and Luftman’s (2000) Strategic Alignment Maturity Model to the nonprofit sector and (2) to combine the adapted models with Miles and Snow’s (1978) strategy typology model and organizational performance measures based on McLaughlin and Jordan’s (2010) logic model to test a proposed model that examines the relationships between strategy typology, IT alignment maturity and organizational performance in nonprofit organizations. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented. One thousand, eight hundred and six organizations that had received grants from Indiana ...


Judicial Behavior And Litigant Success In Environmental Cases At The United States Court Of Appeals, Elizabeth Wheat Dec 2013

Judicial Behavior And Litigant Success In Environmental Cases At The United States Court Of Appeals, Elizabeth Wheat

Dissertations

This dissertation tests the legal model of judicial behavior and uses party capability, or litigant resource, theory to explain litigant success in the Court of Appeals for environmental cases and help understand the role litigant type and resources play. Environmental law has received little attention in judicial politics, and I examine which judicial behavior model explains case outcomes. The legal model argues case characteristics best explain judicial outcomes, whereas litigant resource theory posits judicial a litigant’s resources, or lack thereof, explain outcomes.

Galanter’s (1974) party capability theory focuses on advantages repeat players, the “haves,” possess and how these ...


Mixed Methods Analysis Of Counselor Views, Attitudes And Perceived Competencies Regarding The Treatment Of Internet Pornography Addiction, Bradly K. Hinman Dec 2013

Mixed Methods Analysis Of Counselor Views, Attitudes And Perceived Competencies Regarding The Treatment Of Internet Pornography Addiction, Bradly K. Hinman

Dissertations

The Internet offers unprecedented opportunity for individuals to have anonymous, inexpensive, and unrestricted access to an essentially unlimited range of sexually explicit materials. Counseling clients are increasingly presenting with problematic issues regarding Internet pornography use. The purposes of this mixed-method study were (a) to examine the current status of counselors’ attitudes and self-efficacy about treating clients with Internet pornography addiction, and (b) to ascertain the opinions of counselor educators who are experts in the field of Internet pornography addiction on the current status of counselor training and best practices for preparing counselors.

The quantitative data was obtained from a 90-item ...


Slope Of Change Through D-Cycloserine Facilitation Of Exposure Therapy In A Social Anxiety Population, Christina M. Sheerin Nov 2013

Slope Of Change Through D-Cycloserine Facilitation Of Exposure Therapy In A Social Anxiety Population, Christina M. Sheerin

Dissertations

The present study sought to add to a growing base of research investigating approaches that facilitate the therapeutic effects of exposure-based therapy for social anxiety disorders. In particular, the approach involves the use of medication adjuvants that work in conjunction with therapeutic learning. This work translates findings from preclinical work to further our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms that impact extinction learning. Among others, a promising method has been found with the use of D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA receptor agonist. Evidence of its positive impact in preclinical work has led to its application to clinical populations who suffer from ...


They Just Don't Care About The Caring: Parents Perspectives Of Early Childhood Education And Care Policy And Associated Funding Programmes, Tracey Nelson Sep 2013

They Just Don't Care About The Caring: Parents Perspectives Of Early Childhood Education And Care Policy And Associated Funding Programmes, Tracey Nelson

Dissertations

This research aimed to investigate parents’ perspectives on early childhood care and education (ECEC) policy in Ireland and the associated funding programmes available to them. A qualitative research approach was adopted, using semi-structured interviews and a focus group as a research tool to gain an insight into the experiences of families regarding ECEC. Parents availing of current ECEC funding programmes and grandparents who care for their grandchildren were identified as a representative sub group of the research population.

Key findings suggest families are invisible in ECEC funding policy despite their fundamental role as co-educators in their child’s learning. Another ...


The Great Epoch: An Exploration Of The Psychology Of Desistance From Offending., Triona O'Sullivan Sep 2013

The Great Epoch: An Exploration Of The Psychology Of Desistance From Offending., Triona O'Sullivan

Dissertations

This research is an exploratory study aimed at examining the psychological processes underlying desistance from offending based on the lived experience of seven ex-offenders. A phenomenological approach was chosen and the research used qualitative semi-structured interviewing in order to collect rich data regarding the self-narratives of participants. Research findings confirmed several themes already prominent in the desistance literature including the importance of psychological maturation, the role of choice, the importance of the individuals’ self concept, the role of ‘making good’ and cognitive change in the area of thought processes and attitudes to offending. In addition several themes emerged which are ...


Plural Policing: The Multifaceted World Of Irish State “Policing” Authorities, Thomas Talbot Sep 2013

Plural Policing: The Multifaceted World Of Irish State “Policing” Authorities, Thomas Talbot

Dissertations

aim of this research was to explore the rather undocumented world of the wider policing community acting in an official capacity on behalf of the Irish state in 2013 and to produce a comprehensive empirical mapping of these governance entities. This group was defined as those operating in a coercive manner at the most extreme end of the social control spectrum and the research therefore focused on those organisations actively prosecuting cases in the Irish courts.

A mixed method design was used to maximise both quantitative and qualitative information. As this mapping exercise was the first of its kind, a ...


Study Of The Potential Of Educational Transfer From Grandchild To Grandparent, From The Child‟S Perspective And Agency, In A School Environment, Ken King Sep 2013

Study Of The Potential Of Educational Transfer From Grandchild To Grandparent, From The Child‟S Perspective And Agency, In A School Environment, Ken King

Dissertations

This research acknowledges the ability of children to be active in their own learning and could promote opportunities for life-long and life-wide learning by offering school-based Intergenerational Learning Programmes. The main aim of this study was to develop a pilot intergenerational lesson with children, aged 10 to 12 years old, to enable the educational transfer of knowledge and skills from children to their grandparents or other older people in a school setting. Using the Irish Primary School‘s SPHE Curriculum as a source, the project-based research was informed, firstly, by the theories of Piaget, Vygotsky and Rogoff, and secondly, by ...


Novel Behavioral Markers In The Ppt1-/- Mouse Model Of Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, Joshua Thomas Dearborn Aug 2013

Novel Behavioral Markers In The Ppt1-/- Mouse Model Of Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, Joshua Thomas Dearborn

Dissertations

Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) is a lysosomal storage disease that is debilitating and fatal to children before their teenage years. The palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1) knockout (Ppt1-/-) mouse is an appropriate animal model that mimics much of the symptomology and brain pathology of the human disease. Ppt1-/- mice display blindness, seizures, and motor deficits and die well before wild-type mice. However, little is known about the cognitive and behavioral abilities of the Ppt1-/- mouse. This study was conducted to examine further the behavioral phenotype of the Ppt1-/- mouse model of INCL by evaluating the animals’ abilities in such ...


The Role Of Sexual Scripts In Men's And Women's Interpretation And Endorsement Of Items Measuring Self-Reported Sexual Aggression, Sarah Kristen Buday Aug 2013

The Role Of Sexual Scripts In Men's And Women's Interpretation And Endorsement Of Items Measuring Self-Reported Sexual Aggression, Sarah Kristen Buday

Dissertations

Previous research on sexual aggression mainly focused on men as perpetrators and women as victims; more recently, the focus has shifted to include women as perpetrators of sexual aggression as well. This study sought to examine two different measures of sexual coercion perpetration (Revised Sexual Experiences Survey [SES-LFP] and the Post-Refusal Persistence Scale [PRPS]) in terms of their convergent validity for both men and women and to examine gender differences and similarities in item interpretation. In addition, participant agreement with traditional and non-traditional sexual scripts was examined for its association with endorsement of coercion. Participants were 648 individuals (426 women ...