Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 99

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Tutor Assisted Vocabulary Support: Easing The Vocabulary Load For Burundian Refugees Studying For The U.S. Citizenship Test, Eleanor Anne Clark Dec 2013

Tutor Assisted Vocabulary Support: Easing The Vocabulary Load For Burundian Refugees Studying For The U.S. Citizenship Test, Eleanor Anne Clark

All Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this thesis was to develop vocabulary materials to supplement those already in use for emergent literate Burundian refugees preparing for the U.S. Citizenship Test. These learners study in conjunction with the International Rescue Committee in Salt Lake City, Utah, and with volunteer tutors who help them study. The flashcards and supporting activities were designed to better enable tutors to teach learners highly-dense vocabulary items, as well as to provide vocabulary scaffolding support for both learners and tutors and to increase depth of vocabulary knowledge with the target vocabulary. The U.S. Citizenship Test Vocabulary Flashcards and ...


Effects Of A Cross-Age Peer Tutoring Program On Reading Performance Of Hispanic Title I Second And Third Grade Students, Ana Isabel Rodriguez Dec 2013

Effects Of A Cross-Age Peer Tutoring Program On Reading Performance Of Hispanic Title I Second And Third Grade Students, Ana Isabel Rodriguez

All Theses and Dissertations

Hispanic students are falling behind their peers in reading fluency and are struggling to close the gap. This study examined the reading fluency influence on 73 Hispanic second and third grade students while receiving reading fluency support from middle school Hispanic tutors. These students were compared to Hispanic second and third grade students not receiving tutoring reading support. All students were assessed before the tutors gave reading support, mid-year and after the reading support finished using a school district fluency measurement. Findings found that students made rapid growth in reading fluency from the beginning of the tutoring support to mid-year ...


Couple Implicit Rules For Facilitating Disclosure And Relationship Quality With Romantic Relational Aggression As A Mediator, Karl Nathan Meng Dec 2013

Couple Implicit Rules For Facilitating Disclosure And Relationship Quality With Romantic Relational Aggression As A Mediator, Karl Nathan Meng

All Theses and Dissertations

This study examines the association between couple implicit rules related to facilitating disclosure and marital quality with husband and wife romantic relational aggression as potential mediators. Couples (N-353 couples) who participated in the Flourishing Families Project, reported on their use of couple implicit rules related to disclosure. Results indicated that implicit rules for couple disclosure were positively related to marital quality for both husbands and wives. Those couples who reported more use of implicit rules related to disclosure were also likely to use less romantic relational aggression. In turn, both husband and wife romantic relational aggression was negatively related to ...


How Social Media Affect The Social Identity Of Mexican Americans, Kaitlin Eve Felsted Dec 2013

How Social Media Affect The Social Identity Of Mexican Americans, Kaitlin Eve Felsted

All Theses and Dissertations

This is a thesis conducted qualitatively using the Grounded Theory approach where in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 legal Mexican Americans in order to understand how social media affect Mexican Americans' social identity. This effect was understood by discovering the relationships between social identity theory and integration. Results showed that Mexican Americans felt that social media helped them with their English skills and connected them to their friends and family in Mexico. Mexican Americans were able to use social media to connect to their in-group community, and Mexican American community leaders were able to connect Mexicans to their in-group within ...


A Teacher's Guide To Academic Reading: Focusing On The Academic Reading Demands Of Esl Learners, Rebecca Jean Stone Dec 2013

A Teacher's Guide To Academic Reading: Focusing On The Academic Reading Demands Of Esl Learners, Rebecca Jean Stone

All Theses and Dissertations

With over 765,000 English-as-a-second-language (ESL) students studying in the United States, a greater understanding of the academic requirements and demands these students face while studying in the US is needed. Some of the biggest challenges they face include the amount of reading required and the various tasks employed with academic reading. University reading tasks require more than an understanding of the text. These tasks place a strong emphasis on text comprehension, summary, synthesis, and critical analysis. This is problematic as students, especially ESL learners, lack experience with academic tasks, and many additionally struggle with low metacognitive awareness, limited or ...


The Effects Of Professional Development On High School Teachers' Implementation Of The Problem-Solving Process, Brandon Y. Jackson Dec 2013

The Effects Of Professional Development On High School Teachers' Implementation Of The Problem-Solving Process, Brandon Y. Jackson

All Theses and Dissertations

The majority of schools use punitive and reactive strategies to deal with maladaptive behaviors. This descriptive study was a replication of Wilmott (2012) and occurred in a multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS) high school. Professional development was provided to 22 teachers from a high school located in the western United States. This included 61% males and 39% females. Measures included the frequency of praise notes and ODRs, the quality of praise notes based on a praise note rubric, and a social validity questionnaire. The ODR and praise note frequencies were compared using the Spearman correlational coefficient that resulted in a ...


Infidelity And Forgiveness: Therapists' Views On Reconciliation And Restoration Of Trust Following Disclosure Of Infidelity, Miranda Mae Goldie Dec 2013

Infidelity And Forgiveness: Therapists' Views On Reconciliation And Restoration Of Trust Following Disclosure Of Infidelity, Miranda Mae Goldie

All Theses and Dissertations

Infidelity is one of the most prevalent presenting problems in relational therapy. There are many conceptualizations of the healing process following infidelity and suggested interventions and treatment plans. Forgiveness is an essential part of relationship growth and healing interpersonal hurts. Reconciliation is relationship repair that can accompany forgiveness. In addition, restoring trust is essential to reconciliation. Means to accomplish rebuilding trust must be established. This study seeks to expand understanding of the treatment of infidelity specifically on the topics of forgiveness, reconciliation, and restoration of trust through disclosure. The Forgiveness vs. Reconciliation and Trust Scale (FvRTS) was developed as a ...


The Relationship Between Insecure Attachment And Premarital Sexual Timing, Carly Ostler Dec 2013

The Relationship Between Insecure Attachment And Premarital Sexual Timing, Carly Ostler

All Theses and Dissertations

Recent studies are beginning to show evidence of marital problems for couples that have engaged in early premarital sexual activity compared to those who do not. Adult attachment theory plays an important role in explaining many kinds of distress for couples and helps explain sexual interaction, thus, in this study it is posited that attachment may influence sexual timing patterns. This study focuses on the relationship between insecure attachment styles and early premarital sexual timing. The sample consisted of 256 couples who took the Relationship Evaluation (RELATE) to measure their attachment styles and sexual timing while controlling for length of ...


Couple Attachment And Sexual Desire Discrepancy: A Longitudinal Study Of Non-Clinical Married Couples At Mid-Life, Anthony Allen Hughes Dec 2013

Couple Attachment And Sexual Desire Discrepancy: A Longitudinal Study Of Non-Clinical Married Couples At Mid-Life, Anthony Allen Hughes

All Theses and Dissertations

Using latent growth curve modeling, this longitudinal study examined the patterns of the discrepancy between desired and actual frequency of sexual intercourse for 331 married couples over a period of 5 years. In addition, couple insecure attachment and control variables such as age, length of relationship, income, race, and education were used to predict each partner's sexual desire discrepancy (SDD) and its change over the 5 year time period. Participants were asked to report their actual frequency of sexual intercourse and their desired frequency in each wave of data collection. Discrepancy scores were created for each year by subtracting ...


Sudden Gains: A Pluralistic Approach To The Patient And Therapist Experience, Brian P. Hansen Dec 2013

Sudden Gains: A Pluralistic Approach To The Patient And Therapist Experience, Brian P. Hansen

All Theses and Dissertations

Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to study instances of sudden gains within the case load of a private practice practitioner. Five clients whose progress was marked by such changes were contrasted with the views of five clients whose progress was marked by significant setbacks. Results from the quantitative analyses indicated that clients who experienced sudden gains during therapy tended to retain their therapeutic gains over a 2-year time period. In contrast, individuals who experienced setbacks in therapy generally continued to be distressed at the 2-year reassessment. Clients who experienced sudden gains were more distressed prior to treatment and ...


Parenting Skills As Predictors Of Child And Adolescent Psychotherapy Outcomes: Examining Change In Usual Care Settings, Alicia Ann Henderson Dec 2013

Parenting Skills As Predictors Of Child And Adolescent Psychotherapy Outcomes: Examining Change In Usual Care Settings, Alicia Ann Henderson

All Theses and Dissertations

Youth psychotherapy literature is in need of more research related to understanding psychotherapy process and outcome in child psychotherapy in community settings. The purpose of this study was to examine how key parenting skills were associated with child and adolescent symptoms and outcomes over the course of treatment in an outpatient community mental health system. Much of the research on child and adolescent outcomes has been conducted in controlled research settings, which raises the importance of more research needing to be done in representative clinical practice conditions (Weisz & Jensen, 2001). Further, few child and adolescent studies have examined potential mechanisms of change in child and adolescent psychotherapy (Kazdin & Nock, 2003), including moderators and mediators of the relation between parenting skills and child and adolescent outcomes.Participants included 407 youth, ages 4-17 (mean age = 9.7 years), and their parents or guardians, receiving routine outpatient mental health services in a community mental health setting. The youth sample included 51% males, 49% females. Measures used included the Youth Outcome Questionnaire (Y-OQ; Burlingame, Wells, Lambert, & Cox, 2004; Burlingame et al., 2001), and the Treatment Support Measure ...


Involvement Of Principals In Hiring, Professional Development, And Evaluation Of Paraeducators, Jordan T. Hix Dec 2013

Involvement Of Principals In Hiring, Professional Development, And Evaluation Of Paraeducators, Jordan T. Hix

All Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has found paraeducators do not receive adequate training (Giangreco,Broer, & Edelman, 2002), and are often infrequently evaluated –yearly or less often (Mueller, 2002; Morgan, Ashbaker, & Young, 2001). Little is known about principals' practices relative to paraeducator training, and evaluation. To investigate these topics, a survey was distributed to principals that worked in a large suburban/rural school district in the western United States. Fifty-eight participants completed surveys at a district principals meeting. The results of the study indicated a large majority of principals (78.95% for Title 1 paraeducators, 86.21% for special education paraeducators, and 75.86 for others) hired the paraeducators in their school and most principals (88.89 ...


"You're Looking Good": Compliment Or Harassment?, David B. Mcmillan Dec 2013

"You're Looking Good": Compliment Or Harassment?, David B. Mcmillan

All Theses and Dissertations

Whether an individual perceives an appearance compliment in the workplace as sexual harassment may depend on a number of factors such as the gender and/or status of the complimenter. Three hundred eighty-three (130 males, 253 females) participants completed an online survey in which they read and rated six different hypothetical vignettes imagining themselves as the recipient of an appearance compliment from a male superior, subordinate, and peer, as well as a female in each of those three status positions. Participants also filled out the Big Five Inventory (BFI; see John, Naumann, & Soto, 2008) in order to assess how personality may influence harassment perceptions. Females perceived opposite-sex appearance compliments as more harassing than males did (p < .001, d = 1.33), and males perceived same-sex compliments as more harassing than females did (p < .001, d = 0.85). Appearance compliments from those in the three status positions were also perceived differently (p < .001, np2 = .29) with compliments from superiors perceived as more harassing than from peers (p < .001) and subordinates (p < .001), and subordinates perceived as more harassing than peers (p < .001). Three of the Big Five personality factors (Conscientiousness, b = 9.93, p < .001; Neuroticism, b = 9.46, p < .001; and Openness, b = -5.04, p = .04) were predictive of harassment perceptions (R2 = .087, p < .001). Based on these findings, it is recommended that males and those in superior status positions avoid giving appearance compliments in the workplace.


Children's Recognition Of Pride: An Experimental Approach, Darren Jason Garcia Dec 2013

Children's Recognition Of Pride: An Experimental Approach, Darren Jason Garcia

All Theses and Dissertations

Pride is elicited when a child takes credit for an achievement or exceeds a socially valued standard or expectation. Evidence suggests that pride has a distinct nonverbal expression that is recognized by adults across cultures (Tracy & Robins, 2004). Research examining when children recognize pride has yielded age discrepancies between studies that use forced-choice response formats and those that use spontaneous-response formats. Differences in children's ability to use and comprehend language may account for some of these differences. The purpose of this thesis was to examine the age at which children reliably recognize pride, while minimizing the need for children ...


Service Provider And Beneficiary Perceptions Of Collectivist Domestic Violence Social Issues, Annie Mohsen Samhouri Dec 2013

Service Provider And Beneficiary Perceptions Of Collectivist Domestic Violence Social Issues, Annie Mohsen Samhouri

All Theses and Dissertations

In this research I have focused on beneficiary and service providers' perceptions toward Arab social obstacles to help-seeking, appropriate intervention methods and obstacles to reintegration into the community after seeking assistance. Through semi-structured interviews and content analysis of local policies, laws and specific service offerings, I sought to contribute to the limited literature that explores how formal institutions that originate from a Western context are adapted to meet the unique needs of Arab victims of domestic violence. I found that the main social obstacles to help-seeking were attributed to a dearth of knowledge about existing services, a lack of confidence ...


Adolescent Self-Disclosure And Father Involvement Transactions Across Early To Midadolescence, Stephanie Blickfeldt Dec 2013

Adolescent Self-Disclosure And Father Involvement Transactions Across Early To Midadolescence, Stephanie Blickfeldt

All Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates the transactional relationship between father involvement and adolescent self-disclosure from early to midadolescence. Four hundred and ninety-six adolescents reported on their general self-disclosure to fathers, and mothers reported on father involvement behaviors and maternal involvement behaviors at ages 11, 13, and 15. Results from a longitudinal cross-lagged model indicated a unidirectional relationship from father involvement to child self-disclosure in both early and midadolescence, and a transactional relationship from adolescent self-disclosure to father involvement in early adolescence. A multiple group analysis by gender revealed that both unidirectional and transactional relationships were significant for boys only. Future research efforts ...


Izapa Group B: Excavations, Burials, And Offerings, Rosemary Lieske Dec 2013

Izapa Group B: Excavations, Burials, And Offerings, Rosemary Lieske

All Theses and Dissertations

Izapa, a Late Preclassic regional center located in southern Mexico, was heavily excavated by the New World Archaeological Foundation from 1961-1965. However, much remains unclear regarding the details of those excavations, specifically in regards to Group B. In this thesis I hope to present important details derived from those excavations in a way that is meaningful and useful. The purpose of this thesis project is to: (1) reconstruct the excavation history of Izapa Group B, (2) to provide a reconstruction of Group B's architectural history as revealed through the excavations, and (3) to identify and present descriptions of the ...


The Effects Of Video Prompting Via An Ipad On Vocational Skill Development Of Secondary Students With Developmental Disabilities, Patricia D. Lund Dec 2013

The Effects Of Video Prompting Via An Ipad On Vocational Skill Development Of Secondary Students With Developmental Disabilities, Patricia D. Lund

All Theses and Dissertations

Current laws stress the importance of using research-based practices to teach transition and vocational skills to students with disabilities. Some of the evidence-based practices include the use of videos to prompt students through a task. Much research has been done concerning the effectiveness of video prompts to teach daily living skills, academic skills and social skills. Transitional skills that have been taught often include simple, entry level skills such as watering plants, cooking soup in the microwave or setting a table. To date, there is little research regarding the use of video prompts to teach complex employment skills that can ...


Predicting Career Outcome Measures Using An Internship Evaluation Instrument: The Internship Profiling Questionnaire, Christopher Terao Silva Nov 2013

Predicting Career Outcome Measures Using An Internship Evaluation Instrument: The Internship Profiling Questionnaire, Christopher Terao Silva

All Theses and Dissertations

Internships have become an integral part of post-secondary education, while also serving as a means for students to distinguish themselves as job candidates. Although internship programs have formally been in place for over a hundred years, surprisingly little research has been done into the topic, even though more than three out of four students participate in at least one internship before they graduate college. The purpose of this study is to develop and test an internship evaluation tool that will help educators distinguish the high quality internship opportunities from low quality ones. Based on management profiling questionnaires that became popular ...


Factors Relating To Romantic Relationship Experiences For Emerging Adults, Sabra Elyse Johnson Oct 2013

Factors Relating To Romantic Relationship Experiences For Emerging Adults, Sabra Elyse Johnson

All Theses and Dissertations

This study of 1,492 emerging adults focuses on the relationships among negative family of origin experiences, attitudes about marriage, positive communication and the influence of past romantic relationships. The data used in this study comes from a survey questionnaire, READY (see www.relate-institute.org) completed by emerging adult participants (18-25). Results from the Structural Equation Model showed both aversive family of origin experiences and negative beliefs about marriage have a significant and negative influence on perceptions of romantic relationship experiences. Also, positive communication has a significant and positive influence on perceptions of past romantic relationships. However, positive communication did ...


Borrowing The Essentials: A Diachronic Study Of The Semantic Primes Of Modern English, Karen Esther Swan Oct 2013

Borrowing The Essentials: A Diachronic Study Of The Semantic Primes Of Modern English, Karen Esther Swan

All Theses and Dissertations

In order for communication to take place, there must be a set of core concepts that are universal to all speakers. Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) has proposed an inventory of these concepts, called semantic primes, and uses them as universal concepts in the explication and exploration of cultural values. The English semantic primes, while the majority are Anglo-Saxon, contain words that have been borrowed from Latin, Old Norse, and French. Borrowing lexical items into core vocabulary has many implications. First, the primes are not entirely stable or immune to foreign influence, even the Anglo-Saxon primes have been susceptible to the ...


Establishing Measurement Invariance Of Thin Ideal Internalization And Body Dissatisfaction Across Studies: An Integrative Data Analysis, Kat Tumblin Green Sep 2013

Establishing Measurement Invariance Of Thin Ideal Internalization And Body Dissatisfaction Across Studies: An Integrative Data Analysis, Kat Tumblin Green

All Theses and Dissertations

With increased data sharing and research collaboration options available through modern technology, there is an increased need to find more advanced techniques to analyze data across multiple studies. A systematic method of pooling participant-level versus study-level data would be particularly valuable as it would allow for more complex statistical analyses, broader assessment of constructs, and a cost effective way to examine new questions and replicate previous findings. One notable difficulty in pooling raw data in the behavioral sciences is the heterogeneity in methodologies and consequent need to establish measurement invariance. The present study explores the feasibility of using Integrative Data ...


Power Of Shame: The Moderating Effects Of Parental And Peer Connection On The Relationship Between Adolescent Shame And Depression, Self-Esteem, And Hope, Alexander L. Hsieh Aug 2013

Power Of Shame: The Moderating Effects Of Parental And Peer Connection On The Relationship Between Adolescent Shame And Depression, Self-Esteem, And Hope, Alexander L. Hsieh

All Theses and Dissertations

Past research and views on shame have indicated that shame has detrimental effects for adolescent development. Little research has focused on the pathways in which shame may affect adolescent traits. Even less studies examine what variables may moderate the effects of shame. Using adolescent self-report questionnaires, this study examined the relationship between adolescent shame and depression, self-esteem, and hope. In addition, this study examined the moderating effect maternal, paternal, and best friend relationships have between shame and adolescent outcome variables. A structural equation moderation model analysis was fit to data from 307 two-parent families. The average age of adolescents for ...


Acceptance Of Disability In College Students, Brian Charles Carl Jul 2013

Acceptance Of Disability In College Students, Brian Charles Carl

All Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents the findings of a study examining the following questions: How do students in a particular disability group differ from students in other disability groups in the degree to which they accept their disability? How are level of functional impairment and acceptance related? How are an individual's view of disability as a defining characteristic and acceptance related? How are functional impairment and the degree to which disability is seen as a defining characteristic related? Analysis using ANOVA indicated that there was not a significant difference in the level of acceptance between disability groups. Three Pearson's r ...


Training Pre-Service Teachers In Response To Intervention: A Survey Of Teacher Candidates, Ann-Michelle Neal Jul 2013

Training Pre-Service Teachers In Response To Intervention: A Survey Of Teacher Candidates, Ann-Michelle Neal

All Theses and Dissertations

Addressing training in Response to Intervention at the pre-service level has potential to reach educators during their formative years; preparing them to implement research-based practices upon entering the field and building the capacity to do so with more fidelity and less support. While the knowledge levels and perceptions of pre-service teachers are critical to the future success of RTI implementation, the level of training among pre-service educators is less understood relative to their colleagues in the field. This exploratory study was designed to examine pre-service general and special education teachers' perceptions of RTI, and self-efficacy in implementation. A survey, created ...


Dose-Effect Vs. Good Enough Level: A Comparison Of Treatment Length And Maintenance Of Treatment Gains At Follow-Up Using The Outcome Questionnaire-45, John M. Suyama Jul 2013

Dose-Effect Vs. Good Enough Level: A Comparison Of Treatment Length And Maintenance Of Treatment Gains At Follow-Up Using The Outcome Questionnaire-45, John M. Suyama

All Theses and Dissertations

This study examines psychotherapy response in connection to treatment duration and maintenance of treatment gains. The dose-effect perspective (Howard et al. 1986) first proposed applying medical terminology to investigate a level of exposure to a dose of psychotherapy (in number of sessions) where individuals can expect to receive sufficient benefit (i.e., 48 -- 58% of clients can be expected to sufficiently benefit from therapy by 8 sessions). The proponents of the Good Enough Level (Barkham et at. 2006) argued that mere exposure to therapy is not an effective measure for client benefit, but rather that client responses to therapy vary ...


The Sustainability Of Lean Manufacturing As A Competitive Advantage, Louis G. Jones Jul 2013

The Sustainability Of Lean Manufacturing As A Competitive Advantage, Louis G. Jones

All Theses and Dissertations

Since the early 1990s lean manufacturing has been employed by companies looking to reduce costs, increase efficiencies and improve quality. Academic studies of the financial benefits of lean manufacturing are mixed in their results, where some show benefit and others do not. The objective of the current work was to confirm a financial benefit of lean manufacturing, while also establishing whether such a financial advantage was sustainable. Financial data was collected for a large number of companies in the manufacturing sector, over the period from 1990 to 2010. The data were used to show correlation between inventory turns and return ...


Bibliotherapy And Bullying: Teaching Young Childrento Utilize Peer Group Power To Combat Bullying, Rebecca Lyn Spencer Jul 2013

Bibliotherapy And Bullying: Teaching Young Childrento Utilize Peer Group Power To Combat Bullying, Rebecca Lyn Spencer

All Theses and Dissertations

Bullying is a major concern for school-age children. This study compares the use of bibliotherapy and didactic instruction techniques for teaching anti-bullying strategies to young children. The study explores 36 first graders' perceptions of bullying and their perceptions of their roles and responsibilities in bullying situations. In comparison to the control group, students who were taught specific bully intervention skills, both through didactic instruction and bibliotherapy, reflected an increased understanding of bullying, used a larger bully vocabulary, and demonstrated more specific and varied actions in response to bullying from pre-test to post-test conditions. Participants in the group who received didactic ...


The Rise Of Humor: Hollywood Increases Adult Centered Humor In Animated Children's Films, Chelsie Lynn Akers Jul 2013

The Rise Of Humor: Hollywood Increases Adult Centered Humor In Animated Children's Films, Chelsie Lynn Akers

All Theses and Dissertations

Children's animated films have held a lasting influence on their audiences since the rise of their popularity in the 1980s. As adults co-view such films with their children Hollywood has had to rewrite the formula for a successful animated children's film. This thesis argues that a main factor in audience expansion is adult humor. The results show that children's animated films from 2002-2013 are riddled with many instances of adult humor while earlier films from 1982-1993 use adult humor sparingly. It is clear that over the years the number of adult humor occurrences has consistently increased. Furthermore ...


Screening For Emotional And Behavioral Problems In High Schools, Nichole Marie Soelberg Jul 2013

Screening For Emotional And Behavioral Problems In High Schools, Nichole Marie Soelberg

All Theses and Dissertations

Screening for emotional and behavioral problems in youth is a well-validated process for elementary-aged children as notable and respected research has provided evidence that children at risk for behavioral and emotional problems can be identified and provided with targeted interventions, which prevent additional problems (Lane, Wehby, & Barton-Arwood, 2005). However, there is a lack of research offering evidence for a behavioral and emotional screening process for high school students. Identifying at-risk youth is a vital component in providing early-intervention services that can remediate problems before they become severe and require resource intensive interventions. This research contributes to the development of a screening measure based on a validated multi-gated screening process for use in high schools. The new measure will be adapted from the Stage 1 of the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD; Walker & Severson, 1992) used in elementary schools to identify students who are at risk for developing emotional and behavioral disorders. Descriptors of students at-risk for emotional and behavior disorders from Schilling (2009) and a review of items used from common behavior rating scales were used to create a teacher nomination form that will serve ...