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2013

Western University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 222

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Family Diversity And Inequality: The Canadian Case, Beaujot Roderic, Jianye Liu, Zenaida R. Ravanera Dec 2013

Family Diversity And Inequality: The Canadian Case, Beaujot Roderic, Jianye Liu, Zenaida R. Ravanera

Population Change and Lifecourse Strategic Knowledge Cluster Discussion Paper Series/ Un Réseau stratégique de connaissances Changements de population et parcours de vie Document de travail

The Second Demographic Transition, including flexibility in types of unions and in entry and exit from unions, has increased the diversity across families. There has been a significant cultural and political dynamic to celebrate this diversity as an increase in individual options, beyond the heterosexual couples with children in a traditional division of labour.


Diversity can be expressed in various ways: economic families or unattached individuals, married or common law, two parents or lone parent, opposite sex or same sex, breadwinner or two earners, traditional division of work and care or collaborative model, couples with and without children, intact or ...


The Canadian Government’S Recent Shift Of Diplomacy Away From Traditional Values Toward Economic Benefit For Canada May Do Us No Favours In The Long Run, Erika Simpson Dec 2013

The Canadian Government’S Recent Shift Of Diplomacy Away From Traditional Values Toward Economic Benefit For Canada May Do Us No Favours In The Long Run, Erika Simpson

Political Science Publications

No abstract provided.


Approche Des Représentations D’Avenirs Des Lycéens Handicapés Visuels Comparées À Celles Des Lycéens Valides Du Burkina Faso, Issa Abdou Moumoula Dec 2013

Approche Des Représentations D’Avenirs Des Lycéens Handicapés Visuels Comparées À Celles Des Lycéens Valides Du Burkina Faso, Issa Abdou Moumoula

Comparative and International Education / Éducation Comparée et Internationale

Alors que de nombreux travaux portent sur les représentations d’avenir des adolescents, peu d’études rendent compte de l’impact du handicap dans l’élaboration de ces représentations. Nous proposons à travers la conduite d’entretiens individuels semi directifs avec 26 lycéens dont 13 en situation d’handicap visuel, de réaliser un travail exploratoire sur ce thème en vue de faire des propositions en termes de dispositifs d’accompagnement de ces jeunes dans le domaine du conseil en orientation au Burkina Faso. A l’issue de l’analyse de nos données, nous observons que les discours des jeunes adolescents ...


How Age Friendly Is This City? Strategies For Assessing Age-Friendliness, Michelle Dellamora Dec 2013

How Age Friendly Is This City? Strategies For Assessing Age-Friendliness, Michelle Dellamora

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Age-Friendly Cities framework, created by the World Health Organization (WHO), has emerged as a community-based response to the challenges of demographic aging and increasing urbanization. In 2010, London, Ontario, became the first city in Canada to join the WHO Global Network of Age-Friendly Communities. Network milestones require the measurement of the baseline age-friendliness of the community. The objectives of this thesis are: 1. Determine the best available assessment tools for measuring the age-friendliness of a community, and 2. Establish the baseline age-friendliness of London, Ontario. A scoping review was utilized to collect and assess available surveys and questionnaires. A ...


Children At-Risk For Hearing Impairment: A Retrospective Study Of The Ontario Infant Hearing Program Population, Katherine M. Smith Dec 2013

Children At-Risk For Hearing Impairment: A Retrospective Study Of The Ontario Infant Hearing Program Population, Katherine M. Smith

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is widespread agreement that infant hearing screening programs are effective but such programs may fail to detect all hearing impairment and children can develop subsequent hearing loss after passing the initial screen. This is the core rationale for surveillance programs that are analyzed in this thesis. Infants with hearing risk factors are followed using surveillance programs that include monitoring by audiological assessment.

The study population in this thesis consists of 2,390 children with normal hearing and 248 children with hearing impairment from different referral routes. The Infant Hearing Program Surveillance group is 1.48% of the number of ...


Exploring The Movement Of People In Postclassic And Historic Period Lamanai Using Stable Isotopes, Alicia E. Donis Dec 2013

Exploring The Movement Of People In Postclassic And Historic Period Lamanai Using Stable Isotopes, Alicia E. Donis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The location of the Maya site of Lamanai on the New River Lagoon in northern Belize strategically situated it to participate in both coastal and inland trade routes and communication. This study of human burials at Lamanai examines the phosphate-oxygen isotope compositions of bone and enamel, which reflect drinking water and hence climatic zones, oxygen- and hydrogen-isotope compositions of modern local water, which provide a baseline for drinking water, and carbon- and nitrogen-isotope compositions of bone collagen, which reflect diet. The combination of isotopic, mortuary, osteological, and artifactual data is used to explore mobility at Lamanai during the Postclassic and ...


Selected Cases On The Continuum Of First Nations Learning, Julie Peters Dec 2013

Selected Cases On The Continuum Of First Nations Learning, Julie Peters

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Each of the articles in this dissertation addresses a policy or theoretical issue at a different point on the learning continuum. Chapter 2, First Nations Early Learning and Child Care in Canada, examines federal policy specific to First Nations early learning and child care (ELCC). This article contributes to our understanding of ELCC by examining the historical role and relationship of the federal government in the financing and delivery of ELCC, outlining the current state of federal early learning policy related to First Nations, and presenting national data on First Nations ELCC to assess how it can inform policy and ...


Aboriginal Postsecondary Education In Canada And The Standing Committee On Aboriginal Affairs And Northern Development: A Critical Policy Analysis, Summer Thorp Dec 2013

Aboriginal Postsecondary Education In Canada And The Standing Committee On Aboriginal Affairs And Northern Development: A Critical Policy Analysis, Summer Thorp

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This critical policy analysis of the texts of the Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development’s inquiry into the state of Aboriginal postsecondary education in Canada in 2006 examines the positions taken by witnesses with respect to the context of the policy discussion and the definition of the policy problem. The analysis also examines the policy positions taken by the Committee on Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development in its summative report, No Higher Priority, and in the Harper government’s response to the Committee’s report. The results of the analysis indicate that the minority Harper government applied ...


Web 2.0-Based Collaborative Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support System: A Case Study Of Human-Computer Interaction Patterns, Mohammadreza Jelokhani-Niaraki Dec 2013

Web 2.0-Based Collaborative Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support System: A Case Study Of Human-Computer Interaction Patterns, Mohammadreza Jelokhani-Niaraki

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The integration of GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) capabilities into the Web 2.0 platform offers an effective Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support System (MC-SDSS) with which to involve the public, or a particular group of individuals, in collaborative spatial decision making. Understanding how decision makers acquire and integrate decision-related information within the Web 2.0-based collaborative MC-SDSS has been one of the major concerns of MC-SDSS designers for a long time. This study focuses on examining human-computer interaction patterns (information acquisition behavior) within the Web 2.0-based MC-SDSS environment. It reports the results of an experimental study that investigated ...


Cultivating Change: Aspirations, Realities And Limits Of Community Gardens In Windsor, Ontario, Brian Edward Venne Dec 2013

Cultivating Change: Aspirations, Realities And Limits Of Community Gardens In Windsor, Ontario, Brian Edward Venne

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis, based on ethnographic research carried out in the summer and fall of 2012, focuses on three community gardens created post-2009 in the city of Windsor, Ontario, a time when the city faced serious economic and food security challenges. Specifically, this thesis investigates how the goals of community building, knowledge transmission, and food security are variously enacted at Windsor community gardens. Beyond illustrating the varied nature of community garden projects, the analysis presented draws attention to some of the factors that influence the success of individual gardens. The neoliberal context may frame garden projects but it does not fully ...


Knowledge Organization Practices In Everyday Life: Divergent Constructions Of Healthy Eating, Jill R. Mctavish Dec 2013

Knowledge Organization Practices In Everyday Life: Divergent Constructions Of Healthy Eating, Jill R. Mctavish

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Background. To “classify” in Library and Information Sciences (LIS) usually involves an engagement with formally established classification systems, such as the Dewey Decimal Classification. In this dissertation I suggest an alternative path for LIS scholars – one that considers the application of LIS theories about classification to the investigation of everyday life “classification” processes and technologies. Focusing on the knowledge domain of food, health, and eating, I consider how food experts and non-experts divide foods into groups according to their health properties and how closely these groups reflect the “classification” of food presented in Canada’s Food Guide. Method. The research ...


A Study Of Faunal Consumption At The Gallinazo Group Site, Northern Coast Of Peru, Claire Venet-Rogers Dec 2013

A Study Of Faunal Consumption At The Gallinazo Group Site, Northern Coast Of Peru, Claire Venet-Rogers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis is an investigation into consumption patterns at the Gallinazo Group archaeological site, from the Early Intermediate Period (200 B.C. to 800 A.D.), on the Peruvian north coast. Faunal samples were recovered from two different but contemporaneous contexts: a civic-ceremonial platform mound and an Architectural Compound in a residential sector. The main objectives were: 1) create a faunal database for the site; 2) assess the nature of faunal resources consumed in these two different contexts; and 3) contribute to the zooarchaeological literature on the use of consumption patterns to reconstruct aspects of ancient complex societies. For each ...


Essays On Worker Promotion And Wage Growth, Hugh Cassidy Nov 2013

Essays On Worker Promotion And Wage Growth, Hugh Cassidy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis consists of three chapters in the field of labor economics related to worker promotion, hierarchical levels, and wage growth.

Chapter two examines the impact of the skill requirements of an occupation on the likelihood that a worker receives a promotion. Promotion data are taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, while skill requirements data come from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. I find that the higher the cognitive skill requirement of an occupation, and the lower the motor and strength skill requirements, the higher the probability that the worker receives a promotion. Introducing skill requirements reduces ...


Examining The Shift In Occupational Identity After A Brain Injury, Mikelle Bryson-Campbell Nov 2013

Examining The Shift In Occupational Identity After A Brain Injury, Mikelle Bryson-Campbell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Occupational identity is defined by Kielhofner (2002) as a sense of who we are as an occupational being, based on our past, current, and future occupational roles. When a life disruption occurs such as a brain injury (BI) and the disruption impacts the ability to conduct an occupation deemed meaningful an important process of transition occurs (Muenchberger, Kendall, & Neal, 2008). In turn occupational identity may shift to reflect the current health and economic status of the individual and what occupations are judged as meaningful.

The current study examined the shift in occupational identity in BI survivors in a two part ...


Interprofessional Socialization And Dual Identity Development Amongst Cross-Disciplinary Students, Hossein Khalili Nov 2013

Interprofessional Socialization And Dual Identity Development Amongst Cross-Disciplinary Students, Hossein Khalili

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to develop and test an interprofessional socialization (IPS) framework through assessing the impact of an IPS-based interprofessional education program on interprofessional socialization and dual identity development among health professional students. Although health professional educational programs have been successful in equipping graduates with skills, knowledge and professionalism, the emphasis on specialization and profession-specific education has enhanced the development of a uniprofessional identity, which has been found to be a major barrier towards Interprofessional Person-Centered Collaborative Practice (IPCPCP). Despite the growing acknowledgment of IPS in the current IPE and collaborative practice literature, there is a lack ...


Integration And “Welcome-Ability” Indexes: Measures Of Community Capacity To Integrate Immigrants, Zenaida R. Ravanera, Victoria Esses, Rajulton Fernando Nov 2013

Integration And “Welcome-Ability” Indexes: Measures Of Community Capacity To Integrate Immigrants, Zenaida R. Ravanera, Victoria Esses, Rajulton Fernando

Population Change and Lifecourse Strategic Knowledge Cluster Discussion Paper Series/ Un Réseau stratégique de connaissances Changements de population et parcours de vie Document de travail

This paper aims at clarifying the applicability of the theory of micro-macro links to the general concept of “integration” and illustrates two distinct methods of measuring the concept at individual and community levels. In particular, two indexes are developed, the first one called welcome-ability index, to measure the capacities of communities to welcome and integrate newcomers, and the second called integration index, to measure economic, social, and political integration of individuals. The first, a community-level measure, takes into account opportunities and facilities, including employment opportunities, facilities for health care and positive attitudes towards immigrants. The second, an individual-level measure, takes ...


Down In The Dumps, Erika Simpson Nov 2013

Down In The Dumps, Erika Simpson

Political Science Publications

No abstract provided.


The Vancouver Asahi Baseball Team And Cultural Acceptance 1920-1941, Christopher M. Pellerin Nov 2013

The Vancouver Asahi Baseball Team And Cultural Acceptance 1920-1941, Christopher M. Pellerin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis analyzed how the Vancouver Asahis, through excellence in baseball, gained acceptance within the newspaper media and community from 1920 to 1941. An examination of Vancouver’s history and culture determined the importance of baseball to the city, especially upon Bob Brown’s, Vancouver’s greatest builder of the game, immigration. A history of the Asahis was also examined to help frame baseball’s importance to the Japanese and why they wished to engage in this specific sport. Through a content analysis within the Vancouver Sun and Daily Province newspapers, this thesis examined how the Asahis were represented in ...


In The House Of Transformation: Language Revitalization, State Regulation, And Indigenous Identity In Urban Amazonia, Sarah A. Shulist Nov 2013

In The House Of Transformation: Language Revitalization, State Regulation, And Indigenous Identity In Urban Amazonia, Sarah A. Shulist

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation examines the practices surrounding advocacy for Indigenous language revitalization and maintenance in order to better understand the changing nature of of ethnolinguistic identity and the politics of culture in the Brazilian Amazon. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the city of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas, it specifically considers the complex challenges created for language revitalization activism among urban and diasporic Indigenous populations. São Gabriel is a small, highly multilingual city, in which speakers of 21 languages from 5 language families live and come into contact with one another, and in which individuals commonly speak multiple Indigenous languages. Although ...


Re-Cognizing Power In The Culture Of Dementia Care Knowledge, Ryan T. Deforge Nov 2013

Re-Cognizing Power In The Culture Of Dementia Care Knowledge, Ryan T. Deforge

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In light of increasing system demands, system regulations, and constrained resources, those living and working with dementia in the long-term care sector are vulnerable to oppressive care practices. This is true so long as our understanding of how social power affects the ways in which dementia care knowledge is created, shared, and enacted remains limited. Based on prolonged field observations and on informal and formal interviews with care recipients, family members, and staff, the aim of this critical qualitative research was to examine the culture of dementia care knowledge in two sites: a specialized dementia care unit in a long-term ...


Veracity Roadmap: Is Big Data Objective, Truthful And Credible?, Victoria Rubin, Tatiana Lukoianova Nov 2013

Veracity Roadmap: Is Big Data Objective, Truthful And Credible?, Victoria Rubin, Tatiana Lukoianova

FIMS Publications

This paper argues that big data can possess different characteristics, which affect its quality. Depending on its origin, data processing technologies, and methodologies used for data collection and scientific discoveries, big data can have biases, ambiguities, and inaccuracies which need to be identified and accounted for to reduce inference errors and improve the accuracy of generated insights. Big data veracity is now being recognized as a necessary property for its utilization, complementing the three previously established quality dimensions (volume, variety, and velocity), But there has been little discussion of the concept of veracity thus far. This paper provides a roadmap ...


Public Participation In Municipal Service Delivery Review, Noah Atlin Nov 2013

Public Participation In Municipal Service Delivery Review, Noah Atlin

MPA Major Research Papers

One of the techniques used by municipal administrators to evaluate their spending is the Service Delivery Review (SDR), for which a “how-to” manual, known as the Guide to Service Delivery Review for Municipal Managers, was created. This paper examines the Guide to determine whether it proposes a useful SDR structure that has adequate provisions for public participation. It analyzes the literature pertaining to the SDR process and public participation and it also provides an examination of public participation using case studies of six municipal SDRs in Ontario: Brockville, Port Hope, Brantford, Halton Hills, Barrie, and Hamilton. The findings reveal that ...


Measuring The Sixth Vital Sign: A Descriptive Analysis Of Distress In Individuals With Head And Neck Cancer And Their Caregivers, Catherine C. Bornbaum Oct 2013

Measuring The Sixth Vital Sign: A Descriptive Analysis Of Distress In Individuals With Head And Neck Cancer And Their Caregivers, Catherine C. Bornbaum

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Introduction: Distress has become so problematic in oncology that it has been recognized as the “sixth vital sign” implying that distress monitoring should occur as routinely as the monitoring of one’s temperature or blood pressure. The research reported herein investigated the impact of head and neck cancer on levels of distress, commonly reported problems, and perceptions of quality of life in individuals with head and neck cancer and their caregivers.

Method: Two distinct studies were conducted; the first explored the patient experience of distress and quality of life while the second assessed the caregiver experience of these same constructs ...


Children's Neighbourhood Geographies: Examining Children's Perception And Use Of Their Neighbourhood Environments For Healthy Activity, Janet E. Loebach Oct 2013

Children's Neighbourhood Geographies: Examining Children's Perception And Use Of Their Neighbourhood Environments For Healthy Activity, Janet E. Loebach

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation examines children’s everyday neighbourhood activities, and the role of the local environment in supporting or limiting their healthy behaviours. Research from the last two decades has documented a dramatic decline in the time children spend playing in their neighbourhood settings, and engaging in local active and independent travel. Traditionally, neighbourhood-based activities have fostered key developmental and health outcomes, including higher levels of physical fitness, the negotiation of new social relationships, and increased cognitive and environmental competence. The processes of carving out neighbourhood ‘domains’ for independent activity and establishing community relationships are also linked to the development of ...


Open Access: Historical Highlights, Issues And Policies, Paul St-Pierre, Lisa Di Valentino, Samuel Trosow Oct 2013

Open Access: Historical Highlights, Issues And Policies, Paul St-Pierre, Lisa Di Valentino, Samuel Trosow

FIMS Presentations

Print publishing relies on enclosure of information in a physical object (book). The digital environment potentially increases access (online journals). Publishers, however, can implement control beyond that which is possible in a print world; for example, license agreements that try to restrict user rights such as fair dealing. Open access is an increasingly popular publishing option, and represents a progressive application of technology and alternatives to traditional intellectual property. This moderated panel discussion with University of Western Ontario scholars, is an introduction to the origins of problems in scholarly publishing, current open access initiatives, and educational policies.


Entre El Juego Y La Memoria: El Detective Y La Ciudad En La Narrativa Neo Policiaca De Paco Ignacio Taibo Ii Y Leonardo Padura Fuentes., Carlos Pardo Oct 2013

Entre El Juego Y La Memoria: El Detective Y La Ciudad En La Narrativa Neo Policiaca De Paco Ignacio Taibo Ii Y Leonardo Padura Fuentes., Carlos Pardo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation examines the development of the characters in the detective series of Paco Ignacio Taibo II (Mexico) and Leonardo Padura Fuentes (Cuba) and their relationship with their Hispanic-American cities: Mexico D.F. and Havana. To accomplish it, this dissertation initially deals with the connection between the “neo policiaco” and the narrative tradition that precedes it: the classical detective story or whodunit and the American hardboiled crime story, as well as its link with Spanish contemporary detective fiction. As a result, the Hispanic-American “neo policiaco” explores new possibilities of detective narratives in which complex characters and the Hispanic American city ...


Manufacturing Legitimacy: A Critical Theory Of Election News Coverage, Gabriel N. Elias Oct 2013

Manufacturing Legitimacy: A Critical Theory Of Election News Coverage, Gabriel N. Elias

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

To what degree does instrumental reason influence election news coverage? Using Habermas's understanding of system/life-world as a heuristic, I map the rationalization process of political communication. This illuminates the institutional logics at play in the field of politics and the field of journalism, and the way the social dynamics between them enable the framing of political life as a strategic game. This understanding is then contextualized within an analysis of the media frames that informed the Canadian federal election of 2011. I find that news coverage does tend to focus on political strategy; but this is not wholly ...


The Roles Of Thematic Knowledge In Sentence Comprehension, Kazunaga Matsuki Oct 2013

The Roles Of Thematic Knowledge In Sentence Comprehension, Kazunaga Matsuki

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

People possess a great deal of knowledge concerning what commonly happens in various types of events. This knowledge, specifically with respect to event participants and their relations within an event (thematic knowledge), is an important component of how people understand language. A number of studies have shown a rapid influence of thematic knowledge during moment-to-moment sentence processing, in both investigations of lexical processing in sentential contexts, and temporary syntactic ambiguity resolution. The main goal of this dissertation is to further our understanding about the roles of thematic knowledge during sentence processing and sentence understanding by examining two critical unresolved issues ...


The Quest For Territorial Autonomy: Mapuche Political Identities Under Neoliberal Multiculturalism In Argentina, Lucas Savino Oct 2013

The Quest For Territorial Autonomy: Mapuche Political Identities Under Neoliberal Multiculturalism In Argentina, Lucas Savino

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In the context of neoliberal multiculturalism, indigenous activists face a fundamental dilemma. While they organize as indigenous peoples to negotiate and demand from states new terms of citizenship, activists recognize that new forms of accommodation for such demands exist within state institutions. However, indigenous organizations also discover that certain demands exceed these new spaces of participation. I argue that territorial autonomy is one such demand because it challenges the existing power imbalances between indigenous peoples and the state.

Not surprisingly, territorial autonomy is a common feature of many emerging forms of indigenous activism in contemporary Latin America. Based on new ...


Fluid Identities: Toward A Critical Security Of Water, Cameron Harrington Sep 2013

Fluid Identities: Toward A Critical Security Of Water, Cameron Harrington

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Water wars are coming! Water is the defining security threat of the 21st century! The future belongs to the water-rich! These types of warnings are frequently proclaimed, urging attention to looming water conflict, which will occur as stores of freshwater diminish in both quality and quantity. Yet the issue of water security is far more complex than as an inevitable source of future violent conflict. Water is a central component to all aspects of life and planetary health and thus it contains within it a multiplicity of social and political meanings, pivotal to our understandings of security. This dissertation begins ...