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2013

Wayne State University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 240

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

No Evidence From Genome-Wide Data Of A Khazar Origin For The Ashkenazi Jews, Doron M. Behar, Mait Metspalu, Yael Baran, Naama M. Kopelman, Bayazit Yunusbayev, Ariella Gladstein, Shay Tzur, Havhannes Sahakyan, Ardeshir Bahmanimehr, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Kristiina Tambets, Elza K. Khusnutdinova, Aljona Kusniarevich, Oleg Balanovsky, Elena Balanovsky, Lejla Kovacevic, Damir Marjanovic, Evelin Mihailov, Anastasia Kouvatsi, Costas Traintaphyllidis, Roy J. King, Ornella Semino, Antonio Torroni, Michael F. Hammer, Ene Metspalu, Karl Skorecki, Saharon Rosset, Eran Halperin, Richard Villems, Noah A. Rosenberg Dec 2013

No Evidence From Genome-Wide Data Of A Khazar Origin For The Ashkenazi Jews, Doron M. Behar, Mait Metspalu, Yael Baran, Naama M. Kopelman, Bayazit Yunusbayev, Ariella Gladstein, Shay Tzur, Havhannes Sahakyan, Ardeshir Bahmanimehr, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Kristiina Tambets, Elza K. Khusnutdinova, Aljona Kusniarevich, Oleg Balanovsky, Elena Balanovsky, Lejla Kovacevic, Damir Marjanovic, Evelin Mihailov, Anastasia Kouvatsi, Costas Traintaphyllidis, Roy J. King, Ornella Semino, Antonio Torroni, Michael F. Hammer, Ene Metspalu, Karl Skorecki, Saharon Rosset, Eran Halperin, Richard Villems, Noah A. Rosenberg

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The origin and history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population have long been of great interest, and advances in high-throughput genetic analysis have recently provided a new approach for investigating these topics. We and others have argued on the basis of genome-wide data that the Ashkenazi Jewish population derives its ancestry from a combination of sources tracing to both Europe and the Middle East. It has been claimed, however, through a reanalysis of some of our data, that a large part of the ancestry of the Ashkenazi population originates with the Khazars, a Turkic-speaking group that lived to the north of ...


Genetics And The History Of The Samaritans: Y-Chromosomal Microsatellites And Genetic Affinity Between Samaritans And Cohanim, Peter J. Oefner, Georg Hõlzl, Peidong Shen, Isaac Shpirer, Dov Gefel, Tal Lavi, Eilon Wolf, Jonathan Cohen, Cengiz Cinnioglu, Peter A. Underhill, Noah A. Rosenberg, Jochen Hochrein, Julie M. Granka, Jossi Hillel, Marcus W. Feldman Dec 2013

Genetics And The History Of The Samaritans: Y-Chromosomal Microsatellites And Genetic Affinity Between Samaritans And Cohanim, Peter J. Oefner, Georg Hõlzl, Peidong Shen, Isaac Shpirer, Dov Gefel, Tal Lavi, Eilon Wolf, Jonathan Cohen, Cengiz Cinnioglu, Peter A. Underhill, Noah A. Rosenberg, Jochen Hochrein, Julie M. Granka, Jossi Hillel, Marcus W. Feldman

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The Samaritans are a group of some 750 indigenous Middle Eastern people, about half of whom live in Holon, a suburb of Tel Aviv, and the other half near Nablus. The Samaritan population is believed to have numbered more than a million in late Roman times, but less than 150 in 1917. The ancestry of the Samaritans has been subject to controversy from late Biblical times to the present. In this study, liquid chromatographyelectrospray ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry was used to allelotype 13 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal microsatellites in a sample of 12 Samaritans chosen to have as ...


From Generation To Generation: The Genetics Of Jewish Populations, Noah A. Rosenberg, Steven P. Weitzman Dec 2013

From Generation To Generation: The Genetics Of Jewish Populations, Noah A. Rosenberg, Steven P. Weitzman

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Introduction:

This year marks the 35th anniversary of two noteworthy papers—one in this journal and the other in the American Journal of Human Genetics—posing the same famous question: are the different Jewish populations from around Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa more genetically similar to each other, or are they more similar to the local non-­‐Jewish populations in the regions where they were historically located? Both studies gathered blood-­‐group and protein variation data from a variety of Jewish and non-­‐Jewish populations, compiling significant “classical marker” data sets commensurate with the standard for human population- ...


Genetics And The Archaeology Of Ancient Israel, Aaron J. Brody, Roy J. King Dec 2013

Genetics And The Archaeology Of Ancient Israel, Aaron J. Brody, Roy J. King

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

This paper is a call for DNA testing on ancient skeletal materials from the southern Levant to begin to database genetic information of the inhabitants of this crossroads region. Archaeologists and biblical historians view the earliest presence in the region of a group that called itself Israel in the Iron I period, traditionally dated to ca. 1200-1000 BCE. These were in villages in the varied hill countries of the region, contemporary with urban settlements in the coastal plains, inland valleys, and central Hill Country attributed to varied indigenous groups collectively called Canaanite. The remnants of Egyptian imperial presence in the ...


Jewish Genetic Origins In The Context Of Past Historical And Anthropological Inquiries, John M. Efron Dec 2013

Jewish Genetic Origins In The Context Of Past Historical And Anthropological Inquiries, John M. Efron

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

The contemporary study of Jewish genetics has a long prehistory dating back to the eighteenth century. Prior to the era of genetics studies of the physical makeup of Jews were undertaken by comparative anatomists and physical anthropologists. In the nineteenth century the field was referred to as “race science.” Believed by many race scientists to be a homogeneous and pure race, Jews occupied a central position in the discourse of race science because they were seen as the control group par excellence to determine the relative primacy of nature or nurture in the development of racial characteristics. In the nineteenth ...


Concluding Remarks: What's In A Name? "Negritos" In The Context Of The Human Prehistory Of Southeast Asia, Stanley J. Ulijaszek Nov 2013

Concluding Remarks: What's In A Name? "Negritos" In The Context Of The Human Prehistory Of Southeast Asia, Stanley J. Ulijaszek

Human Biology

The "negrito" hypothesis posits that various indigenous groups throughout Island and Mainland Southeast Asia have a shared phenotype due to common descent from a putative ancestral population, representing a preagricultural substrate of humanity in the region. This has been examined and tested many times in the past, with no clear resolution. With many new resources to hand, the articles in this volume reexamine this hypothesis in a range of different ways. The evidence presented in this double issue of Human Biology speaks more against the category of "negrito" than for it. While populations with the negrito phenotype form a small ...


The Australian Barrineans And Their Relationship To Southeast Asian Negritos: An Investigation Using Mitochondrial Genomics, Peter Mcallister, Nano Nagle, Robert John Mitchell Nov 2013

The Australian Barrineans And Their Relationship To Southeast Asian Negritos: An Investigation Using Mitochondrial Genomics, Peter Mcallister, Nano Nagle, Robert John Mitchell

Human Biology

The existence of a short-statured Aboriginal population in the Far North Queensland (FNQ) rainforest zone of Australia’s northeast coast and Tasmania has long been an enigma in Australian anthropology. Based on their reduced stature and associated morphological traits such as tightly curled hair, Birdsell and Tindale proposed that these "Barrinean" peoples were closely related to "negrito" peoples of Southeast Asia and that their ancestors had been the original Pleistocene settlers of Sahul, eventually displaced by taller invaders. Subsequent craniometric and blood protein studies, however, have suggested an overall homogeneity of indigenous Australians, including Barrineans. To confirm this finding and ...


Making Friends In The Rainforest: "Negrito" Adaptation To Risk And Uncertainty, Lye Tuck-Po Nov 2013

Making Friends In The Rainforest: "Negrito" Adaptation To Risk And Uncertainty, Lye Tuck-Po

Human Biology

The so-called negritos adapt not just to a tropical forest environment but also to an environment characterized by perturbations and fluctuations. As with other hunter-gatherers in the region and, indeed, throughout the world, they use both social and ecological methods to enhance their chances of survival in this changing environment: socially, they have developed networks of trading and marriage partners; ecologically, they maintain patches of key resources that are available for future harvesting. As evidenced in the case of the Batek (Orang Asli), patterns of forest structure and composition are sometimes direct outcomes of intentional resource concentration and enrichment strategies ...


Why Have The Peninsular "Negritos" Remained Distinct?, Geoffrey Benjamin Nov 2013

Why Have The Peninsular "Negritos" Remained Distinct?, Geoffrey Benjamin

Human Biology

The primary focus of this article is on the so-called negritos of Peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand, but attention is also paid to other parts of Southeast Asia. I present a survey of current views on the "negrito" phenotype—is it single or many? If the phenotype is many (as now seems likely), it must have resulted from parallel evolution in the several different regions where it has been claimed to exist. This would suggest (contrary to certain views that have been expressed on the basis of very partial genetic data) that the phenotype originated recently and by biologically well-authenticated ...


Terror From The Sky: Unconventional Linguistic Clues To The Negrito Past, Robert Blust Nov 2013

Terror From The Sky: Unconventional Linguistic Clues To The Negrito Past, Robert Blust

Human Biology

Within recorded history. most Southeast Asian peoples have been of "southern Mongoloid" physical type, whether they speak Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, Austronesian, Tai-Kadai, or Hmong-Mien languages. However, population distributions suggest that this is a post-Pleistocene phenomenon and that for tens of millennia before the last glaciation ended Greater Mainland Southeast Asia, which included the currently insular world that rests on the Sunda Shelf, was peopled by short, dark-skinned, frizzy-haired foragers whose descendants in the Philippines came to be labeled by the sixteenth-century Spanish colonizers as "negritos," a term that has since been extended to similar groups throughout the region. There are three ...


Time And Place In The Prehistory Of The Aslian Languages, Michael Dunn, Nicole Kruspe, Niclas Burenhult Nov 2013

Time And Place In The Prehistory Of The Aslian Languages, Michael Dunn, Nicole Kruspe, Niclas Burenhult

Human Biology

The Aslian language family, located in the Malay Peninsula and southern Thai Isthmus, consists of four distinct branches comprising some 18 languages. These languages predate the now dominant Malay and Thai. The speakers of Aslian languages exhibit some of the highest degree of phylogenetic and societal diversity present in Mainland Southeast Asia today, among them a foraging tradition particularly associated with locally ancient, Pleistocene genetic lineages. Little advance has been made in our understanding of the linguistic prehistory of this region or how such complexity arose. In this article we present a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis of a large sample of ...


Kinship Matters: Structures Of Alliance, Indigenous Foragers, And The Austronesian Diaspora, James West Turner Nov 2013

Kinship Matters: Structures Of Alliance, Indigenous Foragers, And The Austronesian Diaspora, James West Turner

Human Biology

The study of kinship systems has direct relevance for the field of human genetics and the study of microevolution in human populations. Some types of postmarital residence rules—rules requiring a married couple to live with or near relatives of the husband or wife—will have consequences for the distribution of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome lineages. Rules that proscribe or encourage marriage with close kin will also have consequences for allele frequency. A preference for marrying at a distance, both socially and geographically, creates alliances that can have survival value for individuals and groups in an environment of periodic ...


Who Are The Philippine Negritos? Evidence From Language, Lawrence A. Reid Nov 2013

Who Are The Philippine Negritos? Evidence From Language, Lawrence A. Reid

Human Biology

This article addresses the linguistic evidence from which details about Philippine "negritos" can be inferred. This evidence comes from the naming practices of both negrito and non-negrito peoples, from which it can be inferred that many negrito groups have maintained a unique identity distinct from other groups since the dispersal of Malayo-Polynesian languages. Other names, such as Dupaningan and Dumagat, reference locations, from which it is assumed the negritos left after contact with Malayo-Polynesian people. Evidence also comes from the relative positions of negrito groups vis-à-vis other groups within the subfamily with which their current language can be grouped. Many ...


Evolution Of The Pygmy Phenotype: Evidence Of Positive Selection From Genome-Wide Scans In African, Asian, And Melanesian Pygmies, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Irene Gallego Romero, Mait Metspalu, Matthew Leavesley, Luca Pagani, Tiago Antao, Da-Wei Huang, Brad T. Sherman, Katharine Siddle, Clarissa Scholes, Georgi Hudjashov, Elton Kaitokai, Avis Babalu, Maggie Belatti, Alex Cagan, Bryony Hopkinshaw, Colin Shaw, Mari Nelis, Ene Metspalu, Reedik Mägi, Richard A. Lempicki, Richard Villems, Marta Mirazon Lahr, Toomis Kivisild Nov 2013

Evolution Of The Pygmy Phenotype: Evidence Of Positive Selection From Genome-Wide Scans In African, Asian, And Melanesian Pygmies, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Irene Gallego Romero, Mait Metspalu, Matthew Leavesley, Luca Pagani, Tiago Antao, Da-Wei Huang, Brad T. Sherman, Katharine Siddle, Clarissa Scholes, Georgi Hudjashov, Elton Kaitokai, Avis Babalu, Maggie Belatti, Alex Cagan, Bryony Hopkinshaw, Colin Shaw, Mari Nelis, Ene Metspalu, Reedik Mägi, Richard A. Lempicki, Richard Villems, Marta Mirazon Lahr, Toomis Kivisild

Human Biology

Human pygmy populations inhabit different regions of the world, from Africa to Melanesia. In Asia, short-statured populations are often referred to as "negritos." Their short stature has been interpreted as a consequence of thermoregulatory, nutritional, and/or locomotory adaptations to life in tropical forests. A more recent hypothesis proposes that their stature is the outcome of a life history trade-off in high-mortality environments, where early reproduction is favored and, consequently, early sexual maturation and early growth cessation have coevolved. Some serological evidence of deficiencies in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis have been previously associated with pygmies’ short stature ...


Mount Pinatubo, Inflammatory Cytokines, And The Immunological Ecology Of Aeta Hunter-Gatherers, Robin M. Bernstein, Nathaniel J. Dominy Nov 2013

Mount Pinatubo, Inflammatory Cytokines, And The Immunological Ecology Of Aeta Hunter-Gatherers, Robin M. Bernstein, Nathaniel J. Dominy

Human Biology

Early growth cessation and reproduction are predicted to maximize fitness under conditions of high adult mortality, factors that could explain the pygmy phenotype of many rainforest hunter-gatherers. This life-history hypothesis is elegant but contentious in part because it lacks a clear biological mechanism. One mechanism stems from the field of human immunological ecology and the concept of inflammation "memory" across the life cycle and into subsequent generations. Maternal exposures to disease can infl uence immunological cues present in breast milk; because maternal provisioning via lactation occurs during critical periods of development, it is plausible that these cues can also mediate ...


Anthropology And Gis: Temporal And Spatial Distribution Of The Philippine Negrito Groups, Sabino G. Padilla Jr Nov 2013

Anthropology And Gis: Temporal And Spatial Distribution Of The Philippine Negrito Groups, Sabino G. Padilla Jr

Human Biology

The Philippine "negrito" groups comprise a diverse group of populations speaking over 30 different languages, who are spread all over the archipelago, mostly in marginal areas of Luzon Island in the north, the central Visayas islands, and Mindanao in the south. They exhibit physical characteristics that are different from more than 100 Philippine ethnolinguistic groups that are categorized as non-negritos. Given their numbers, it is not surprising that Philippine negritos make up a major category in a number of general ethnographic maps produced since the nineteenth century. Reports from various ethnological surveys during this period, however, have further enriched our ...


Genetic Diversity Of Four Filipino Negrito Populations From Luzon: Comparison Of Male And Female Effective Population Sizes And Differential Integration Of Immigrants Into Aeta And Agta Communities, E Heyer, M Georges, M Pachner, P Endicott Nov 2013

Genetic Diversity Of Four Filipino Negrito Populations From Luzon: Comparison Of Male And Female Effective Population Sizes And Differential Integration Of Immigrants Into Aeta And Agta Communities, E Heyer, M Georges, M Pachner, P Endicott

Human Biology

Genetic data corresponding to four negrito populations (two Aeta and two Agta; n = 120) from the Luzon region of the Philippines have been analyzed. These data comprise mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1 haplotypes and haplogroups, Y-chromosome haplogroups and short tandem repeats (STRs), autosomal STRs, and X-chromosome STRs. The genetic diversity and structure of the populations were investigated at a local, regional, and interregional level. We found a high level of autosomal differentiation, combined with no significant reduction in diversity, consistent with long-term settlement of the Luzon region by the ancestors of the Agta and Aeta followed by reduced gene ...


Admixture Patterns And Genetic Differentiation In Negrito Groups From West Malaysia Estimated From Genome-Wide Snp Data, Timothy A. Jinam, Maude E. Phipps, Naruya Saitou, The Hugo Pan-Asian Snp Consortium Nov 2013

Admixture Patterns And Genetic Differentiation In Negrito Groups From West Malaysia Estimated From Genome-Wide Snp Data, Timothy A. Jinam, Maude E. Phipps, Naruya Saitou, The Hugo Pan-Asian Snp Consortium

Human Biology

Southeast Asia houses various culturally and linguistically diverse ethnic groups. In Malaysia, where the Malay, Chinese, and Indian ethnic groups form the majority, there exist minority groups such as the "negritos" who are believed to be descendants of the earliest settlers of Southeast Asia. Here we report patterns of genetic substructure and admixture in two Malaysian negrito populations (Jehai and Kensiu), using ~50,000 genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We found traces of recent admixture in both the negrito populations, particularly in the Jehai, with the Malay through principal component analysis and STRUCTURE analysis software, which suggested that the admixture ...


The Andaman Islanders In A Regional Genetic Context: Reexamining The Evidence For An Early Peopling Of The Archipelago From South Asia, Gyaneshwer Chaubey, Phillip Endicott Nov 2013

The Andaman Islanders In A Regional Genetic Context: Reexamining The Evidence For An Early Peopling Of The Archipelago From South Asia, Gyaneshwer Chaubey, Phillip Endicott

Human Biology

The indigenous inhabitants of the Andaman Islands were considered by many early anthropologists to be pristine examples of a "negrito" substrate of humanity that existed throughout Southeast Asia. Despite over 150 years of research and study, questions over the extent of shared ancestry between Andaman Islanders and other small-bodied, gracile, dark-skinned populations throughout the region are still unresolved. This shared phenotype could be a product of shared history, evolutionary convergence, or a mixture of both. Recent population genetic studies have tended to emphasize long-term physical isolation of the Andaman Islanders and an affinity to ancestral populations of South Asia. We ...


Craniodental Affinities Of Southeast Asia's "Negritos" And The Concordance With Their Genetic Affinities, David Bulbeck Nov 2013

Craniodental Affinities Of Southeast Asia's "Negritos" And The Concordance With Their Genetic Affinities, David Bulbeck

Human Biology

Genetic research into Southeast Asia's "negritos" has revealed their deep-rooted ancestry, with time depth comparable to that of Southwest Pacific populations. This finding is often interpreted as evidence that negritos, in contrast to other Southeast Asians, can trace much of their ancestry directly back to the early dispersal of Homo sapiens in the order of 70 kya from Africa to Pleistocene New Guinea and Australia. One view on negritos is to lump them and Southwest Pacific peoples into an "Australoid" race whose geographic distribution had included Southeast Asia prior to the Neolithic incursion of "Mongoloid" farmers. Studies into Semang ...


The Skeletal Phenotype Of "Negritos" From The Andaman Islands And Philippines Relative To Global Variation Among Hunter-Gatherers, Jay T. Stock Nov 2013

The Skeletal Phenotype Of "Negritos" From The Andaman Islands And Philippines Relative To Global Variation Among Hunter-Gatherers, Jay T. Stock

Human Biology

The "negrito hypothesis" suggests that populations of small-bodied foragers in South and Southeast Asia who share common phenotypic characteristics may also share a common, ancient origin. The key defining characteristics of the "negrito" phenotype, small body size, dark skin, and tightly curled hair, have been interpreted as linking these populations to sub-Saharan Africans. The underlying assumption of this interpretation is that the observed phenotypic similarities likely reflect shared ancestry rather than phenotypic convergence. Current genetic evidence is inconclusive, as it both demonstrates that negrito populations have genetic affinities with neighboring populations but also rare and ancient variation that suggests considerable ...


"Small Size" In The Philippine Human Fossil Record: Is It Meaningful For A Better Understanding Of The Evolutionary History Of The Negritos?, Florent Détroit, Julien Corny, Eusebio Z. Dizon, Armand S. Mijares Nov 2013

"Small Size" In The Philippine Human Fossil Record: Is It Meaningful For A Better Understanding Of The Evolutionary History Of The Negritos?, Florent Détroit, Julien Corny, Eusebio Z. Dizon, Armand S. Mijares

Human Biology

"Pygmy populations" are recognized in several places over the world, especially in Western Africa and in Southeast Asia (Philippine "negritos," for instance). Broadly defined as "small-bodied Homo sapiens" (compared with neighboring populations), their origins and the nature of the processes involved in the maintenance of their phenotype over time are highly debated. Major results have been recently obtained from population genetics on present-day negrito populations, but their evolutionary history remains largely unresolved. We present and discuss the Upper Pleistocene human remains recovered from Tabon Cave and Callao Cave in the Philippines, which are potentially highly relevant to these research questions ...


Hunter-Gatherers In Southeast Asia: From Prehistory To The Present, Charles Higham Nov 2013

Hunter-Gatherers In Southeast Asia: From Prehistory To The Present, Charles Higham

Human Biology

Anatomically modern hunter-gatherers expanded from Africa into Southeast Asia at least 50,000 years ago, where they probably encountered and interacted with populations of Homo erectus and Homo floresiensis and the recently discovered Denisovans. Simulation studies suggest that these hunter-gatherers may well have followed a coastal route that ultimately led to the settlement of Sahul, while archaeology confirms that they also crossed significant seas and explored well into the interior. They also adapted to marked environmental changes that alternated between relatively cool and dry conditions and warmer, wetter interludes. During the former, the sea fell by up to 120 m ...


Introduction: Revisiting The "Negrito" Hypothesis: A Transdisciplinary Approach To Human Prehistory In Southeast Asia, Phillip Endicott Nov 2013

Introduction: Revisiting The "Negrito" Hypothesis: A Transdisciplinary Approach To Human Prehistory In Southeast Asia, Phillip Endicott

Human Biology

The "negrito" hypothesis predicts that a shared phenotype among various contemporary groups of hunter-gatherers in Southeast Asia - dark skin, short stature, tight curly hair - is due to common descent from a region-wide, pre-Neolithic substrate of humanity. The alternative is that their distinctive phenotype results from convergent evolution. The core issues of the negrito hypothesis are today more relevant than ever to studies of human evolution, including the out-of-Africa migration, admixture with Denisovans, and the effects of environment and ecology on life-history traits. Understanding the current distribution of the negrito phenotype dictates a wide-ranging remit for study, including the articulation of ...


Copyright: What Library Workers Should Know, Michael Priehs Nov 2013

Copyright: What Library Workers Should Know, Michael Priehs

Library Scholarly Publications

Michael Priehs, Coordinator for Scholarly Communications & Copyright at Wayne State University, provides library workers with an overview of copyright, including fair use and the public domain. Recent high-profile copyright cases will be discussed, along with implications for libraries. Suggestions for providing copyright assistance to library patrons will round out the talk.


Ostp Directive And Fastr, Joshua Neds-Fox Nov 2013

Ostp Directive And Fastr, Joshua Neds-Fox

Library Scholarly Publications

Presentation to the Research Subcommittee of the Academic Senate, Wayne State University, on recent federal executive and legislative developments in open access to research outputs.


Op Ed: Random Ramblings - How Special Are Special Collections?, Robert P. Holley Nov 2013

Op Ed: Random Ramblings - How Special Are Special Collections?, Robert P. Holley

School of Information Sciences Faculty Research Publications

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Jmasm Editors Nov 2013

Front Matter, Jmasm Editors

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

No abstract provided.


Preliminary Testing For Normality: Is This A Good Practice?, H. J. Keselman, Abdul R. Othman, Rand R. Wilcox Nov 2013

Preliminary Testing For Normality: Is This A Good Practice?, H. J. Keselman, Abdul R. Othman, Rand R. Wilcox

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Normality is a distributional requirement of classical test statistics. In order for the test statistic to provide valid results leading to sound and reliable conclusions this requirement must be satisfied. In the not too distant past, it was claimed that violations of normality would not likely jeopardize scientific findings (See Hsu & Feldt, 1969; Lunney, 1970). Recent revelations suggest otherwise (See e.g., Micceri, 1989; Keselman, Huberty, Lix et al., 1998; Erceg-Hurn, Wilcox, & Keselman, 2013; Wilcox and Keselman, 2003; Wilcox, 2012a, b). Unfortunately the data obtained in psychological investigations rarely, if ever, meet the requirement of normally distributed data (Micceri, 1989; Wilcox, 2012a, b). Consequently ...


Robust Regression Estimators When There Are Tied Values, Rand R. Wilcox, Florence Clark Nov 2013

Robust Regression Estimators When There Are Tied Values, Rand R. Wilcox, Florence Clark

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

It is well known that when using the ordinary least squares regression estimator, outliers among the dependent variable can result in relatively poor power. Many robust regression estimators have been derived that address this problem, but the bulk of the results assume that the dependent variable is continuous. It is demonstrated that when there are tied values, several robust regression estimators can perform poorly in terms of controlling the Type I error probability, even with a large sample size. The presence of tied values does not necessarily mean that they perform poorly, but there is the issue of whether there ...