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2013

University of Pennsylvania

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Articles 1 - 30 of 356

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Schooling Has Smaller Or Insignificant Effects On Adult Health In The Us Than Suggested By Cross-Sectional Associations: New Estimates Using Relatively Large Samples Of Identical Twins, Vikesh Amin, Jere R. Behrman, Hans-Peter Kohler Dec 2013

Schooling Has Smaller Or Insignificant Effects On Adult Health In The Us Than Suggested By Cross-Sectional Associations: New Estimates Using Relatively Large Samples Of Identical Twins, Vikesh Amin, Jere R. Behrman, Hans-Peter Kohler

PSC Working Paper Series

Adult health outcomes and health behaviors generally are strongly associated with schooling attainment. But such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health outcomes and behaviors of the magnitudes of the associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors that are related to genetics and family background. Recently several studies have used within-identical (monozygotic, MZ) twins methods to control for those unobserved factors that are shared completely by identical twins. Estimates based on relatively small samples for the US, as well as some larger samples for other countries, suggest that causal impacts of schooling on health ...


Testing A Media Intervention In Kenya: Vioja Mahakamani, Dangerous Speech, And The Benesch Guidelines, Lauren Kogen Dec 2013

Testing A Media Intervention In Kenya: Vioja Mahakamani, Dangerous Speech, And The Benesch Guidelines, Lauren Kogen

ICTs, Statebuilding and Peacebuilding in Africa

Susan Benesch, human rights scholar, genocide prevention fellow at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, and faculty associate at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University, has, over the last several years, developed an analytical framework for identifying ‘dangerous speech’ that catalyzes violence (Benesch, 2008; 2013). According to Benesch, “hate speech” is a vague term that encompasses many forms of speech, only some of which may catalyze violence under certain circumstances.

By creating a set of guidelines “for monitoring speech and evaluating its dangerousness, i.e., the capacity to catalyze violence by one group against another,” Benesch aims to inform policies that reduce incitement to violence through speech while protecting free speech (Benesch, 2013).

Among questions about these ambitious guidelines were ...


Resource Extraction Contracts Under Threat Of Expropriation: Theory And Evidence, Johannes Stroebel, Arthur Van Benthem Dec 2013

Resource Extraction Contracts Under Threat Of Expropriation: Theory And Evidence, Johannes Stroebel, Arthur Van Benthem

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

We use fiscal data on 2,468 oil extraction agreements in 38 countries to study tax contracts between resource-rich countries and independent oil companies. We analyze why expropriations occur and what determines the degree of oil price exposure of host countries. With asymmetric information about a country's expropriation cost, even optimal contracts feature expropriations. Near linearity in the oil price of real-world hydrocarbon contracts also helps to explain expropriations. We show theoretically and verify empirically that oil price insurance provided by tax contracts is increasing in a country's cost of expropriation and decreasing in its production expertise. The ...


Third-Party Sanctioning And Compensation Behavior: Findings From The Ultimatum Game, Alex K. Chavez, Cristina Bicchieri Dec 2013

Third-Party Sanctioning And Compensation Behavior: Findings From The Ultimatum Game, Alex K. Chavez, Cristina Bicchieri

Behavioral Ethics Lab

We measured the beliefs and behavior of third parties who were given the opportunity to add to or deduct from the payoffs of individuals who engaged in an economic bargaining game under different social contexts. Third parties rewarded bargaining outcomes that were equal and compensated victims of unfair bargaining outcomes rather than punishing perpetrators, but were willing to punish when compensation was not an available option. Beliefs of whether unequal bargaining outcomes were fair differed based on the normative context, but actual punishment, compensation, and rewarding behavior did not. This paper makes a contribution to the literature on informal mechanisms ...


Making Consensus Tractable, Elchanan Mossel, Omer Tamuz Dec 2013

Making Consensus Tractable, Elchanan Mossel, Omer Tamuz

Statistics Papers

We study a model of consensus decision making in which a finite group of Bayesian agents has to choose between one of two courses of action. Each member of the group has a private and independent signal at his or her disposal, giving some indication as to which action is optimal. To come to a common decision, the participants perform repeated rounds of voting. In each round, each agent casts a vote in favor of one of the two courses of action, reflecting his or her current belief, and observes the votes of the rest.

We provide an efficient algorithm ...


Cultural Ecology, Neighborhood Vitality, And Social Wellbeing—A Philadelphia Project, Mark J. Stern, Susan C. Seifert Dec 2013

Cultural Ecology, Neighborhood Vitality, And Social Wellbeing—A Philadelphia Project, Mark J. Stern, Susan C. Seifert

CultureBlocks Philadelphia

From 2011 to 2013, SIAP with Reinvestment Fund undertook new research that featured development of multidimensional indexes of social wellbeing for the city of Philadelphia. This report presents the results of that collaboration. Chapter 1 documents construction of a neighborhood-based social wellbeing index for the city. Chapter 2 uses the social wellbeing index to analyze patterns of advantage and disadvantage in Philadelphia neighborhoods. Chapter 3 draws on SIAP's historical data to examine changes in Philadelphia's cultural ecology between 1997 and 2012. The summary highlights how the policy tool helps conceptualize and measure culture as a dimension of social ...


Word Power: A New Approach For Content Analysis, Narasimhan Jegadeesh, Di Wu Dec 2013

Word Power: A New Approach For Content Analysis, Narasimhan Jegadeesh, Di Wu

Finance Papers

We present a new approach for content analysis to quantify document tone. We find a significant relation between our measure of the tone of 10-Ks and market reaction for both negative and positive words. We also find that the appropriate choice of term weighting in content analysis is at least as important as, and perhaps more important than, a complete and accurate compilation of the word list. Furthermore, we show that our approach circumvents the need to subjectively partition words into positive and negative word lists. Our approach reliably quantifies the tone of IPO prospectuses as well, and we find ...


Plan Selection In Medicare Part D: Evidence From Administrative Data, Florian Heiss, Adam Leive, Daniel Mcfadden, Joachim Winter Dec 2013

Plan Selection In Medicare Part D: Evidence From Administrative Data, Florian Heiss, Adam Leive, Daniel Mcfadden, Joachim Winter

Health Care Management Papers

We study the Medicare Part D prescription drug insurance program as a bellwether for designs of private, non-mandatory health insurance markets, focusing on the ability of consumers to evaluate and optimize their choices of plans. Our analysis of administrative data on medical claims in Medicare Part D suggests that fewer than 25% of individuals enroll in plans that are ex ante as good as the least cost plan specified by the Plan Finder tool made available to seniors by the Medicare administration, and that consumers on average have expected excess spending of about $300 per year, or about 15% of ...


Equity Yields, Jules Van Binsbergen, Wouter Hueskes, Ralph Koijen, Evert Vrugt Dec 2013

Equity Yields, Jules Van Binsbergen, Wouter Hueskes, Ralph Koijen, Evert Vrugt

Finance Papers

We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth rates and a term structure of risk premia, which decomposes the equity risk premium by maturity. We find that the slope of the term structure of risk premia is pro-cyclical, whereas the slope of the term structure of expected dividend growth rates is counter-cyclical. The comovement of yields across ...


An Opportunity Cost Model Of Subjective Effort And Task Performance, Robert Kurzban, Angela Lee Duckworth, Joseph W. Kable, Justus Myers Dec 2013

An Opportunity Cost Model Of Subjective Effort And Task Performance, Robert Kurzban, Angela Lee Duckworth, Joseph W. Kable, Justus Myers

Departmental Papers (Psychology)

Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternative explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost – that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the ...


A Tale Of Two Sandys, Erin Bergren, Jessica Coffey, Daniel Aldana Cohen, Ned Crowley, Liz Koslow, Max Liboiron, Alexis Merdjanoff, Adam Murphree, David Wachsmuth Dec 2013

A Tale Of Two Sandys, Erin Bergren, Jessica Coffey, Daniel Aldana Cohen, Ned Crowley, Liz Koslow, Max Liboiron, Alexis Merdjanoff, Adam Murphree, David Wachsmuth

Departmental Papers (Sociology)

Responses to Hurricane Sandy consistently cluster into two types according to how the issues have been defined and understood. On one hand, the crisis was seen as an extreme weather event that created physical and economic damage, and temporarily moved New York City away from its status quo. On the other hand, Hurricane Sandy exacerbated crises which existed before the storm, including poverty, lack of affordable housing, precarious or low employment, and unequal access to resources generally. A Tale of Two Sandys describes these two understandings of disaster and discuss their implications for response, recovery, and justice in New York ...


New Native American Studies Initiative At Penn, Margaret Bruchac Dec 2013

New Native American Studies Initiative At Penn, Margaret Bruchac

Department of Anthropology Papers

No abstract provided.


Breakaway States: Understanding When The International Community Recognizes The Legitimacy Of Separatist States, Brian Zachary Mund Dec 2013

Breakaway States: Understanding When The International Community Recognizes The Legitimacy Of Separatist States, Brian Zachary Mund

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This essay focuses on these conditions that result in the extension of international legitimacy, asking the question; “which factors lead external actors to recognize separatist regions as legitimate states?” In particular, the essay hones in on the factors that lead the international community to recognize separatist states despite the seemingly dominant norm of sovereign territorial integrity. In the subsequent analysis, the essay finds that concerns for international stability and systemic order best explain the variation of international recognition among cases. These concerns are manifested through two distinct mechanisms by which secessionists may undermine the international order. First, separatist behavior that ...


The Military-Environmental Complex, Sarah E. Light Dec 2013

The Military-Environmental Complex, Sarah E. Light

Wharton Public Policy Initiative Issue Briefs

Although the military’s operations are largely exempt from environmental laws and regulations when those laws conflict with its national security mission, the military has important incentives to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels and combat climate change. If nurtured properly, the military’s extensive undertaking to improve its sustainable energy use and reduce demand for fossil-fuel-derived energy has the potential to become one important tool in the environmental regulatory toolkit.


Reforming Rural Education: Understanding Teacher Expectations For Rural Youth, Lisa Yiu, Jennifer H. Adams Dec 2013

Reforming Rural Education: Understanding Teacher Expectations For Rural Youth, Lisa Yiu, Jennifer H. Adams

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

The Chinese state's commitment to improve teaching quality in rural regions is a key component of national efforts to close the rural–urban education gap. In this paper, we investigate an understudied but critical dimension of quality teaching: teacher expectations. We employ longitudinal data gathered in Gansu Province in 2000 and 2007 to first examine whether teacher expectations for rural youth are conditioned by students’ social origin and teacher background characteristics. Next, we determine the predictive accuracy of their expectations. Our results highlight the ways in which teacher expectations condition the sorting of rural children among different schooling tracks ...


Communities Of Journalists And Journalism Practice At Radio Free Europe During The Cold War (1950-1995), Susan D. Haas Dec 2013

Communities Of Journalists And Journalism Practice At Radio Free Europe During The Cold War (1950-1995), Susan D. Haas

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Susan D. Haas

Dissertation Chair: Dr. Carolyn Marvin

This study describes the construction, maintenance and defense of news practices by journalists at Radio Free Europe (RFE), an experimental U.S. government-sponsored organization whose mission was to act as a "surrogate free press", in effect, to disrupt state media-controlled public spheres of totalitarian states during the West's Cold War with communism. At RFE from 1950-1995, two groups of journalists cooperated to produce content: politically activist, exiled citizens - self-trained journalists -- from East-Central Europe working in semi-autonomous language services (radios) broadcasting through the Iron Curtain to the people of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary ...


The Value Of Community Ethnography In Public Library Crisis Preparation, Jessa Lingel Nov 2013

The Value Of Community Ethnography In Public Library Crisis Preparation, Jessa Lingel

Departmental Papers (ASC)

In this brief article, I address the usefulness of including community-driven interviews into preparations for disasters. Drawing on Shera’s (1970) highly influential construction of library work as tied to communication, I analyze responses of three library organizations–the New York Public Library, the Brooklyn Public Library and the New Jersey Library Association–immediately following Hurricane Sandy. I then turn to a specific role of communication that libraries can offer surrounding communities, providing resources for local community members to conduct interviews among those who have experienced a disaster. By incorporating this kind of responsibility to communicate experiences of a crisis ...


"Turkish Rambo": Geopolitical Dramas As Narrative Counter-Hegemony, Marwan M. Kraidy, Omar Al-Ghazzi Nov 2013

"Turkish Rambo": Geopolitical Dramas As Narrative Counter-Hegemony, Marwan M. Kraidy, Omar Al-Ghazzi

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Arabs and Turks share a historically complicated relationship. After 400 years of Ottoman imperialism over Arab lands that lasted until after World War 1, Turkish leader Mustafa kemal Atatürk's secularized Turkey and cut linguistic ties with Arab culture. Secularism, nationalism and NATO membership during the second half of the 20th century further distanced Turkey from Arab countries. This changed in 2001 with the rise of the Justice and Development Party (known by its Turkis acronym AKP). Incorporating electoral politics in a pro-business platform reflecting the AKP's pious and entrepreneurial constituency in Anatolian cities, the AKP has consolidated power ...


Citation Filtered: Iran’S Censorship Of Wikipedia, Nima Nazeri, Collin Anderson Nov 2013

Citation Filtered: Iran’S Censorship Of Wikipedia, Nima Nazeri, Collin Anderson

Iran Media Program

Using proxy servers in Iran, researchers Collin Anderson and Nima Nazeri identified every blocked Persian language Wikipedia article and divided blocked pages into ten categories to determine the type of content state censors are most adverse. In total, 963 blocked articles were found, covering a range of socio-political and sexual content including politics, journalism, the arts, religion, sex, sexuality, and human rights. Censors repeatedly targeted Wikipedia pages about government rivals, minority religious beliefs, and criticisms of the state, officials, and the police. Just under half of the blocked Wiki-pages are biographies, including pages about individuals the authorities have allegedly detained ...


Soft War: A New Episode In The Old Conflicts Between Iran And The United States, Farzan Sabet, Roozbeh Safshekan Nov 2013

Soft War: A New Episode In The Old Conflicts Between Iran And The United States, Farzan Sabet, Roozbeh Safshekan

Iran Media Program

Soft war is ubiquitous today with the way the Islamic Republic of Iran characterizes its relationship with the West, and is a key concern of Iranian national security policy. Few, however, have seriously undertaken the task of defining what soft war is in concrete terms. This analysis proposes a definition of soft war grounded in Joseph Nye’s concept of ‘soft power’ and the history of Iran’s encounter with the West, particularly the United States. In this framework, soft war is the exercise of soft power by the United States on Iran, creating security challenges for the Islamic Republic ...


Consejo Argentino Para Las Relaciones Internacionales, Consejo Argentino Para Las Relaciones Internacionales Nov 2013

Consejo Argentino Para Las Relaciones Internacionales, Consejo Argentino Para Las Relaciones Internacionales

About Think Tanks: The Mission and Impact of the World's Leading Think Tanks

The Argentine Council for International Relations (CARI) is a private, non-profit, academic institution. The Council seeks to study and conduct analysis on the political, economic, cultural, and social dimensions of international relations.

Established on June 15, 1978, CARI's goal is to provide a setting and an environment in which to study and discuss international problems as they relate to Argentina. Acting as a link between Argentina and the world, CARI takes a unique, multidisciplinary approach to the study of international relations. The Council's goal is to work towards peace and the development of mankind through closer international ties ...


Scale And Transfers In International Emissions Offset Programs, Arthur Van Benthem, Suzi Kerr Nov 2013

Scale And Transfers In International Emissions Offset Programs, Arthur Van Benthem, Suzi Kerr

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

Voluntary emissions offset programs between developing and industrialized countries suffer from adverse selection, because participants will self-select into the program. In contrast, pure subsidies for mitigation lead to full participation and hence efficiency, but require large financial transfers which make them unattractive to industrialized countries. We present a simple model to demonstrate the impact of three policy options on the performance of offset programs: (1) baseline scale increases, (2) offset discounting and (3) setting stringent baselines. With baseline scale increases, entire political jurisdictions such as regions or nations are assigned a single, aggregate baseline and must choose whether to participate ...


Identifying Potential Target Beliefs For A Smoking Prevention Mass Media Campaign: Final Findings And Recommendations For 18 – 25 Year Old Never Tobacco Users, Emily Brennan, Laura Gibson, Jiaying Liu, Robert C. Hornik Nov 2013

Identifying Potential Target Beliefs For A Smoking Prevention Mass Media Campaign: Final Findings And Recommendations For 18 – 25 Year Old Never Tobacco Users, Emily Brennan, Laura Gibson, Jiaying Liu, Robert C. Hornik

Departmental Papers (ASC)

No abstract provided.


Identifying Potential Target Beliefs For A Mass Media Campaign Aimed At Preventing Progression To Daily Tobacco Use: Final Findings And Recommendations For 18 – 25 Year Old Non-Daily Tobacco Users, Emily Brennan, Laura Gibson, Jiaying Liu, Robert Hornik Nov 2013

Identifying Potential Target Beliefs For A Mass Media Campaign Aimed At Preventing Progression To Daily Tobacco Use: Final Findings And Recommendations For 18 – 25 Year Old Non-Daily Tobacco Users, Emily Brennan, Laura Gibson, Jiaying Liu, Robert Hornik

Departmental Papers (ASC)

No abstract provided.


Identifying Potential Target Beliefs For A Mass Media Campaign Aimed At Encouraging Smoking Cessation: Final Findings And Recommendations For 18 – 25 Year Old Current Cigarette Smokers, Emily Brennan, Laura Gibson, Jiaying Liu, Robert C. Hornik Nov 2013

Identifying Potential Target Beliefs For A Mass Media Campaign Aimed At Encouraging Smoking Cessation: Final Findings And Recommendations For 18 – 25 Year Old Current Cigarette Smokers, Emily Brennan, Laura Gibson, Jiaying Liu, Robert C. Hornik

Departmental Papers (ASC)

No abstract provided.


Marshallian Labour Market Pooling: Evidence From Italy, Monica Andini, Guido De Blasio, Gilles Duranton, William C. Strange Nov 2013

Marshallian Labour Market Pooling: Evidence From Italy, Monica Andini, Guido De Blasio, Gilles Duranton, William C. Strange

Real Estate Papers

This paper employs a unique Italian data source to take a comprehensive approach to labour market pooling. It jointly considers many different aspects of the agglomeration — labour market relationship, including turnover, learning, matching, and hold up. It also considers labour market pooling from the perspective of both workers and firms and across a range of industries. Overall, the paper finds some support for theories of labour market pooling, but the support is weak. Specifically, there is a general positive relationship of turnover to local population density, which is consistent with theories of agglomeration and uncertainty. There is also evidence of ...


Superstar Cities, Joseph Gyourko, Christopher Mayer, Todd Sinai Nov 2013

Superstar Cities, Joseph Gyourko, Christopher Mayer, Todd Sinai

Real Estate Papers

We document large long-run differences in average house price appreciation across metropolitan areas over the past 50 years, and show they can be explained by an inelastic supply of land in some unique locations combined with an increasing number of high income households nationally. The resulting high house prices and price-to-rent ratios in those "superstar" areas crowd out lower income households. The same forces generate a similar pattern among municipalities within a metropolitan area. These facts suggest that disparate local house price and income trends can be driven by aggregate demand, not just changes in local factors such as productivity ...


Shared Decision Making For Clients With Mental Illness: A Randomized Factorial Survey, Jonathan M Lukens, Phyllis L. Solomon, Susan B. Sorenson Nov 2013

Shared Decision Making For Clients With Mental Illness: A Randomized Factorial Survey, Jonathan M Lukens, Phyllis L. Solomon, Susan B. Sorenson

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Objective: The goal of this study was to test the degree to which client clinical characteristics and environmental context and social workers’ practice values and experience influenced support for client’s autonomy and willingness to engage in shared decision making (SDM), and whether willingness to engage in SDM was mediated by support for autonomy.

Method: A randomized factorial survey of social workers working with adults with severe mental illness was employed. Eighty-seven social workers responded yielding 435 vignettes.

Results: Hypotheses were partially supported. Diagnosis, symptomology, threats of harm, treatment adherence, substance use, and social workers’ values and experience predicted support ...


Social Democracy Or Corporate Libertarianism? Conflicting Media Policy Narratives In The Wake Of Market Failure, Victor Pickard Nov 2013

Social Democracy Or Corporate Libertarianism? Conflicting Media Policy Narratives In The Wake Of Market Failure, Victor Pickard

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Assuming that crucial public services should not be left entirely to market-driven forces, American policymakers attempted to establish safeguards for news media. An examination of conflicting narratives within postwar policy debates suggests that the US evaded this path largely because of a concerted backlash—often in the form of red-baiting—encouraged by threatened newspaper and broadcast industries. Many lessons, parallels, and forgotten antecedents for current American media policy can be drawn from the postwar 1940s. Thus, it is instructive to explore how these earlier debates were framed, particularly in response to what might be referred to as ‘‘market failure.’’ Given ...


Preferences, Structure, And Influence: The Engineering Of Consent, Witold J. Henisz Nov 2013

Preferences, Structure, And Influence: The Engineering Of Consent, Witold J. Henisz

Management Papers

I present a decision process framework that informs the design and implementation of stakeholder influence strategy. This process combines insights from agent‐based dynamic utility and dynamic network processes. Stakeholders strategically seek an outcome as close as possible to their preferred point but also wish to be on the winning side and not to pursue positions divergent from stakeholders with whom they have strong affective ties. Simulation analysis highlights important effects from embedding stakeholders within such an interdependent policymaking network. The resulting decision process framework can be used by firms to assess the likely dynamics within such a stakeholder network ...