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2013

University of Massachusetts Amherst

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Articles 1 - 30 of 227

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

"For A Future Tomorrow": The Figured Worlds Of Schoolgirls In Kono, Sierra Leone, Jordene Hale Dec 2013

"For A Future Tomorrow": The Figured Worlds Of Schoolgirls In Kono, Sierra Leone, Jordene Hale

Doctoral Dissertations

Current research in Sub-Sahara Africa suggests that young women face challenges in accessing and completing schooling, due among other things to gender related school based violence (Bruce & Hallman, 2008; Dunne, Humphreys, & Leach, 2006; Lloyd, Kaufman, & Hewett, 2000). These studies, while valuable in providing documentation on school enrollment and school leaving, do not explore the motivational framework where young women remain in school.

The purpose of this dissertation is to trace how schoolgirls’ identities or “figured worlds” (Gee, 2011) are co-constructed in particular contexts by the same cohort of schoolgirls, their teachers, households, and communities through an ethnographic case study conducted over a period of three years from 2010 to 2013 in Kono, Sierra Leone. The unit of analysis is the experience of the individual schoolgirls rendered in detailed portraits. The central research question addressed is: What are the ‘figured worlds’ that these schoolgirls inhabit that compels them, in the face of overwhelming odds, to commit to schooling? What is the role of “imagined communities” for these schoolgirls (Anderson, 1991; Kanno & Norton, 2003)? Further, how do the schoolgirls utilize the liminal space of schooling (Switzer, 2010)? Employing the portraiture methodology (Lawrence-Lightfoot & Hoffman Davis, 1997) this research focuses on three schoolgirls, their communities, and their relationships with the researcher. This research analyzes how for schoolgirls in sub-Sahara Africa, the figured worlds of schoolgirls, is an identity that despite the physical risk, economic loss, and unlikely career success, becomes compelling. This ...


The Cable Network In An Era Of Digital Media: Bravo And The Constraints Of Consumer Citizenship, Alison D. Brzenchek Nov 2013

The Cable Network In An Era Of Digital Media: Bravo And The Constraints Of Consumer Citizenship, Alison D. Brzenchek

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation takes a historiographical approach to the evolution of cable television over thirty years. Case analysis of archival data is used to trace the trajectory of the Bravo cable network from 1980 through 2010. My dissertation is a vital contribution to critical cultural studies, feminist studies, citizenship studies, and media history because it historicizes the role branding, commodification, and convergence played in Bravo’s evolution from a highbrow arts programmer guided by bourgeois consumer citizenship, to a affluent lifestyle network guided by nouveau riche consumer citizenship.

My combination of production studies and political economic analysis gives visibility to the ...


Wrap Up & Where To From Here, Kathleen Draper, Hugh Mclaughlin, Erich J. Knight Mr., Amanda Ravenhill Oct 2013

Wrap Up & Where To From Here, Kathleen Draper, Hugh Mclaughlin, Erich J. Knight Mr., Amanda Ravenhill

USBI Biochar Conferences

Symposium Track Chairs will provide high level summaries of the information covered in each of the tracks: Feedstock & Production; Benefits & Uses; Policy & Community and Sales, Scale & Marketing.

To conclude the symposium and leverage all of the great new ideas and information in everyone's minds, we will capture key take aways as a community and then invite suggestions and discussion about next steps in the biochar movement.


Manure Management & Biochar, Matthew W. Smith, John Miedema, Mike Mcgolden Oct 2013

Manure Management & Biochar, Matthew W. Smith, John Miedema, Mike Mcgolden

USBI Biochar Conferences

Co-location synergies: Biomethane & Biochar Production: John Medeima, BioLogical Carbon

Biochar Filters Impact on Anaerobic Digestion: Matthew Smith, WSU

http://youtu.be/RILS6wS3qWk

The Benefits of a Manure-based Biochar: Mike McGolden

http://youtu.be/t1hVgolalRI

Biochar has been in existence for thousands of years. However, it has only been in the past decade that there has been a resurgence in the thirst for knowledge about biochar and research into how it is made and its impact on the environment.

This resurgence has brought about a tremendous amount of research and a rapid growth in education among the general population about biochar – especially in the past 5 years. However, this history and almost all of the research has been with wood-based biochars. The use of manure as the feedstock to produce biochar is very limited; but the benefits are significant and also different from those of traditional wood-based biochars. The nutrient composition of the biochar from manure offers additional benefits not seen from other biochars. It also has a virtually unlimited supply of feedstock and in volumes that allow for larger systems without costly transportation of fuel. On the other hand, the use of manure as a fuel presents some technological challenges that wood does not.

Environmentally and economically, manure-based biochar can provide the solution to many of the problems facing agriculture today.


Wednesday Morning Plenary, Doris Hamill, Tom Miles Oct 2013

Wednesday Morning Plenary, Doris Hamill, Tom Miles

USBI Biochar Conferences

Tom Miles will kick off the "Where to From Here" conversation that is critical to understanding next steps for the biochar industry in North America.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NCIu8QEQUkk

Doris Hamill will describe the K-12 biochar educational package she and her team launched at NASA, where it has taken off and where it may land. She will also share details about her project for using biochar in the redevelopment project on the Hampton Roads campus.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yx_7w1-bJ8A


Pre-Soil Techniques, Nigel Gale, Dale Hendricks, Doug Clayton Oct 2013

Pre-Soil Techniques, Nigel Gale, Dale Hendricks, Doug Clayton

USBI Biochar Conferences

Rescuing biochar: Pre - application techniques to enhance plant responses to biochar additions: Nigel Gale, U of Toronto

A growing body of literature indicates variable responses of different plant species to biochar, including positive, neutral, and negative, suggesting that it is important to investigate the nature and mechanism of species-specific responses to biochar additions. Neutral or negative plant responses to additions of biochars have commonly been reported in prior studies, and are likely the result of a combination of changes in soil properties (e.g. pH, surface area, and nutrient and water retention) and the production of volatile organic compounds from ...


Labeling Biochar Products, Kelpie Wilson, David Yarrow, Renel Anderson Oct 2013

Labeling Biochar Products, Kelpie Wilson, David Yarrow, Renel Anderson

USBI Biochar Conferences

Making Claims for Biochar: Kelpie Wilson

Cool Foods: David Yarrow, KAW Valley Biochar

OMRI Certification: Renel Anderson, Black Owl Biochar


Novel Uses Of Biochar, Hans-Peter Schmidt Oct 2013

Novel Uses Of Biochar, Hans-Peter Schmidt

USBI Biochar Conferences

Cascading Uses of Biochar - Hans-Peter Schmidt, Ithaka Institute

In addition to the use of biochar as a soil amendment, there are an increasing number of ways to incorporate biochar into different eco- and industrial systems. Thus feeding biochar to livestock has numerous benefits not only for the animals, but it also helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improves nutrient retention in animal manure. The use of biochar in building materials is just beginning to be studied but shows promise in the ability to insulate, decontaminate air, provide odor and humidity control. Biochar as pillow filling to induce perfectly reposing sleep ...


Ethics & Sustainability, Gloria Flora, John Bonitz, Karen Ribeiro Oct 2013

Ethics & Sustainability, Gloria Flora, John Bonitz, Karen Ribeiro

USBI Biochar Conferences

Biochar and the Sustainability Imperative. Now marks a critical time: as biochar comes of age and markets begin to develop, this young industry is attracting naysayers, doubters and get-rich-quick-schemers. Ethical biochar production and use is of paramount importance as we continue to lay the groundwork for biochar as a model for carbon neutral/negative business, landscape restoration and truly green technology. Shortcuts, poor quality product and unsustainable use of biomass could bring biochar to its knees before it gains the traction necessary to fulfill its promises. This discussion will explore opportunities and pitfalls in feedstocks sustainability, production integrity and ethics ...


Multiple Group Relations: Maintaining Balance Through Indirect Contact Effects, Diala R. Hawi Oct 2013

Multiple Group Relations: Maintaining Balance Through Indirect Contact Effects, Diala R. Hawi

Doctoral Dissertations

Most research on intergroup relations has focused on two groups, whereby one group’s attitudes toward another group may change as a result of their contact experiences with that other group. Yet in real life settings, contexts in which groups come into contact are likely to involve multiple groups. This research argues that attitudes and perceptions that members of one group form about another group depend not only on their direct contact experiences with that group, but also on their relationship with third-party groups, and the perceived relationships that third-party groups have with the other group. The present research uses ...


Farmer Workshop, Rachel Hestrin, David Yarrow, Christian Pulver, Thea Whitman Oct 2013

Farmer Workshop, Rachel Hestrin, David Yarrow, Christian Pulver, Thea Whitman

USBI Biochar Conferences

Sunday afternoon October 13, 2013 from 1:00 to 4pm, at the New England Small Farm Institute in Belchertown MA (275 Jackson Street)

Join fellow farmers and gardeners in an interactive, educational, and highly stimulating presentation/workshop about what biochar is (and is not) along with details about how and why biochar can help you achieve your growing goals. Learn about the many benefits of soil conditioning with biochar, application techniques and amounts, carbon stability, and other practical advice. Rachel Hestrin from Cornell University will deliver a hands on technical presentation and field expert David Yarrow will review his extensive ...


Umass Amherst Friends Of The Library Newsletter - Fall/Winter 2013 (No. 46), Jay Schafer Oct 2013

Umass Amherst Friends Of The Library Newsletter - Fall/Winter 2013 (No. 46), Jay Schafer

Library News for the Friends of the UMass Amherst Libraries

As I promised in the Spring “News,” 2013 has been jam-packed with events and celebrations. The Sesquicentennial Celebration has been a focus both for the campus and the Libraries. Our Department of Special Collections and University Archives (SCUA) has provided historical documentation of the past 150 years, including a rich collection of photographs and memorabilia, that appears at almost every event related to the celebration. Rob Cox, Head of SCUA, and his staff are due special commendation for their extraordinary dedication in working with such a broad community of constituents to make campus history come alive. We are also celebrating ...


Nelig Meeting - September 27, 2013, New England Library Instruction Group Sep 2013

Nelig Meeting - September 27, 2013, New England Library Instruction Group

New England Library Instruction Group

NELIG quarterly meeting.


The Performative Gift: A Feminist Materialist Conceptual Model, Jörgen Skågeby Sep 2013

The Performative Gift: A Feminist Materialist Conceptual Model, Jörgen Skågeby

communication +1

Gifting (or gift-giving) is a particularly interesting form of communication that envelops both material and social dimensions. Objects are transformed into gifts through particular socio-material practices. While these practices are, of course, interesting in themselves, this paper will take a step back and revisit attempts to define and theorize the gift as a concept. In a time when the gift economy is often called upon as a potential candidate for more “participatory alternatives to capitalist totality”, particularly in relation to theorizing of labour on and through the Internet, theories of gifting provide an important foundation for discussing the boundaries of ...


Informational Ontology: The Meaning Of Gilbert Simondon’S Concept Of Individuation, Andrew Iliadis Sep 2013

Informational Ontology: The Meaning Of Gilbert Simondon’S Concept Of Individuation, Andrew Iliadis

communication +1

The French philosopher Gilbert Simondon (1924-1989) was the first true philosopher of information, yet he remains relatively unknown outside of his native France. This situation is curious, given the warm reception his work has received from a small group of internationally renowned thinkers. Simondon’s lifelong project was to expound the appearance of what I call an “informational ontology,” a subject that deserves to be addresses at length. This article limits itself by focusing on three aspects of Simondon’s philosophy of information. First, it situates Simondon within the French intellectual scene in post-World War II Europe to get sense ...


New-Materialism And Reification In The Infoproduction Era, German A. Duarte Sep 2013

New-Materialism And Reification In The Infoproduction Era, German A. Duarte

communication +1

Deleuze’s works on cinema established a parallel between the evolution of cinematographic narrative spaces and the development of non-Euclidean geometries, and contributed to the overcoming of the structuralistic approach to the analysis of cinematographic narrative. From that point onwards, one starts to understand audiovisual narrative spaces as topologic spaces, namely, as spaces without a center in which the objects are highly flexible. In other words, in Deleuzian theory, the space is no longer understood as a holder or container of objects, but rather as an entity created by links, interactions, relations and proximities between objects. This centerless system also ...


Modeling The Influence Of Childhood Trauma On Rate Of Symptom Change Among Psychiatric Inpatients, Alessandro T. Piselli Sep 2013

Modeling The Influence Of Childhood Trauma On Rate Of Symptom Change Among Psychiatric Inpatients, Alessandro T. Piselli

Open Access Dissertations

Clinical wisdom suggests that adults with histories of childhood trauma will have difficulty engaging in psychotherapy. I examined the relationship between early childhood trauma and treatment response in the form of rate of symptom decline among a group of 202 adults recruited into the longitudinal Austen Riggs Center Follow-Along Study. Participants were recruited at admission to the hospital and provided extensive demographic and clinical data at baseline, including retrospective recall of childhood traumatic experiences using the Traumatic Antecedents Interview (TAI) and narrative responses to the Relationship Anecdote Paradigm (RAP) used to generate ratings on the Social Cognition and Object Relations ...


Travelers' Route Choice Behavior In Risky Networks, Hengliang Tian Sep 2013

Travelers' Route Choice Behavior In Risky Networks, Hengliang Tian

Open Access Dissertations

The accurate modeling of travelers’ route choice decision making when faced with unreliable (risky) travel times is necessary for the assessment of policies aimed at improving travel time reliability. Two major objectives are studied in this thesis. The first objective is to evaluate the applicability of a process model to route choice under risk where the actual process of decision making is captured. Traditionally, we adopt “as-if” econometric models to predict people’s route choice decisions. The second objective is to investigate travelers’ capability to incorporate future real-time traffic information into their current route choice decision making. Two separate stated ...


Parent Training For Families Of Hyperactive Preschool-Aged Children, Sharonne D. Herbert Sep 2013

Parent Training For Families Of Hyperactive Preschool-Aged Children, Sharonne D. Herbert

Open Access Dissertations

Objective:The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a parenting program designed specifically for hyperactive preschoolers. Method: Participants were 31 preschool-aged children whose parents were randomly assigned to a treatment or waitlist group. Parents who were assigned to the treatment group took part in a 14-week parenting program that involved teaching parenting strategies to manage hyperactive and disruptive behavior as well as emotion socialization strategies to increase children's emotion regulation. Results: The present study's findings were mixed. There were significant changes on a number of measures of child functioning and parent behavior for families who took part in ...


Muslim Tatar Women's Piety Stories: A Quest For Personal And Social Transformation In Tatarstan (Russia), Liliya V. Karimova Sep 2013

Muslim Tatar Women's Piety Stories: A Quest For Personal And Social Transformation In Tatarstan (Russia), Liliya V. Karimova

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation introduces and analyzes "piety stories," the stories that Muslim Tatar women in Tatarstan, Russia, share about their paths to becoming observant Muslims. It examines the ways women use these stories to create and represent moral worlds that diverge from those of the mostly secular, historically Christian, society that surrounds them. This study is based on ethnographic research and recordings of stories in Tatarstan's capital city of Kazan and its suburbs over a total period of thirteen months (from 2006 through 2010).

While outsiders often see Islam as oppressing women, these women experience Muslim piety as a source ...


Contested Subjects: Biopolitics & The Moral Stakes Of Social Cohesion In Post-Welfare Italy, Milena Marchesi Sep 2013

Contested Subjects: Biopolitics & The Moral Stakes Of Social Cohesion In Post-Welfare Italy, Milena Marchesi

Open Access Dissertations

The requirements of European Unification, along with broader processes of globalization, including immigration, are reshaping economic and welfare priorities and reconfiguring the relationship between citizens and the state in Italy. The reorganization of the Italian welfare state around the principle of subsidiarity combines neoliberal restructuring with a commitment to social solidarity and cohesion and privileges the family as the social formation best suited to mediate between state, market, and citizens. As the state retreats from some of its former social welfare responsibilities, it simultaneously extends its reach into matters of reproduction and family-making. Biopolitics in the time of subsidiarity encompasses ...


Resilient Environmental Governance: Protecting Changing Ecosystems Through Multilevel Governance, Casey Stevens Sep 2013

Resilient Environmental Governance: Protecting Changing Ecosystems Through Multilevel Governance, Casey Stevens

Open Access Dissertations

International governance is increasingly defined by multilevel governance; with short-term projects, transnational cooperation between different groups, and unclear institutional space. In this situation, a key issue is the resilience of governance arrangements or the ability of governance arrangements to respond to political and ecological shocks to the system. Using international biodiversity governance, this study explores the question: What social and political processes produce resilient governance?

This study argues that the key to understanding resilient governance is the network structure within and outside of the governance arrangement. Modular network structures are able to generate ideas from multiple sources, able to solve ...


The Structure Of Consciousness, Lowell Keith Friesen Sep 2013

The Structure Of Consciousness, Lowell Keith Friesen

Open Access Dissertations

In this dissertation, I examine the nature and structure of consciousness. Conscious experience is often said to be phenomenally unified, and subjects of consciousness are often self-conscious. I ask whether these features necessarily accompany conscious experience. Is it necessarily the case, for instance, that all of a conscious subject's experiences at a time are phenomenally unified? And is it necessarily the case that subjects of consciousness are self-conscious whenever they are conscious? I argue that the answer to the former is affirmative and the latter negative.

In the first chapter, I set the stage by distinguishing phenomenal unity from ...


Bringing The Ballot Box To The People: Election Administration And The Origins Of Inclusive Voting Practices, Kevin Pallister Sep 2013

Bringing The Ballot Box To The People: Election Administration And The Origins Of Inclusive Voting Practices, Kevin Pallister

Open Access Dissertations

Countries holding competitive elections vary in the extent to which the administrative practices surrounding the voting process facilitate or impede voter participation. Differences in the requirements for voter registration, the distances voters must travel to reach a polling place, the mechanics of casting a ballot, and the provision of voter education, among other factors, pose varying obstacles to participation. This variation poses a puzzle that this dissertation addresses: Why do some democracies adopt election administration practices that lower barriers to voter participation, while others adopt practices that raise prohibitive obstacles to the participation of at least some citizens? More simply ...


Transition Network: Exploring Intersections Between Culture, The Climate Crisis, And A Digital Network In A Community - Driven Global Social Movement, Emily Polk Sep 2013

Transition Network: Exploring Intersections Between Culture, The Climate Crisis, And A Digital Network In A Community - Driven Global Social Movement, Emily Polk

Open Access Dissertations

The core aim of this research is to explore the communication processes of the Transition movement, a community-led global social movement as it adapted in a local context. The Transition movement facilitates community-led responses to the current global financial and climate crisis via the Transition Network, an online network that began in 2006, and is comprised of more than 2000 initiatives in 35 countries that have used the Transition model to start projects that use small-scale solutions to achieve greater sustainability. This research uses qualitative ethnographic methods and a theoretical framework based on actor network theory to better understand how ...


Visiting Or Here To Stay? How Framing Multiculturalism In Different Ways Changes Attitudes And Inclusion Of Ethnic Minorities In The United States, Melissa Ann Mcmanus Scircle Sep 2013

Visiting Or Here To Stay? How Framing Multiculturalism In Different Ways Changes Attitudes And Inclusion Of Ethnic Minorities In The United States, Melissa Ann Mcmanus Scircle

Open Access Dissertations

Three experiments explored the way in which different framings of multiculturalism influence White American perceivers’ attitudes towards ethnic minorities and inclusion of them in the national group. Results showed that while participants always preferred Whites to ethnic minorities, the difference in liking was largest when multiculturalism was described as permanent and Whites were present (vs. absent) in that description. In contrast, differences in liking did not vary by the role of Whites when multiculturalism was described as temporary (Studies 1 and 2). Second, Whites were always seen as more American than ethnic minorities, but particularly when Whites were present (vs ...


The Economics Of Same-Sex Couple Households: Essays On Work, Wages, And Poverty, Alyssa Schneebaum Sep 2013

The Economics Of Same-Sex Couple Households: Essays On Work, Wages, And Poverty, Alyssa Schneebaum

Open Access Dissertations

Since Badgett's (1995a) landmark study on the wage effects of sexual orientation, interest in and production of scholarly work addressing the economics of sexual orientation has grown tremendously. Curious puzzles have emerged in the literature on the economics of same-sex couple households, three of which are addressed in detail in this dissertation.

Most studies of the wages of women in same-sex couples versus different-sex couples find that the former earn more, even controlling for differences in present labor market supply, education, experience, area of residence, and occupation. However, most previous studies of the sexual orientation wage gap omit the ...


The Political Economy Of Cultural Production: Essays On Music And Class, Ian J. Seda Irizarry Sep 2013

The Political Economy Of Cultural Production: Essays On Music And Class, Ian J. Seda Irizarry

Open Access Dissertations

Overview

As an activity that produces wealth, musical production and its effects have largely been neglected by the economics profession. This dissertation seeks contribute to a small but growing literature on the subject by analyzing musical production through a particular class analytical lens of political economy.

A first problem that has encountered many within political economy, specifically within its radical variant of Marxism, is how to understand music in relation to the social totality. In the first essay of this work I provide a critical review of the literature that approaches music through the "base-superstructure metaphor", a tool of analysis ...


Seeds Of A New Economy? A Qualitative Investigation Of Diverse Economic Practices Within Community Supported Agriculture And Community Supported Enterprise, Ted White Sep 2013

Seeds Of A New Economy? A Qualitative Investigation Of Diverse Economic Practices Within Community Supported Agriculture And Community Supported Enterprise, Ted White

Open Access Dissertations

Amidst widespread feelings that capitalism is a deeply problematic yet necessary approach to economy, Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) has emerged as both an alternative model for farming and as an increasingly visible and viable model for alternative economy. Using qualitative methods, this doctoral research explores and documents how CSA has become a productive space for economic innovation and practice that emphasizes interdependence, camaraderie and community well-being rather than hierarchical control and private gain. This study also examines how the many participants of CSA have built an identity for CSA--branding it via autonomous and collective efforts. This has resulted in CSA ...


A Knife Hidden In Roses: Development And Gender Violence In The Dominican Republic, Cruz Caridad Bueno Sep 2013

A Knife Hidden In Roses: Development And Gender Violence In The Dominican Republic, Cruz Caridad Bueno

Open Access Dissertations

On September 30, 2012, Jonathan Torres stabbed his wife, Miguelina Martinez, fifty-two times in a beauty salon in Santiago, Dominican Republic. Ms. Martinez, 33 years-old, went to the district attorney's office eighteen times in the two weeks prior to her murder to report that because of her husband's violent threats she left her home. He killed her because she no longer wanted to be with him; the knife he used was hidden in a bouquet of roses.

This three-essay style dissertation interrogates the state of development and gender violence in the Dominican Republic. The first chapter examines the ...