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2013

Sociology

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Articles 3181 - 3210 of 3215

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

“Legislated Isomorphism Of Immigrant Religions: Lessons From Sweden”, Gwendolyn Yvonne Alexis Dec 2012

“Legislated Isomorphism Of Immigrant Religions: Lessons From Sweden”, Gwendolyn Yvonne Alexis

Gwendolyn Yvonne Alexis

No abstract provided.


Parental Influence On Inhalant Use, Alina Baltazar, Gary Hopkins, Duane C. Mcbride, Curt Vanderwaal, Sara Pepper, Sarah Mackey Dec 2012

Parental Influence On Inhalant Use, Alina Baltazar, Gary Hopkins, Duane C. Mcbride, Curt Vanderwaal, Sara Pepper, Sarah Mackey

Duane McBride

The purpose of this article is to examine the dynamics of the relationship between parents and their adolescent children and their association with lifetime and past-month inhalant usage. The population studied was seventh- through ninth-grade students in rural Idaho (N = 570). The authors found a small, but consistent, significant inverse correlation between parental bonding and monitoring of behavior and inhalant usage. There was also a significant positive correlation between verbally aggressive behavior in the family and inhalant use. The data imply that family interaction may play a significant role in the use of inhalants and that the family can play ...


Dark Tourism Scholarship: A Critical Review, Philip Stone Dr Dec 2012

Dark Tourism Scholarship: A Critical Review, Philip Stone Dr

Dr Philip Stone

Commonly referred to as dark tourism or thanatourism, the act of touristic travel to sites of or sites associated with death and disaster has gained significant attention with media imaginations and academic scholarship. However, despite a growing body of literature on the representation and tourist experience of deathscapes within the visitor economy, dark tourism as a field of study is still very much in its infancy. Moreover, questions remain of the academic origins of the dark tourism concept as well as its contribution to the broader social scientific study of tourism and death education. Thus, the purpose of my invited ...


Deviance, Dark Tourism And ‘Dark Leisure’: Towards A (Re)Configuration Of Morality And The Taboo In Secular Society, Philip R. Stone Dec 2012

Deviance, Dark Tourism And ‘Dark Leisure’: Towards A (Re)Configuration Of Morality And The Taboo In Secular Society, Philip R. Stone

Dr Philip Stone

A taboo is a prohibition placed on exposing what is good as well as what is bad. Indeed, prohibited by authority or social influences, taboos are rooted in an unconscious guilt and insulated from our psychosocial life-worlds by mediating institutions of religion and politics. Yet, in an age of secularisation and liberalisation, new mediating institutions of the taboo are emerging, particularly within contemporary museology. Presently, therefore, a number of time-honoured taboos are increasingly becoming translucent and, as a result, there is a new willingness to tackle inherently ambiguous and problematical interpretations. Consequently, an exhilarating phase of museological development has opened ...


Dark Tourism, Heterotopias And Post-Apocalyptic Places: The Case Of Chernobyl, Philip R. Stone Dec 2012

Dark Tourism, Heterotopias And Post-Apocalyptic Places: The Case Of Chernobyl, Philip R. Stone

Dr Philip Stone

On 26 April 1986, during a procedural shut down of reactor number four at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (now Ukraine), a catastrophic surge of energy led to a reactor vessel rupture and, subsequently, resulted in the world’s worst nuclear accident. Numbers of deaths from the disaster vary enormously, including from the radioactive fallout that encroached great swathes of Western Europe, to the apparent generational health maladies that now affect local populations. However, despite remaining health and safety concerns, illegal visitor tours to Chernobyl have flourished over the past decade or so. Moreover ...


Civil Religion And The Cultural Politics Of National Identity In Obama’S America, Rhys H. Williams Dec 2012

Civil Religion And The Cultural Politics Of National Identity In Obama’S America, Rhys H. Williams

Rhys Williams

No abstract provided.


Taiwanese Americans, Chien-Juh Gu Dec 2012

Taiwanese Americans, Chien-Juh Gu

Chien-Juh Gu

No abstract provided.


Slaves To Contradictions: 13 Myths That Sustained Slavery, Wilson Huhn Dec 2012

Slaves To Contradictions: 13 Myths That Sustained Slavery, Wilson Huhn

Wilson R. Huhn

People have a fundamental need to think of themselves as “good people.” To achieve this we tell each other stories – we create myths – about ourselves and our society. These myths may be true or they may be false. The more discordant a myth is with reality, the more difficult it is to convince people to embrace it. In such cases to sustain the illusion of truth it may be necessary to develop an entire mythology – an integrated web of mutually supporting stories. This paper explores the system of myths that sustained the institution of slavery in the antebellum United States.


Recommendations For Integrating Environmental Justice Into The Epa's Research Enterprise Dec 2012

Recommendations For Integrating Environmental Justice Into The Epa's Research Enterprise

Earthea Nance, PhD (Stanford University, 2004)

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Levees And The National Flood Insurance Program: Improving Policies And Practices Dec 2012

Levees And The National Flood Insurance Program: Improving Policies And Practices

Earthea Nance, PhD (Stanford University, 2004)

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Hong Kong Happiness Index Survey 2013, Lok Sang Ho Dec 2012

Hong Kong Happiness Index Survey 2013, Lok Sang Ho

Prof. HO Lok-sang

Results of Lingnan University’s Hong Kong Happiness Index Survey 2013 indicate a slight increase of Hong Kong people’s happiness index to 70.5, up from 70.3 last year on a scale of 0-100. Even though the uptick in the happiness index is insignificant, it is still unexpected in view of the social and political tensions in Hong Kong.

Satisfaction with the quality of public policy has fallen markedly from last year’s 4.77 to 4.14 on a scale of 0 to 10. Also declining noticeably is satisfaction with the living environment from 6.03 to ...


First Draft Do Not Publish- Regulations On Firearms: Confessions From A Gun Salesman, Beau W. Cross Dec 2012

First Draft Do Not Publish- Regulations On Firearms: Confessions From A Gun Salesman, Beau W. Cross

Beau W Cross

Over the past year, there has been a heated debate on Capitol Hill about the regulation of firearms and accessories such as high capacity magazines. With many school massacres and other acts of violence due to gunfire taking place in the past few decades, change in regulations was inevitable. A total ban on firearms was not feasible, as a citizen’s right to bear arms is protected through the Second Amendment of the United States Constitution. However, in 2005, President Bush took a stance; he created change in policy by signing the Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act (Arms ...


How Canada Built Its Supermax Prisons, Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D. Dec 2012

How Canada Built Its Supermax Prisons, Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D.

Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Deconstructing Correctional Officer Deviance: Toward Typologies Of Actions And Controls, Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D. Dec 2012

Deconstructing Correctional Officer Deviance: Toward Typologies Of Actions And Controls, Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D.

Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Convict Criminology At The Crossroads, Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D., Greg Newbold Dec 2012

Convict Criminology At The Crossroads, Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D., Greg Newbold

Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Deciding To Cross: The Norms And Economics Of Unauthorized Migration, Emily Ryo Dec 2012

Deciding To Cross: The Norms And Economics Of Unauthorized Migration, Emily Ryo

Emily Ryo

Why are there so many unauthorized migrants in the United States? Using unique survey data collected in Mexico through the Mexican Migration Project, I develop and test a new decisionmaking model of unauthorized labor migration. The new model considers the economic motivations of prospective migrants, as well as their beliefs, attitudes, and social norms regarding U.S. immigration law and legal authorities. My findings show that perceptions of certainty of apprehension and severity of punishment are not significant determinants of the intent to migrate illegally; however, perceptions of availability of Mexican jobs and the dangers of border crossing are significant ...


The Storyteller: Observations On Murtada Bulbul’S ‘Swineherders’, Sharon Sliwinski Dec 2012

The Storyteller: Observations On Murtada Bulbul’S ‘Swineherders’, Sharon Sliwinski

Sharon Sliwinski

This review engages Murtada Bulbul's series of photographs of Bangladeshi swineherders (published in this issue), casting the photographer's treatment as that of a storyteller. On one hand, this treatment suggests the importance of visual-cultural forms for the very legibility of human rights. On the other hand, Bulbul's pictures can teach us something about what it means to live a "bare life," that is, to live at the edges of the human community.


“On Marriage Equality” (Review Of Jay Cee Whitehead's The Nuptial Deal: Same-Sex Marriage And Neo-Liberal Governance [University Of Chicago Press, 2011]), Margot Weiss Dec 2012

“On Marriage Equality” (Review Of Jay Cee Whitehead's The Nuptial Deal: Same-Sex Marriage And Neo-Liberal Governance [University Of Chicago Press, 2011]), Margot Weiss

Margot Weiss

Jaye Cee Whitehead’s book The Nuptial Deal is a sociological study of a marriage equality organization (given the pseudonym Marriage Rights Now, or MRN) in the western United States


Digital Underground: Musical Spaces And Microscenes In The Postindustrial City, David Grazian Dec 2012

Digital Underground: Musical Spaces And Microscenes In The Postindustrial City, David Grazian

David Grazian

No abstract provided.


Interviews, Chien-Juh Gu Dec 2012

Interviews, Chien-Juh Gu

Chien-Juh Gu

No abstract provided.


Self-Treatment Vs. Recreational Motives: Differentiating Nonmedical Use Of Prescription Drugs Among Youth, Whitney Decamp, Erin J. Farley, Daniel J. O’Connell Dec 2012

Self-Treatment Vs. Recreational Motives: Differentiating Nonmedical Use Of Prescription Drugs Among Youth, Whitney Decamp, Erin J. Farley, Daniel J. O’Connell

Whitney DeCamp

Nonmedical use of prescription drugs has become a serious social problem among American youth. Two general categories of motives for the nonmedical use of prescription drugs include self-treatment and recreational use. This study assesses differences between nonmedical prescription drug users based on their self-reported motivation for using prescription drugs. Data come from more than 11,000 11th grade students in Delaware public schools. Analyses indicate significant differences in prevalence, correlates, and consequences on nonmedical use of prescription drugs based on motivation for use. Analysis reveal that, among those students who reported non-medical use of prescription drugs, those who are using ...


Fatherhood, Community Reintegration, And Successful Outcomes, Christy A. Visher, Nicholas W. Bakken, Whitney Decamp Dec 2012

Fatherhood, Community Reintegration, And Successful Outcomes, Christy A. Visher, Nicholas W. Bakken, Whitney Decamp

Whitney DeCamp

Prior research indicates that assuming family roles, such as parent or spouse, can aid in the transition from prison to the community and has been linked to positive outcomes after a period of confinement. Using data from a longitudinal study of men returning to the community after incarceration, this study examines how the relationship between fathers and their children immediately after release may impact aspects of fathers’ lives that are important to a successful reentry transition in the first year, such as employment, abstinence from substance abuse, and mental health. Analyses show that fathers who lived with children before incarceration ...


Gender Differences In Victimization Risk: Exploring The Role Of Deviant Lifestyles, Heather Zaykowski, Whitney Decamp Dec 2012

Gender Differences In Victimization Risk: Exploring The Role Of Deviant Lifestyles, Heather Zaykowski, Whitney Decamp

Whitney DeCamp

While research over the past few decades has illustrated that gender is a significant predictor of victimization, there has been less attention towards explaining these differences. Furthermore, there has been little attention given to how offending and other deviant behaviors contribute to victimization risk for males and females. This is surprising considering that offending, particularly violent behavior, is highly correlated with victimization risk and that males are more likely to offend than females. This study applied cross-sectional and time-ordered models predicting violent victimization and repeat victimization to examine how deviant lifestyles impacted victimization risk for males and females. The results ...


Health Behaviors And Standardized Test Scores: The Impact Of School Health Climate On Performance, Whitney Decamp, Kevin Daly Dec 2012

Health Behaviors And Standardized Test Scores: The Impact Of School Health Climate On Performance, Whitney Decamp, Kevin Daly

Whitney DeCamp

Research has found that many characteristics are related to performance on standardized tests. Many of these are not necessarily “academic” attributes. One area of this research is on the connection between physical health/lifestyles and test performance. The research that exist in this area is often disconnected with each other and tends to focus on a limited number of factors. Moreover, the impact of the school climate, as related to health-behaviors, has not been examined. The present study uses data from 32 schools over four years to examine the relationship between health norms and average test performance while controlling for ...


Challenges To Success In Higher Education: An Examination Of Educational Challenges From The Voices Of College-Bound Black Males, Jameel A. Scott, Kenneth J. Taylor, Phd, Robert T. Palmer, Phd Dec 2012

Challenges To Success In Higher Education: An Examination Of Educational Challenges From The Voices Of College-Bound Black Males, Jameel A. Scott, Kenneth J. Taylor, Phd, Robert T. Palmer, Phd

Robert T. Palmer, PhD

In recent years, researchers have devoted much discussion to finding ways to increase the academic success of Black males in K-12 and higher education. Despite this emphasis, Black male enrollment in higher education stands at 4.5%, which is the same as it was in 1976. One factor noted by researchers for the stagnation among Black male college enrollment is their disproportionate departure from high school. Therefore, this qualitative study of college-bound high school seniors discusses four critical factors that contribute to Black males premature departure from high school. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.


Diverging Interests: Balancing Racial Diversity And Race-Sensitive Policies Across State Higher Education Systems, Robert T. Palmer, Phd, J. Luke Wood, Phd, Dorsey Spencer Dec 2012

Diverging Interests: Balancing Racial Diversity And Race-Sensitive Policies Across State Higher Education Systems, Robert T. Palmer, Phd, J. Luke Wood, Phd, Dorsey Spencer

Robert T. Palmer, PhD

The United States has sought to racially diversify its public colleges since 1964. Laws have been implemented and court challenges have occurred to facilitate the racial diversification of public universities. Racially diversifying higher education is particularly important for states that have a desegregation agreement with Office of Civil Rights (OCR) for operating policies traceable to de jure segregation. Although many states have used affirmative action to diversify their colleges, as these policies continue to be attacked and prohibited, colleges are abandoning race-sensitive policies to foster diversity. This article explains these diverging issues and offers recommendations for universities that are legally ...


The Magnificent “Mile”: Impacting Black Male Retention And Persistence At An Hbcu, Robert T. Palmer, Phd, Dina C. Maramba, Phd, T. Elon Dancy, Phd Dec 2012

The Magnificent “Mile”: Impacting Black Male Retention And Persistence At An Hbcu, Robert T. Palmer, Phd, Dina C. Maramba, Phd, T. Elon Dancy, Phd

Robert T. Palmer, PhD

A strong body of research has documented the supportive environments of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and their impact on facilitating student success. Notwithstanding the consistency of these findings, recent reports and empirical research have highlighted the problems that HBCUs are experiencing with Black male enrollment, campus engagement, retention, success, and graduation. The purpose of this article is to discuss the Male Initiative on Leadership and Excellence (MILE) and to describe its impact on retention and persistence of Black men at an HBCU. Hopefully, the MILE will inspire administrators and student affairs practitioners at HBCUs to adopt a similar ...


The Likelihood Of Transfer For Black Males In Community Colleges: Examining The Effects Of Engagement Using Multilevel, Multinomial Modeling, J. Luke Wood, Phd, Robert T. Palmer, Phd Dec 2012

The Likelihood Of Transfer For Black Males In Community Colleges: Examining The Effects Of Engagement Using Multilevel, Multinomial Modeling, J. Luke Wood, Phd, Robert T. Palmer, Phd

Robert T. Palmer, PhD

Research indicates that Black male collegians tend to disproportionately seek out postsecondary educational opportunities at community colleges; despite this, a paucity of Black men actual transfer to four-year colleges and universities. In order to help facilitate transfer for Black male community college students, this article investigates the effects of student engagement on Black male students’ self-reported likelihood of transfer. The implications of this study provides compelling context for institutional practice and future research to help community colleges be more intentional about improving transfer outcomes for among Black male students.


Understanding The Personal Goals Of Black Male Community College Students: Facilitating Academic And Psychosocial Development, J. Luke Wood, Phd, Robert T. Palmer, Phd Dec 2012

Understanding The Personal Goals Of Black Male Community College Students: Facilitating Academic And Psychosocial Development, J. Luke Wood, Phd, Robert T. Palmer, Phd

Robert T. Palmer, PhD

Similar to 4-year institutions, community colleges are struggling to find ways to increase the success rates of racial and ethnic minority students in general and Black males specifically. According to data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS), compared to their male counterparts, Black males have the lowest retention and graduation rates among their peers. Given this, using national data from BPS, this article has investigated the personal goals of Black males in community colleges and provided context for how community college officials can use these goals to facilitate Black male academic and psychosocial development. Indeed, this article is ...


Pathway To Change: A Jail Labyrinth Project, Donna M. Zucker Rn, Phd, Faan Dec 2012

Pathway To Change: A Jail Labyrinth Project, Donna M. Zucker Rn, Phd, Faan

Donna M. Zucker

This video is a documentary of a labyrinth building project at a county jail.