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2013

Sociology

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Workshop | Body Worn Video Recorders: The Socio-Technical Implications Of Gathering Direct Evidence, Katina Michael, Alexander Hayes Jun 2015

Workshop | Body Worn Video Recorders: The Socio-Technical Implications Of Gathering Direct Evidence, Katina Michael, Alexander Hayes

Alexander Hayes Mr.

- From in-car video recording to body-worn video recording

- Exploring available technologies: how do they work, pros and cons

- Storing direct evidence in secure storage: factors to consider

- Citizens “shooting” back with POV tech – what are their rights?

- Crowdsourced sousveillance- harnessing public data for forensic profiling

- Police force policies and practices on the application of new media


Underclaiming And Overclaiming, Sachin Pandya, Peter Siegelman Mar 2014

Underclaiming And Overclaiming, Sachin Pandya, Peter Siegelman

Peter Siegelman

Arguments that we have too much litigation (overclaiming) or too little (underclaiming) cannot be valid without estimating how many of the undecided claims that are brought (actual claims) or not brought (potential claims) have or lack legal merit. We identify the basic conceptual structure of such underclaiming and overclaiming arguments, which entails inferences about the distribution of actual or potential claims by their probability of success on the merits within a claims-processing institution. We then survey the available methods for estimating claim merit.


Individual And Society: Sociological Social Psychology, Lizabeth A. Crawford, Katherine B. Novak Dec 2013

Individual And Society: Sociological Social Psychology, Lizabeth A. Crawford, Katherine B. Novak

Katherine B. Novak

Unlike other texts for undergraduate sociological social psychology courses, this text presents the three distinct traditions (or "faces") in sociological social psychology (symbolic interactionism, social structure and personality, and group processes and structures) and emphasizes the different theoretical frameworks within which social psychological analyses are conducted within each research tradition. With this approach, the authors make clear the link between "face" of sociological social psychology, theory, and methodology. Thus, students gain an appreciably better understanding of the field of sociological social psychology; how and why social psychologists trained in sociology ask particular kinds of questions; the types of research they ...


Job Satisfaction Determinants: A Study Across 48 Nations, Jeanine K. Andreassi, Leanna Lawter, Martin Brockerhoff, Peter Rutigliano Dec 2013

Job Satisfaction Determinants: A Study Across 48 Nations, Jeanine K. Andreassi, Leanna Lawter, Martin Brockerhoff, Peter Rutigliano

Jeanine K. Andreassi

This paper examines the drivers of job satisfaction across four cultural regions—Asia, Europe, North America, and Latin America. Using Hofstede’s theory, determinants were used to predict job satisfaction for each region and then compared to determine significant differences. Data was collected from a proprietary industry survey on employee work attitudes. The sample consisted of over 70,000 employees from 4 large multinational organizations. Data was analyzed using regression analysis and comparison testing across models. There are significant relationships between job characteristics and job satisfaction across all regions of the world, with a sense of achievement universally the most ...


Anatomy Of Dissent In Islamic Societies, Ahmed Souaiaia Dec 2013

Anatomy Of Dissent In Islamic Societies, Ahmed Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

The 'Arab Spring' that began in 2011 has placed a spotlight on the transfer of political power in Islamic societies, reviving old questions about the place of political dissent and rebellion in Islamic civilization and raising new ones about the place of religion in modern Islamic societies.

In Anatomy of Dissent in Islamic Societies, Ahmed E. Souaiaia examines the complex historical evolution of Islamic civilization in an effort to trace the roots of the paradigms and principles of Islamic political and legal theories. This study is one of the first attempts at providing a fuller picture of the place of ...


The United Nations And The Magna Carta For Children, Winston E. Langley Dec 2013

The United Nations And The Magna Carta For Children, Winston E. Langley

Winston E. Langley

The impulse that invited the preparation of this book is one which is linked to the convergence of a number of factors bearing on my interest in human rights. First, the brutality visited on children during World War II has had an abiding negative effect on my sense of what is possible in human conduct. Second, I am persuaded that children are not simply the means by which human societies are continued, but, as well, the potential source of moral revitalization and transformation for those societies. Third, I recognize that the human rights movement, which followed World War II, holds ...


Languages Of The Unheard: Why Militant Protest Is Good For Democracy, Stephen D'Arcy Dec 2013

Languages Of The Unheard: Why Militant Protest Is Good For Democracy, Stephen D'Arcy

Stephen D'Arcy

A normative democratic theory of sound militancy is proposed, drawing on the ideas of Martin Luther King, but rejecting his non-violence standard in favour of a democratic standard. This normative standard is then applied to civil disobedience, disruptive direct action, sabotage, black blocs, rioting and armed struggle.


Addressing The Persistence Of Tuberculosis Among The Canadian Inuit Population: The Need For A Social Determinants Of Health Framework, Kassandra C. Kulmann Ma Candidate, Chantelle Am Richmond Professor Dec 2013

Addressing The Persistence Of Tuberculosis Among The Canadian Inuit Population: The Need For A Social Determinants Of Health Framework, Kassandra C. Kulmann Ma Candidate, Chantelle Am Richmond Professor

Chantelle Richmond

Canadian Aboriginal people have poorer levels of health than the general population. A serious issue is the high rate of tuberculosis (TB) among the Inuit population; rates are much higher than those of the general Canadian population. Several social determinants of health (SDOH), including household crowding and poverty, are strongly correlated with TB prevalence. In this paper, we describe the medical and social determinants of TB, and critically examine the TB literature specific to the Inuit population. The majority of studies recommend biomedical interventions for the treatment of TB. Few researchers have employed the social determinants of health theory to ...


Sense Of Belonging In The Urban School Environments Of Aboriginal Youth, Chantelle Am Richmond, Dawn Smith, * The Wabano Centre For Aboriginal Health Dec 2013

Sense Of Belonging In The Urban School Environments Of Aboriginal Youth, Chantelle Am Richmond, Dawn Smith, * The Wabano Centre For Aboriginal Health

Chantelle Richmond

It is well established that educational attainment and social support are critical social determinants of health among Aboriginal Canadians. Still, the gap in educational attainment with non-Aboriginal Canadians continues to grow, and little is known about the role of social support as a health determinant among Aboriginal youth. In collaboration with The Wabano Centre for Aboriginal Health (Ottawa, Canada), we undertook focus groups with urban Aboriginal youth at-risk to examine perceptions of their urban school environments, including access to social support. Data were analyzed using a general inductive approach. Results indicate that youths’ perceived level of trust is key to ...


A Snapshot Of Individuals And Families Accessing Boston's Emergency Homeless Shelters, 1997, Donna Friedman, Michelle Hayes, John Mcgah, Anthony Roman Dec 2013

A Snapshot Of Individuals And Families Accessing Boston's Emergency Homeless Shelters, 1997, Donna Friedman, Michelle Hayes, John Mcgah, Anthony Roman

Donna Haig Friedman

This document summarizes key findings from a survey conducted on March 19, 1997 with 338 homeless individuals and 94 families sheltered or served by 33 of 40 shelter programs in the City of Boston. The data presented in this report were collected at one point in time. Point in time data results in an overrepresentation of the "longer term" homeless, and offers limited insight regarding the structural dynamics underlying movement from homelessness to residential stability (Culhane, Lee, Wachter, 1996; White, 1996). However, it does provide a snapshot of the men, women, and children who were spending the night in a ...


A Policy Brief: Massachusetts (T)Afdc Case Closings, October 1993-August 1997, Donna Friedman, Emily Douglas, Michelle Hayes, Mary Ann Allard Dec 2013

A Policy Brief: Massachusetts (T)Afdc Case Closings, October 1993-August 1997, Donna Friedman, Emily Douglas, Michelle Hayes, Mary Ann Allard

Donna Haig Friedman

When a DTA (Department of Transitional Assistance) worker assesses whether a family's (T)AFDC (Temporary Aid to Families with Dependent Children) case will be closed, s/he decides which one of 67 different codes best describes the reason cash benefits for the household will be stopped. To carry out the analyses, we sorted all of the 67 codes into clusters of codes that logically grouped together: Cluster I, Increased Income; Cluster H, Sanctions; Cluster III, Eligible Persons Moved; Cluster IV, Fraud; Cluster V, Client Request; Cluster VI, No Longer Eligible; Cluster VII, Other or Multiple Meanings. The Appendix displays ...


Characteristics Of Homeless Individuals Accessing Massachusetts Emergency Shelters, 1999-2001, Tatjana Meschede, Michelle Kahan, Michelle Hayes, Donna Friedman Dec 2013

Characteristics Of Homeless Individuals Accessing Massachusetts Emergency Shelters, 1999-2001, Tatjana Meschede, Michelle Kahan, Michelle Hayes, Donna Friedman

Donna Haig Friedman

The Center for Social Policy (CSP) at the McCormack Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston oversees the Connection, Service, and Partnership through Technology (CSPTech) project. CSPTech operates a homeless management information system being implemented throughout the Commonwealth. Founded in 1995, this project is a networked computerized record-keeping system that allows homeless service providers across Massachusetts to collect uniform client information over time. This information is aggregated in a database used by service providers, advocates, government officials, researchers, and people experiencing homelessness. Analysis of this information is critical to efforts to understand the extent of this problem in Massachusetts in an attempt ...


Community-Based Participatory Research: Defining Community Stakeholders, Laurene M. Tumiel-Berhalter, Robert Watkins, Carlos J. Crespo Dec 2013

Community-Based Participatory Research: Defining Community Stakeholders, Laurene M. Tumiel-Berhalter, Robert Watkins, Carlos J. Crespo

Carlos J. Crespo

Community-based participatory research requires the participation of community stakeholders to inform the process. The West Side Community Asthma Project, a community-based participatory research program to study the effects of the environment on asthma conducted in Buffalo, N. Y, identified a stakeholders group of community leaders and activists. Creative strategies have been implemented to reach out to other community residents to invite them to participate in the participatory process.


Work-Family Culture: Current Research And Future Directions, Jeanine K. Andreassi, Cynthia A. Thompson Dec 2013

Work-Family Culture: Current Research And Future Directions, Jeanine K. Andreassi, Cynthia A. Thompson

Jeanine K. Andreassi

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the role of the work environment—specifically, the culture of support for work–family balance—in understanding employees' work attitudes and behaviors, as well as their stress levels and general well-being. It defines work–family culture and related constructs such as perceived organizational family support. Work–family culture has been defined as the “shared assumptions, beliefs, and values regarding the extent to which an organization supports and values the integration of employees' work and family lives.” It also addresses the important consideration of a national context for understanding work–family culture and ...


Differences In Demographic, Behavioral, And Biological Variables Between Those With Valid And Invalid Accelerometry Data: Implications For Generalizability, Paul D. Loprinzi, Bradley J. Cardinal, Carlos J. Crespo, Gary R. Brodowicz, Ross E. Andersen, Ellen Smit Dec 2013

Differences In Demographic, Behavioral, And Biological Variables Between Those With Valid And Invalid Accelerometry Data: Implications For Generalizability, Paul D. Loprinzi, Bradley J. Cardinal, Carlos J. Crespo, Gary R. Brodowicz, Ross E. Andersen, Ellen Smit

Carlos J. Crespo

Background: The exclusion of participants with invalid accelerometry data (IAD) may lead to biased results and/or lack of generalizability in large population studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether demographic, behavioral, and biological differences occur between those with IAD and valid accelerometry data (VAD) among adults using a representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Methods: Ambulatory participants from NHANES (2003-2004) who were 20-85 years of age were included in the current study and wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for 7 days. A "valid person" was defined as those with 4 or more days ...


Inflammatory Biomarkers And Subclinical Atherosclerosis In African-American Women With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Sle), Edith Williams, Carlos Crespo, Joan Dorn Dec 2013

Inflammatory Biomarkers And Subclinical Atherosclerosis In African-American Women With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Sle), Edith Williams, Carlos Crespo, Joan Dorn

Carlos J. Crespo

Women with lupus are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies of atherosclerosis in SLE have not been representative of the minority groups most affected by lupus and its complications. Therefore, a study of 41 lupus cases and 83 controls was conducted to investigate the relationship between carotid atherosclerosis and inflammation in African-American women. Participation consisted of a questionnaire, physical examination, fasting blood draw, and ultrasound of the carotid arteries. There were observed differences between cases and controls with regard to carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, although few reached statistical significance. Tumor ...


Transport And Health: A Look At Three Latin American Cities, Janeth Mosquera Becerra, Rodrigo S. Reis, Lawrence D. Frank, Farah A. Ramirez-Marrero, Benjamin Welle, Eugenio Arriaga Cordero, Fabian Mendez Paz, Carlos J. Crespo, Veronica Dujon, Enrique Jacoby, Jennifer Dill, Lynn Weigand, Carlos M. Padin Dec 2013

Transport And Health: A Look At Three Latin American Cities, Janeth Mosquera Becerra, Rodrigo S. Reis, Lawrence D. Frank, Farah A. Ramirez-Marrero, Benjamin Welle, Eugenio Arriaga Cordero, Fabian Mendez Paz, Carlos J. Crespo, Veronica Dujon, Enrique Jacoby, Jennifer Dill, Lynn Weigand, Carlos M. Padin

Carlos J. Crespo

Transport is associated with environmental problems, economic losses, health and social inequalities. A number of European and US cities have implemented initiatives to promote multimodal modes of transport. In Latin America changes are occurring in public transport systems and a number of projects aimed at stimulating non-motorized modes of transport (walking and cycling) have already been implemented. Based on articles from peer-reviewed academic journals, this paper examines experiences in Bogota (Colombia), Curitiba (Brazil), and Santiago (Chile), and identifies how changes to the transport system contribute to encourage active transportation. Bus rapid transit, ciclovias, bike paths/lanes, and car use restriction ...


Body Mass Index And The Risk Of Prostate Cancer, Daniel Lee Mcgee, Carlos J. Crespo Dec 2013

Body Mass Index And The Risk Of Prostate Cancer, Daniel Lee Mcgee, Carlos J. Crespo

Carlos J. Crespo

Background: This article presents cohort studies that use data from the National Health Information Survey from 1986 to 1994 and compares the effectiveness of Cox proportional hazards models that assume a linear relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of prostate cancer with models that assume a J-shaped relationship. Methods and results: Our study found that for black males over 40 years of age, neither a linear nor a J-shaped relationship yielded a statistically significant model. With white males over 40 years, assuming a linear relationship did not yield a statistically significant model (P = 0.582). When we ...


Building Community Research Capacity: Process Evaluation Of Community Training And Education In A Community-Based Participatory Research Program Serving A Predominately Puerto Rican Community, Laurene M. Tumiel-Berhalter, Victoria Mclaughlin-Diaz, John Vena, Carlos J. Crespo Dec 2013

Building Community Research Capacity: Process Evaluation Of Community Training And Education In A Community-Based Participatory Research Program Serving A Predominately Puerto Rican Community, Laurene M. Tumiel-Berhalter, Victoria Mclaughlin-Diaz, John Vena, Carlos J. Crespo

Carlos J. Crespo

Background: Education and training build community research capacity and have impact on improvements of health outcomes. Objectives: This manuscript describes the training and educational approaches to building research capacity that were utilized in a community-based participatory research program serving a Puerto Rican population and identifies barriers and strategies for overcoming them. Methods: A process evaluation identified a multitiered approach to training and education that was critical to reaching the broad community. Results: This approach included four major categories providing a continuum of education and training opportunities: networking, methods training, on-the-job experience, and community education. Participation in these opportunities supported the ...


Lower Nutritional Status And Higher Food Insufficiency In Frail Older Us Adults, Ellen Smit, Kerri M. Winters-Stone, Paul D. Loprinzi, Alice M. Tang, Carlos J. Crespo Dec 2013

Lower Nutritional Status And Higher Food Insufficiency In Frail Older Us Adults, Ellen Smit, Kerri M. Winters-Stone, Paul D. Loprinzi, Alice M. Tang, Carlos J. Crespo

Carlos J. Crespo

Frailty is a state of decreased physical functioning and a significant complication of ageing. We examined frailty, energy and macronutrient intake, biomarkers of nutritional status and food insufficiency in US older adult (age ≥ 60 years) participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (4731). Frailty was defined as meeting ≥ 2 and pre-frailty as meeting one of the following four-item criteria: (1) slow walking; (2) muscular weakness; (3) exhaustion and (4) low physical activity. Intake was assessed by 24 h dietary recall. Food insufficiency was self-reported as ‘sometimes’ or ‘often’ not having enough food to eat. Analyses were adjusted ...


Do Experience Tables Matter, Peter B. Hoffman, Harvey M. Goldstein Dec 2013

Do Experience Tables Matter, Peter B. Hoffman, Harvey M. Goldstein

Peter R. Hoffman

No abstract provided.


The Oromo, Gadaa/Siqqee Democracy And The Liberation Of Ethiopian Colonial Subjects, Asafa Jalata Dec 2013

The Oromo, Gadaa/Siqqee Democracy And The Liberation Of Ethiopian Colonial Subjects, Asafa Jalata

Asafa Jalata

This paper explores the potential role of the Gadaa/Siqqee system of Oromo democracy in the development of a democratic multinational liberation movement of the colonized nations within the Ethiopian Empire in order to dismantle the Tigrayan-led Ethiopian terrorist government and replace it with a sovereign multinational democratic state in the Horn of Africa based on the principles of indigenous democracy. After a brief introduction, this study describes the presence of a democratic, Siqqee/Gadaa administration among the Oromo in the Horn of Africa in the 16th and 17th centuries and the subsequent changes that made them vulnerable to colonization ...


Discerning For Peace In Africa: The Sudan Civil Wars And Peace Processes 1955-2013, Conrad John Masabo Mr. Dec 2013

Discerning For Peace In Africa: The Sudan Civil Wars And Peace Processes 1955-2013, Conrad John Masabo Mr.

Conrad John Masabo Mr.

Separation of the Sudan into the Republic of Sudan (North) and the Republic of Southern Sudan (South) was globally extolled as the long-lasting solution to one of the longest civil wars in post-Colonial Africa. However, recent developments in Sudan: continued clashes between north and south, crises in the contested areas and tribal civil wars have uncovered that: separation without addressing the principal root causes of the conflicts is not the panacea to prone and protracted civil wars. Taking a historical analysis framework, the paper attempts to tackle issues of causes, opportunities and challenges for peace in Sudan.


Toward A Low Wage World: The Development And Limitation Of Taiwan' Labor Regime(1980s~2010s), Wei-Yi Chang, Chih-Lung Huang Dec 2013

Toward A Low Wage World: The Development And Limitation Of Taiwan' Labor Regime(1980s~2010s), Wei-Yi Chang, Chih-Lung Huang

Chih-lung Huang

This article tries to explain why Taiwan’s labor regime has fallen into a low wage environment. A review of literature shows that existing studies consider only the elements of state, capital, labor, or the social environment to explain the low wage within different historical stages. But the literature to date could not answer the question as for why Taiwan’s labor wage did not increase with economic growth after 2000s. In order to bridge the gap, the legislation and amendment of related labor laws from 1980s to 2010s was explored through the perspective of historical institutionalism. It was found ...


The New International Division Of Labor, Dependency Theory And The Global Economy, Heidi Feight Dec 2013

The New International Division Of Labor, Dependency Theory And The Global Economy, Heidi Feight

Heidi Feight

No abstract provided.


Immigration Policing And Federalism Through The Lens Of Technology, Surveillance, And Privacy, Anil Kalhan Nov 2013

Immigration Policing And Federalism Through The Lens Of Technology, Surveillance, And Privacy, Anil Kalhan

Anil Kalhan

With the deployment of technology, federal programs to enlist state and local police assistance with immigration enforcement are undergoing a sea change. For example, even as it forcefully has urged invalidation of Arizona’s S.B. 1070 and similar state laws, the Obama administration has presided over the largest expansion of state and local immigration policing in U.S. history with its implementation of the “Secure Communities” program, which integrates immigration and criminal history database systems in order to automatically ascertain the immigration status of every individual who is arrested and booked by state and local police nationwide. By 2012 ...


Peasant Farming: Commoning Through Co-Production For Future Generations, Luigi Russi Nov 2013

Peasant Farming: Commoning Through Co-Production For Future Generations, Luigi Russi

Luigi Russi

The chapter examines the rift existing between peasant modes of production and the productionist paradigm in agriculture. While the former is based on co-production - i.e. the material negotiation of symbiotic relationships with ecological cycles - the latter attempts to format agriculture so as to make it amenable to a standard of control comparable to that of factory processes. By re-opening developmental possibilities that are closed off by the productionist paradigm, peasant co-production enacts instances of situated counterwork and commoning, through which new forms of ecological intergenerational justice can be attained.


Risk Factors For Becoming Homeless Among A Cohort Of Veterans Who Served In The Era Of The Iraq And Afghanistan Conflicts, Stephen Metraux, Limin X. Clegg, John D. Daigh, Dennis P. Culhane, Vincent R. Kane Nov 2013

Risk Factors For Becoming Homeless Among A Cohort Of Veterans Who Served In The Era Of The Iraq And Afghanistan Conflicts, Stephen Metraux, Limin X. Clegg, John D. Daigh, Dennis P. Culhane, Vincent R. Kane

Dennis P. Culhane

Objectives. In this population-based cohort study, we assessed baseline risk factors for homelessness, including the role of service in the Iraq or Afghanistan conflicts, among a large cohort of recent veterans.
Methods. Data for this study came from administrative records for 310 685 veterans who separated from active military duty from July 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006. We used survival analysis methods to determine incidence rates and risk factors for homelessness, based on baseline data for military factors, demographic characteristics, and diagnoses of behavioral health disorders and traumatic brain injury.
Results. Service in Iraq or Afghanistan and, more specifically ...


Community-Level Characteristics Associated With Variations In Rates Of Homelessness Among Families And Single Adults, Jamison D. Fargo, Ellen A. Munley, Thomas H. Byrne, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Dennis P. Culhane Nov 2013

Community-Level Characteristics Associated With Variations In Rates Of Homelessness Among Families And Single Adults, Jamison D. Fargo, Ellen A. Munley, Thomas H. Byrne, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

Objectives. We modeled rates of family and single-adult homelessness in the United States in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions and as a function of community-level demographic, behavioral, health, economic, and safety net characteristics.
Methods. We entered community-level characteristics and US Department of Housing and Urban Development point-in-time counts for a single night in January 2009 into separate mixed-effects statistical analyses that modeled homelessness rates for 4 subpopulations: families and single adults inmetropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions.
Results. Community-level factors accounted for 25% to 50% of the variance in homelessness rates across models. In metropolitan regions, alcohol consumption, social support, and several economic ...


Universal Screening For Homelessness And Risk For Homelessness In The Veterans Health Administration, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Jamison D. Fargo, Thomas H. Byrne, Vincent R. Kane, Dennis P. Culhane Nov 2013

Universal Screening For Homelessness And Risk For Homelessness In The Veterans Health Administration, Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Jamison D. Fargo, Thomas H. Byrne, Vincent R. Kane, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

We examined data for all veteranswho completed the Veterans Health Administration’s national homelessness screening instrument between October 1, 2012, and January 10, 2013. Among veterans who were not engaged with the US Department of Veterans Affairs homeless system and presented for primary care services, the prevalence of recent housing instability or homelessness was 0.9% and homelessness risk was 1.2%. Future research will refine outreach strategies, targeting of prevention resources, and development of novel interventions.