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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Constructing Legal Meaning In The Supreme Court Oral Arguments: Cultural Codes And Border Disputes, Jeffrey Forest Hilbert Jan 2013

Constructing Legal Meaning In The Supreme Court Oral Arguments: Cultural Codes And Border Disputes, Jeffrey Forest Hilbert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Culture plays a part in the construction of legal understandings in the Supreme Court contrary to much legal scholarship. The oral argument of the Supreme Court is a unique way for Justices to gather information beyond the formalized briefs and prior written opinions. In the oral argument the Supreme Court Justices utilize cultural codes as tools to probe, shape, negotiate and challenge the legal meanings and boundaries of the case before them. Using the oral argument transcript in a 2010 Supreme Court case on the issue of whether California has the right to censor the sale of violent video games ...


Beyond The Door: Disability And The Sibling Experience, Morgan Violeta Sanchez Taylor Jan 2013

Beyond The Door: Disability And The Sibling Experience, Morgan Violeta Sanchez Taylor

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explores the experiences of adult siblings of individuals with impairments. It expands on the existing literature by exploring the complexity of the sibling experience of disability while moving beyond the concepts of burden and maladjustment that have characterized much of the previous literature. In addition, it expands upon and extends to the sibling experience an emerging view of disability by examining the ways in which themes identified in sibling narratives cross lines between the Medical and Social Models of Disability. Building on work by Mark Priestly and Tom Shakespeare, I call this emerging view the Interactional Model of ...


Exploring The Motives, Perceptions And Constructed Identities Of The Facilitators For One Regional Council Of A Positive Youth Development Program: Girls On The Run, Ashley Ann Gallentine Jan 2013

Exploring The Motives, Perceptions And Constructed Identities Of The Facilitators For One Regional Council Of A Positive Youth Development Program: Girls On The Run, Ashley Ann Gallentine

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to explore the coaches' perceptions, motives and constructed identities by participating in a regional physical activity-based positive youth development program. There is growing evidence that suggests the success of positive youth development (PYD) programs depend on the environment that is created by caring adult mentors. These coaches are the delivery vehicles for these programs and play an essential role in the development of participating youth. As a result, the characteristics these coaches possess are critical to the success of the PYD implementation. Based on the application of anthropological methods and theory, this study seeks ...


Expectations Of Nursing Home Use, Psychosocial Characteristics And Race/Ethnicity: The Latino/A Case, Heidi Ross Jan 2013

Expectations Of Nursing Home Use, Psychosocial Characteristics And Race/Ethnicity: The Latino/A Case, Heidi Ross

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study used data from the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine variations in relationships among selected psychosocial characteristics, race/ethnicity and expectations of nursing home utilization in the United States, with a particular focus on Latino/a subgroups. This study sought to test a modified version of the Andersen and Newman model of health service utilization. Findings revealed that expectations of nursing home utilization remained lower among Latino/as than in the Non-Latino White sub-groups, even when levels of need, enabling, and predisposing factors were controlled for. However, for Mexican Origin respondents (who are often ...


"All Blacks Vote The Same?": Assessing Predictors Of Black American Political Participation And Partisanship, Antoine Lennell Jackson Jan 2013

"All Blacks Vote The Same?": Assessing Predictors Of Black American Political Participation And Partisanship, Antoine Lennell Jackson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The politics of Blacks are stereotypically assumed to be the same and share the same race-based root, be it disenfranchisement or solidarity. Given the recent jump in Black political participation and the seemingly race-based and partisan nature "the Black vote" holds, it is essential to investigate what factors drive Black voter turnout as well as what factors contribute to the partisan nature of Black voters. Most other studies of political opinion, turnout, and party preference only consider comparable demographic groups such as men versus women or Blacks versus Whites. This study examines partisan preference and participation only among Black Americans ...


The Impact Of Organizations' Collaboration Strategies And Alliance Network Positions On Invention Performance, Fethullah Caliskan Jan 2013

The Impact Of Organizations' Collaboration Strategies And Alliance Network Positions On Invention Performance, Fethullah Caliskan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research investigates the impact of organizations' collaboration strategies and network positional variables on invention performance. Organizations, particularly those pursuing a differentiation strategy, are motivated to introduce novel products and services in order to remain competitive. Thus, two questions of interest to such organizations regarding the network dynamics of the invention process are: 1) What kind of strategies allow them to attain superior invention results? 2) What is the most advantageous structural positioning in a collaborative network of innovators? Three independent studies attempt to find answers to these questions by using three complementary study approaches.

In the first study, in ...


Navigation And Immersion Of The American Identity In A Foreign Culture To Emergence As A Culturally Relative Ambassador, Lee H. Rosen Jan 2013

Navigation And Immersion Of The American Identity In A Foreign Culture To Emergence As A Culturally Relative Ambassador, Lee H. Rosen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Globalization is forcing many American college students to re-evaluate their perspective on foreign travel. If they are offered an opportunity to improve their cultural relativity skill set by immersing themselves into a new culture, the more astute students might choose to embark on that journey especially if it would result in resume enhancement. This paper focuses upon a group of twelve community college students' cross-cultural experiences, navigation techniques, and adaptation methods as student interns teaching conversational English in Changchun, China for a period of nine to thirteen weeks in spring 2011. Several areas of interest emerged from their experiences ...


The Effects Of Adolescent Stressors On African American Maternal Depression, Meneka Johnson Jan 2013

The Effects Of Adolescent Stressors On African American Maternal Depression, Meneka Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the African American community, women are the core that holds families together. These women consistently serve in multiple roles within their unique family structures. Like many women, African American women often overextend themselves and become highly involved within the lives of their loved ones, in a manner in which they take on family members' events, issues, and emotions as if they were their own experiences, especially the experiences of their children. This can be problematic for African American women because it can adversely affect their health, especially their mental health. The current study examined the relationship between child life ...


Analysis Of Fitting Room Enviroments: Effects On Older Clothing Shoppers' Shopping Patronage Intention, Kyungnam Seo Jan 2013

Analysis Of Fitting Room Enviroments: Effects On Older Clothing Shoppers' Shopping Patronage Intention, Kyungnam Seo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to systematically analyze the influence of the fitting room environment on older clothing shoppers' psychic cost, satisfaction, and patronage intention. The objectives of this study were to determine whether current fitting rooms deliver appropriate services for older consumers, and whether a fitting room environment that accommodates the needs of older consumers better is associated with enhanced shopping satisfaction and consequent patronage intention. In addition, this study created a conceptual model integrating the S-O-R model and person-environment fit theories to provide an understanding of the causal relationship among fitting room accommodation, psychic cost, shopping ...


Assessment Of Wildlife Value Orientations, State Agency Credibility, And Tolerance For Mountain Lions In Iowa, Andrew L. Stephenson Jan 2013

Assessment Of Wildlife Value Orientations, State Agency Credibility, And Tolerance For Mountain Lions In Iowa, Andrew L. Stephenson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

It is increasingly necessary for state agencies to incorporate the opinions of their constituents in wildlife management decision-making. Shifting demographics of Iowa's human population necessitate gathering information on stakeholders' beliefs and values toward wildlife. This project was implemented to establish baseline information regarding the distribution of WVOs held by Iowa's citizenry, identify areas of dissonance between the public and agency staff, and elucidate issues of state agency credibility. The goal is to provide information that will be helpful in implementation and operationalization of the Iowa Wildlife Action Plan (IWAP). The public was surveyed through a statewide self-administered mail ...


Beneficial Or Adverse? Exploring The Association Between Internet Content Consumption And Sexual Identity Among Single Gay Men Who Use The Internet In Guangdong, China, Liqi Huang Jan 2013

Beneficial Or Adverse? Exploring The Association Between Internet Content Consumption And Sexual Identity Among Single Gay Men Who Use The Internet In Guangdong, China, Liqi Huang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between homosexual identity and the Internet, using an online sample from Southern China. The goals of this research are (1) to document the nature of participants' homosexual identity (including their history of sexual experiences, their level of self-acceptance, and their fears of disclosure); (2) to describe participants' Internet use and attitudes (including the functions they most frequently use, and how much they value the anonymity provided by the Internet); and (3) to explore the relationships between these two sets of factors.

Using secondary data from an LGBT oriented website in ...


Climatologists' Methods Of Climate Science Communication To Agriculture In The North Central Region Of The United States, Adam Wilke Jan 2013

Climatologists' Methods Of Climate Science Communication To Agriculture In The North Central Region Of The United States, Adam Wilke

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Agriculture is particularly sensitive to environmental risks associated with uncertain atmospheric conditions, such as extreme weather events and variable climate patterns. As a result, it is important for farmers and the agricultural sector to access current climate science information while developing management portfolios to remain resilient and productive while adapting to and mitigating against environmental risks. State and extension climatologists have a unique role in collecting climate science information and disseminating this information to public data users, such as farmers. Because of complex social, cultural, and political factors that hinder the transfer of current scientific consensus on weather and climate ...


Maintaining Commitment In Long-Lasting Mixed-Orientation Relationships: Gay Men Married To Straight Women, Kevin John Zimmerman Jan 2013

Maintaining Commitment In Long-Lasting Mixed-Orientation Relationships: Gay Men Married To Straight Women, Kevin John Zimmerman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative study investigates the nature of commitment in long-lasting mixed-orientation relationships, in which a homosexual man is partnered with a heterosexual woman. Previous research into mixed-orientation relationships has generally not focused on which factors contribute to keeping the relationship together. The primary theoretical frameworks used in this study to understand long-lasting, mixed-orientation couples are social exchange theory and Johnson's (1999) commitment model. Thirteen couples from the U.S. completed questionnaires and were interviewed about three main topics: (a) the history of their relationship, including the coming-out process, (b) strengths of the relationship, and (c) challenges to the relationship ...


Gangs In A Rural Town: An Analysis Of Community Perceptions Of Crime, Gangs, And The New In-Migrant Population., Angela Glosser Jan 2013

Gangs In A Rural Town: An Analysis Of Community Perceptions Of Crime, Gangs, And The New In-Migrant Population., Angela Glosser

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Urban gangs have captivated social scientists and been the topic of research for decades. However, recent gang member migration has created a relatively new interest in the possibility of non-metropolitan, or rural, gang presence and activities. Current research literature contends that this phenomenon is the result of the in-migration of urban minority and immigrant gang members, whereas law enforcement asserts gang growth is caused by community apathy toward the growing problem. This research examined community perceptions within the rural case study community of Bridgetown, Iowa. Bridgetown has been experiencing an influx of minority in-migrants entering the community to work ...


Seeing Biodiversity Through The Farmer's Eyes: A Photovoice Analysis In Story County, Iowa, Caroline Felix Oliveira Jan 2013

Seeing Biodiversity Through The Farmer's Eyes: A Photovoice Analysis In Story County, Iowa, Caroline Felix Oliveira

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to understand farmer's perceptions of biodiversity and how it relates to their sense of self. Biodiversity is a concept applied by scientists and policymakers to represent nature's richness, diversity, and its biological interdependence. However, current discussions of biodiversity do not consider farmer's understanding and relation to biodiversity. Sociology has a central role in decoding the human dimension of biodiversity and integrating different visions and voices for building future landscapes. This study utilizes grounded theory research methodology with eight cattlemen from the Story County Cattlemen Association in Iowa. Results reveal farmer's ...


Chinese Workers' Attitudes Toward Strike, Zhenxing Ke Jan 2013

Chinese Workers' Attitudes Toward Strike, Zhenxing Ke

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, the frequency of strikes has increased in China, which makes it important to analyze what influences workers' attitude about going on strike. Based on a review of the literature, the extrinsic reward (income satisfaction and old age insurance), intrinsic rewards (employee autonomy and participation) and control variable (gender, age, education, migrant and ownership) will be examined using data from the China General Social Survey 2006. All workers in survey are divided into three groups: professional, nonprofessional, and manufacturing workers. For each group, the effect of independent variables and control variables on workers' attitudes toward strikes is tested ...


Examining Rural, Low-Income Families' Housing Trajectories Over Three Years: A Mixed Methods Analysis, Andrea Lynn Bentzinger Jan 2013

Examining Rural, Low-Income Families' Housing Trajectories Over Three Years: A Mixed Methods Analysis, Andrea Lynn Bentzinger

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present studies conceptualized longitudinal housing patterns of rural, low-income families as housing trajectories focusing specifically on tenure patterns: (1) continuous renter, (2) owner to renter, (3) renter to owner, and (4) continuous owner. A mixed-methods approach resulted in one qualitative manuscript and another quantitative manuscript to better understand and assess the housing tenure trajectories of families across three waves of data. Two overarching questions were explored: (a) What factors affect a family's housing tenure trajectory and (b) are health and housing tenure trajectories related? In Chapter 2 findings are reported from the qualitative analysis in which issues related ...


A Mixed Methods Approach To Understanding The Relationship Between Attachment And Child Outcomes: The Connection Of Related Findings, Theory And Cultural Implications As Explored Through The Perspectives And Practices Of Attachment Parents, Haley V. Wedmore Jan 2013

A Mixed Methods Approach To Understanding The Relationship Between Attachment And Child Outcomes: The Connection Of Related Findings, Theory And Cultural Implications As Explored Through The Perspectives And Practices Of Attachment Parents, Haley V. Wedmore

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In Chapter 2 of this paper, a quantitative analysis investigated the association between positive couple interaction and child outcomes (externalizing behavior and social competence) as mediated through positive parenting and a secure parent-child attachment. In Chapter 3, a qualitative approach was used to explore the perspectives and parenting behaviors of mothers who identify as attachment parents Additionally, the implications of attachment theory, evolutionary theory, and the societal context in which parenting practices are embedded are explored. A connection between the quantitative and qualitative findings of this study is drawn in Chapter 4 via the discussion section. In addition, consistencies and ...


Predictors Of Gains In Inductive Reasoning Strategies And Everyday Functioning: Results From The Advanced Cognitive Training For Independent And Vital Elderly (Active) Study, Joan Blaser Baenziger Jan 2013

Predictors Of Gains In Inductive Reasoning Strategies And Everyday Functioning: Results From The Advanced Cognitive Training For Independent And Vital Elderly (Active) Study, Joan Blaser Baenziger

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Prior research demonstrates that some cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, speed of processing and reasoning) decline starting in the sixth decade of life. One mechanism underlying training interventions is cognitive strategies which can maintain or enhance abilities and associated everyday functioning. The present study focused on two research questions. First, does participation in reasoning strategy training lead to increased use of the strategies in performing reasoning tasks? Second, does participation in reasoning strategy training influence subsequent changes in indicators of everyday functioning over a five-year period? To address these issues data were analyzed from the Advanced Cognitive Training for ...


A Comparative Study Of American And Chinese College Students' Social Trust, Conspiracy Beliefs, And Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Crops, Jinjie Yang Jan 2013

A Comparative Study Of American And Chinese College Students' Social Trust, Conspiracy Beliefs, And Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Crops, Jinjie Yang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study compares American and Chinese college students' willingness to purchase GM crops and examines the factors that have a bearing on this behavioral intention. It examines how social trust and conspiracy beliefs influence risk and benefit perceptions using data gathered through an online survey. The findings indicate that trust in experts and strength of conspiracy beliefs are both significant predictors of perceived risks and benefits, and subsequent intentions to consume GM foods. . The results also show that the Chinese reported more ambivalent attitudes toward GM crops, perceiving higher benefits and higher risks, and consequently, had lower willingness to purchase ...


Successful Aging And Social Contexts: The Importance Of Support, Marital Status, And Spousal Influences, Kate Small Jan 2013

Successful Aging And Social Contexts: The Importance Of Support, Marital Status, And Spousal Influences, Kate Small

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this dissertation is on the concept of "successful aging" within social contexts. Specifically, how the contexts of perceived social support, marital status, and spousal influence are related to successful aging outcomes. Paper 1 adopts Rowe and Kahn's (1997) model of successful aging as a framework for investigating predictors related to 25-year survival. The results show that having better physical functioning (e.g.., walking), low chronic illness, and higher ratings of perceived social support significantly predicted survival over 25 years. Depressive symptoms, church attendance, and participating in volunteer activities were unrelated to survival. Paper 2 investigates the ...


Small Business Top Decision Makers' Involvement In Business Associations: A Tale Of Two Theories, Yan Huang Jan 2013

Small Business Top Decision Makers' Involvement In Business Associations: A Tale Of Two Theories, Yan Huang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Individuals join associations with the intention of making the best use of all the groups can offer. In business associations, members are usually top managers or owners of businesses. Business associations, formal arrangements between businesses, are widely accepted as important to business success; however little research has been conducted on how to improve members' involvement in such associations. The purpose of this study is to examine factors related to members' involvement in business associations. As two distinct approaches of social capital, the rational choice and embeddedness perspectives provide different explanations.

This study describes both theories, discusses their similarities and differences ...


Narrating A Second Chance: Seeking Reprieve From A Life Sentence, Laurie Jordan Linhart Jan 2013

Narrating A Second Chance: Seeking Reprieve From A Life Sentence, Laurie Jordan Linhart

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In Iowa, individuals sentenced to life without parole are faced with the realization that they will die behind bars. The only way out is by applying to the Governor and Iowa Board of Parole for sentence commutation. The outcome is rarely successful for the applicant. My study looks at a selection of 40 applications from 1999 to 2013. Using the grounded theory method, I conduct a document analysis of each application. I have opted for the "Journal Papers in a Thesis" type dissertation. Included are three manuscripts prepared for submission to scholarly journals. Each of the three topics are related ...


Expanding Architectural Practice To Advance Social Justice: Social Architecture Creates Equitable Shelter, Hannah Rosenthal Jan 2013

Expanding Architectural Practice To Advance Social Justice: Social Architecture Creates Equitable Shelter, Hannah Rosenthal

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Architectural practice possesses potential to advance social justice. Social architecture is a movement within the profession currently employing inclusive, participatory and proactive modes of practice. Each of these modes of architectural practice was investigated alongside frameworks from sociology regarding social justice, including spatial justice, empathetic empowerment and equity. In order to synthesize these two bodies of literature, an investigation was conducted at Iowa State University in April 2013 in the form of an art exhibition. This project employed the three primary modes of the social architecture movement while exploring the meaning and social impact of "equitable shelter" through two surveys ...


Immunosenescence And Exercise-Mediated Modulation Of The Innate Immune Response To Influenza Infection In Mice, Shibani Naik Jan 2013

Immunosenescence And Exercise-Mediated Modulation Of The Innate Immune Response To Influenza Infection In Mice, Shibani Naik

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Influenza virus is a negative sense, single stranded RNA virus that can cause severe respiratory tract infections in humans (along with other host animals such as horses, swine and poultry). Certain populations such as very young children, aged individuals, pregnant women and immunosuppressed individuals are more susceptible to influenza infections. One reason for the increased susceptibility to infection in the aged is a decreased efficacy of the seasonal influenza vaccine. As this particular section of our population continues to increase worldwide, research to improve vaccine efficacy is expanding along with efforts to identify lifestyle changes and interventions that can improve ...


Women's Body Image Throughout The Adult Life Span: Latent Growth Modeling And Qualitative Approaches, Min Sun Lee Jan 2013

Women's Body Image Throughout The Adult Life Span: Latent Growth Modeling And Qualitative Approaches, Min Sun Lee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this study were to understand how women view their body image throughout the adult life course and explore patterns in adult women's body image development from the life course perspective using a relatively new approach. Older female participants aged 65 and over were asked to recall and discuss their memories of their bodies in earlier life stages, as well as to rate and discuss their current body image perceptions in late adulthood. Using existing scales, a questionnaire assessed participants' perceptions about actual body shape, ideal body shape, and body satisfaction in each of three life phases ...


Leadership Models And Community Resilience To Climate Change Events: A Case Study Of An Alaskan Bush Village, Wendy Jo Young Jan 2013

Leadership Models And Community Resilience To Climate Change Events: A Case Study Of An Alaskan Bush Village, Wendy Jo Young

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Climate change in the Arctic is happening at twice the rate of the rest of the world. Arctic communities are struggling to survive as the effects of these changes threaten the very fabric of their communities. Resilience to these climate change events is determined by many factors. Communities must be able to act collectively, use local knowledge, have access to financial resources, and participate in the decision making processes. All of these

factors are determined by the effectiveness of the leadership models employed to reach specific community goals.

Climate change events and leadership both occur at the local level ...


Civic Agriculture And Leadership: Builders And Weavers In Iowa's Regional Food Systems, Laura Kleiman Jan 2013

Civic Agriculture And Leadership: Builders And Weavers In Iowa's Regional Food Systems, Laura Kleiman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ecological instability is a problem in our modern time; however, there are an increasing number of social movements dedicated to addressing this problem, for example, the sustainable agriculture and the food security movements. This paper focuses on a specific aspect of social change related to food production: food system localization. The Regional Food Systems Working Group (RFSWG) was created by the Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture of Iowa State University in 2003. The RFSWG can be understood as a community of practice and studied using the sociological theory of civic agriculture. The goal of the working group is to provide ...


The Cathartic Reflection: Enhancing Community Engagement Through Use Of Qualitative Research Methods In Post-Disaster Community Planning, Abigail Marie Gaffey Jan 2013

The Cathartic Reflection: Enhancing Community Engagement Through Use Of Qualitative Research Methods In Post-Disaster Community Planning, Abigail Marie Gaffey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Qualitative research methodological tools such as focus groups, key informant interviews and community surveys are traditionally used to provide context to larger quantitative research studies. These qualitative research methodologies, however, may be under utilized. They may also be deployed as an effective means of creating community engagement opportunities and opportunities for cathartic reflection for community leaders in post-disaster community planning. The author argues that dialogue-based forms of community engagement are an improvement over existing citizen participation strategies, citing what is now known about social capital formation, the Community Capitals Framework, Appreciative Inquiry, and Participatory Action Research. This hypothesis is examined ...


Smallholder Farmer Assets, Extension And Marketing In Uganda, Qian Sun Jan 2013

Smallholder Farmer Assets, Extension And Marketing In Uganda, Qian Sun

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The study was initiated to understand how asset building, combined with appropriate extension services, can enable smallholder farmers to address marketing problems. Interviews were conducted in 2009 with 317 farm households in Kamuli district, Eastern Uganda, who were participants in a sustainable rural livelihoods program, led by an indigenous non-governmental organization with support from Ugandan and U.S. universities. Training and support provided opportunities to improve production of crops and livestock, income, nutrition and well-being. Key research questions are: (i) How is the level of smallholders' assets associated with access to extension services? (ii) What influence do assets and extension ...