Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2013

Sociology

University of Pennsylvania

Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 57

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Schooling Has Smaller Or Insignificant Effects On Adult Health In The Us Than Suggested By Cross-Sectional Associations: New Estimates Using Relatively Large Samples Of Identical Twins, Vikesh Amin, Jere R. Behrman, Hans-Peter Kohler Dec 2013

Schooling Has Smaller Or Insignificant Effects On Adult Health In The Us Than Suggested By Cross-Sectional Associations: New Estimates Using Relatively Large Samples Of Identical Twins, Vikesh Amin, Jere R. Behrman, Hans-Peter Kohler

PSC Working Paper Series

Adult health outcomes and health behaviors generally are strongly associated with schooling attainment. But such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health outcomes and behaviors of the magnitudes of the associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors that are related to genetics and family background. Recently several studies have used within-identical (monozygotic, MZ) twins methods to control for those unobserved factors that are shared completely by identical twins. Estimates based on relatively small samples for the US, as well as some larger samples for other countries, suggest that causal impacts of schooling on health ...


A Tale Of Two Sandys, Erin Bergren, Jessica Coffey, Daniel Aldana Cohen, Ned Crowley, Liz Koslow, Max Liboiron, Alexis Merdjanoff, Adam Murphree, David Wachsmuth Dec 2013

A Tale Of Two Sandys, Erin Bergren, Jessica Coffey, Daniel Aldana Cohen, Ned Crowley, Liz Koslow, Max Liboiron, Alexis Merdjanoff, Adam Murphree, David Wachsmuth

Departmental Papers (Sociology)

Responses to Hurricane Sandy consistently cluster into two types according to how the issues have been defined and understood. On one hand, the crisis was seen as an extreme weather event that created physical and economic damage, and temporarily moved New York City away from its status quo. On the other hand, Hurricane Sandy exacerbated crises which existed before the storm, including poverty, lack of affordable housing, precarious or low employment, and unequal access to resources generally. A Tale of Two Sandys describes these two understandings of disaster and discuss their implications for response, recovery, and justice in New York ...


Reforming Rural Education: Understanding Teacher Expectations For Rural Youth, Lisa Yiu, Jennifer H. Adams Dec 2013

Reforming Rural Education: Understanding Teacher Expectations For Rural Youth, Lisa Yiu, Jennifer H. Adams

Gansu Survey of Children and Families Papers

The Chinese state's commitment to improve teaching quality in rural regions is a key component of national efforts to close the rural–urban education gap. In this paper, we investigate an understudied but critical dimension of quality teaching: teacher expectations. We employ longitudinal data gathered in Gansu Province in 2000 and 2007 to first examine whether teacher expectations for rural youth are conditioned by students’ social origin and teacher background characteristics. Next, we determine the predictive accuracy of their expectations. Our results highlight the ways in which teacher expectations condition the sorting of rural children among different schooling tracks ...


American Studies: A Case Study Of Interdisciplinarity, Jerry A. Jacobs Oct 2013

American Studies: A Case Study Of Interdisciplinarity, Jerry A. Jacobs

PSC Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Presentation At Penn Urban Studies Colloquium: Delhi, The Invisible City, Kushanava Choudhury, Durba Chattaraj, Moulshri Joshi Oct 2013

Presentation At Penn Urban Studies Colloquium: Delhi, The Invisible City, Kushanava Choudhury, Durba Chattaraj, Moulshri Joshi

Presentations (Social Science Studio)

New Delhi is the capital of India, and a master-planned metropolis. Its unplanned spaces such as Urban Villages, Unauthorized Colonies and Jhuggi Jhopri Clusters tend to be seen as the margins of the planned city. Yet a majority of citizens live and work in these unplanned areas of the city.

For millions of Delhi-ites, the non-planned areas are sources of affordable rental housing as well as employment, as locations for thousands of small businesses and workshops. These spaces and the economies and communities they contain, are connected to the planned city through complex political and economic arrangements. These spaces and ...


The Contribution Of Sociology To The Emergence Of Applied And Pre-Professional College Majors, Jerry A. Jacobs Oct 2013

The Contribution Of Sociology To The Emergence Of Applied And Pre-Professional College Majors, Jerry A. Jacobs

PSC Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Receptivity Curves: Educational Research And The Flow Of Ideas: Expanded Version, Jerry A. Jacobs Oct 2013

Receptivity Curves: Educational Research And The Flow Of Ideas: Expanded Version, Jerry A. Jacobs

PSC Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


New Media And New Publics: An Example With Polar Bears, Etienne S. Benson Sep 2013

New Media And New Publics: An Example With Polar Bears, Etienne S. Benson

Departmental Papers (HSS)

Etienne Benson is a historian of science, technology, and environment in the Department of History and Sociology of Science at the University of Pennsylvania. In this guest post he describes his interactive web-based map plotting publicly available government data about who has applied for polar bear trophy import permits, and its implications.


Narratives Of Death In The Time Of Aids In Rural Malawi, Adam Ashforth, Susan C. Watkins Sep 2013

Narratives Of Death In The Time Of Aids In Rural Malawi, Adam Ashforth, Susan C. Watkins

PSC Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


The Current State Of U.S. Household Balance Sheets, Jacob Krimmel, Kevin B. Moore, John Sabelhaus, Paul Smith Sep 2013

The Current State Of U.S. Household Balance Sheets, Jacob Krimmel, Kevin B. Moore, John Sabelhaus, Paul Smith

Business Economics and Public Policy Papers

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is responsible for two of the most widely used datasets containing information about U.S. household balance sheets: the quarterly macro-level Financial Accounts of the United States (FA, formerly known as the Flow of Funds Accounts) and the triennial microlevel Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). The FA is very timely, but the data can be used only to describe the household sector as a whole. The SCF provides the micro-level detail needed to capture heterogeneity in household finances, but the data are available only with a long lag. The authors’ key ...


Mothers’ Empowerment, Children’S Inoculations And Schooling In Pakistan: Urban Vs Rural Areas, Daughters Vs Sons And 1998-99 Vs 2007-08, Adiqa K. Kiani, Jere R. Behrman Aug 2013

Mothers’ Empowerment, Children’S Inoculations And Schooling In Pakistan: Urban Vs Rural Areas, Daughters Vs Sons And 1998-99 Vs 2007-08, Adiqa K. Kiani, Jere R. Behrman

Grand Challenges Canada Economic Returns to Mitigating Early Life Risks Project Working Paper Series

Mothers’ empowerment is thought to have considerable impact on children’s health and schooling. But the evidence for developing countries of the magnitudes of such effects, how they differ between urban and rural areas, whether they differ for daughters versus sons and whether they are changing over time is limited, particularly for countries that are characterized as having relatively great gender inequality. We construct a mothers’ empowerment index from Pakistani household survey data for 1998-99 and 2007-08 and investigate the associations between mothers’ empowerment and children’s inoculations and schooling. Because mothers’ empowerment may be endogenous, we explore instrumental variable ...


Cohort Profile: The Malawi Longitudinal Study Of Families And Health (Mlsfh), Hans-Peter Kohler, Susan C. Watkins, Jere R. Behrman, Philip Anglewicz, Iliana V. Kohler, Peter Fleming, Rebecca L. Thornton, James Mkandawire, Linda Kalilani-Phiri, Hastings Honde, Augustine Hawara, Ben Chilima, Chiwoza Bandawe, Victor Mwapasa, Mlsfh Study Team Jul 2013

Cohort Profile: The Malawi Longitudinal Study Of Families And Health (Mlsfh), Hans-Peter Kohler, Susan C. Watkins, Jere R. Behrman, Philip Anglewicz, Iliana V. Kohler, Peter Fleming, Rebecca L. Thornton, James Mkandawire, Linda Kalilani-Phiri, Hastings Honde, Augustine Hawara, Ben Chilima, Chiwoza Bandawe, Victor Mwapasa, Mlsfh Study Team

PSC Working Paper Series

The Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) is one of very few long-standing publicly-available longitudinal cohort studies in a sub-Saharan African (SSA) context. It provides a rare record of more than a decade of demographic, socioeconomic and health conditions in one of the world's poorest countries. With data collection rounds in 1998, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012 for up to 4,000 individuals, the MLSFH permits researchers to investigate the multiple influences that contribute to HIV risks in sexual partnerships, the variety of ways that people manage risk within and outside of marriage, the possible ...


Looking Up And Looking Out: Career Mobility Effects Of Demographic Similarity Among Professionals, Kathleen L. Mcginn, Katherine L. Milkman Jul 2013

Looking Up And Looking Out: Career Mobility Effects Of Demographic Similarity Among Professionals, Kathleen L. Mcginn, Katherine L. Milkman

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We investigate the role of workgroup gender and race composition on the career mobility of professionals in “up-or-out” organizations. We develop a nuanced perspective on the potential career mobility effects of workgroup demography by integrating the social identification processes of cohesion, competition, and comparison. Using five years of personnel data from a large law firm, we examine the influence of demographic match with workgroup superiors and workgroup peers on attorneys’ likelihood of turnover and promotion. Survival analyses reveal that higher proportions of same-sex superiors enhance junior professionals’ career mobility. On the flip side, we observe mobility costs accruing to professionals ...


Characteristics Associated With Differences In Survival Among Black And White Women With Breast Cancer, Jeffrey H. Silber, Paul R. Rosenbaum, Amy S. Clark, Bruce J. Giantonio, Richard N. Ross, Yun Teng, Min Wang, Bijan A. Niknam, Justin M. Ludwig, Wei Wang, Orit Even-Shoshan, Kevin R. Fox Jul 2013

Characteristics Associated With Differences In Survival Among Black And White Women With Breast Cancer, Jeffrey H. Silber, Paul R. Rosenbaum, Amy S. Clark, Bruce J. Giantonio, Richard N. Ross, Yun Teng, Min Wang, Bijan A. Niknam, Justin M. Ludwig, Wei Wang, Orit Even-Shoshan, Kevin R. Fox

Health Care Management Papers

Importance

Difference in breast cancer survival by race is a recognized problem among Medicare beneficiaries.

Objective

To determine if racial disparity in breast cancer survival is primarily attributable to differences in presentation characteristics at diagnosis or subsequent treatment.

Design, Setting, and Patients

Comparison of 7375 black women 65 years and older diagnosed between 1991 to 2005 and 3 sets of 7375 matched white control patients selected from 99 898 white potential controls, using data for 16 US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) sites in the SEER-Medicare database. All patients received follow-up through December 31, 2009, and the black case ...


Intergenerational Transmission Of Poverty And Inequality: Young Lives, Jere R. Behrman, Benjamin T. Crookston, Kirk Dearden, Le Thuc Duc, Lia C. H. Fernald, Subha Mani, Whitney Schott, Aryeh D. Stein Jun 2013

Intergenerational Transmission Of Poverty And Inequality: Young Lives, Jere R. Behrman, Benjamin T. Crookston, Kirk Dearden, Le Thuc Duc, Lia C. H. Fernald, Subha Mani, Whitney Schott, Aryeh D. Stein

Grand Challenges Canada Economic Returns to Mitigating Early Life Risks Project Working Paper Series

Parents play major roles in determining the human capital of children, and thus the income of children when they become adults. Models of investments in children’s human capital posit that these investments are determined by parental resources (financial and human capital) and child endowments within particular market and policy environments. Many empirical studies are consistent with significant associations between parental resources and investments in their children. And there is considerable emphasis in the scholarly and the policy literatures on the degree of intergenerational mobility and the intergenerational transmission of economic opportunities, and therefore the intergenerational transmission of poverty – or ...


Eliciting Maternal Subjective Expectations About The Technology Of Cognitive Skill Formation, Flávio Cunha, Irma T. Elo, Jennifer F. Culhane Jun 2013

Eliciting Maternal Subjective Expectations About The Technology Of Cognitive Skill Formation, Flávio Cunha, Irma T. Elo, Jennifer F. Culhane

PSC Working Paper Series

In this paper, we formulate a model of early childhood development in which mothers have subjective expectations about the technology of skill formation. The model is useful for understanding how maternal knowledge about child development affects the maternal choices of investments in the human capital of children. Unfortunately, the model is not identified from data that are usually available to econometricians. To solve this problem, we conduct a study where mothers were interviewed to elicit maternal expectations about the technology of skill formation. We interviewed a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged African‐American women. We find that the median subjective expectation ...


The Rise And Fall Of Unions In The U.S., Emin Dinlersoz, Jeremy Greenwood Jun 2013

The Rise And Fall Of Unions In The U.S., Emin Dinlersoz, Jeremy Greenwood

PSC Working Paper Series

Union membership displayed a n-shaped pattern over the 20th century, while the distribution of income sketched a u. A model of unions is developed to analyze these phenomena. There is a distribution of firms in the economy. Firms hire capital, plus skilled and unskilled labor. Unionization is a costly process. A union decides how many firms to organize and its members wage rate. Simulation of the developed model establishes that skilled-biased technological change, which affects the productivity of skilled labor relative to unskilled labor, can potentially explain the above facts. Statistical analysis suggests that skill-biased technological change is an important ...


Habitus Transformation: Immigrant Mother’S Cultural Translation Of Educational Strategies In Korea, Hyejeong Jo Jun 2013

Habitus Transformation: Immigrant Mother’S Cultural Translation Of Educational Strategies In Korea, Hyejeong Jo

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

This study aims to examine the transformation of habitus through a case study of immigrant mothers who navigate a heated educational competition in South Korea. To illuminate the process of habitus change, this study investigates the ways in which immigrant mothers make sense of a unique educational cultural practice of Korean parents, which is heavy reliance on shadow education.


Incorporating Clients' Underlying Religious And Spiritual Beliefs In Therapy May Improve Substance Abuse Treatment Practices, Especially For Persons Of Color, Marguerite E. Hendrickson May 2013

Incorporating Clients' Underlying Religious And Spiritual Beliefs In Therapy May Improve Substance Abuse Treatment Practices, Especially For Persons Of Color, Marguerite E. Hendrickson

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

ABSTRACT

INCORPORATING CLIENTS' UNDERLYING RELIGIOUS AND SPIRITUAL BELIEFS IN THERAPY MAY IMPROVE SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT PRACTICES, ESPECIALLY FOR PERSONS OF COLOR

Author: Marguerite E. Hendrickson

Dissertation Chair: Ram Cnaan, Ph.D.

Although pharmacological breakthroughs have improved treatment outcomes for

alcohol and opioid dependence through decreased cravings and blocked reward

effects, there are no FDA approved medications for the treatment of cocaine

dependence. In addition, many routinely practiced psychotherapy models for

addiction remain limited in their effects. As composite case studies will reveal,

cravings and urges to use cocaine prevent clients from obtaining and sustaining

abstinence. Multiple case studies will examine ...


Parental Factors And Early English Education As A Foreign Language: A Case Study In Mainland China, Yuko Goto Butler May 2013

Parental Factors And Early English Education As A Foreign Language: A Case Study In Mainland China, Yuko Goto Butler

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

As English has increasingly become associated with social and economic power in the context of globalization, there has been a growing concern regarding achievement gaps in English that appear to be correlated to learners’ socio-economic status (SES). The present study aims to examine how parents’ SES and their behaviors and beliefs about English education relate to their children’s English language learning, and how such relationships may differ across different grade levels. The participants were fourth, sixth and eighth grade students who had learned English from the third grade level (572 students in total) together with their parents in a ...


Sociological Perspectives On Ethnicity And Education In China: Views From Chinese And English Literatures, Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng, Emily C. Hannum, Chunping Lu Apr 2013

Sociological Perspectives On Ethnicity And Education In China: Views From Chinese And English Literatures, Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng, Emily C. Hannum, Chunping Lu

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

This paper reviews Chinese- and English-language literature on ethnic minorities and education in China. Six major research topics emerge from the Chinese-language research: (1) Marxism and ethnic minority education; (2) patriotism and national unity in education for ethnic minority students; (3) multicultural education; (4) determinants of ethnic differences in education; (5) school facilities and teacher quality; and (6) preferential / affirmative action policies. Four research themes are identified from the English-language literature: (1) policy overviews; (2) education and ethnic identity; (3) incentives and disincentives for buy-in to the education system; and (4) educational stratification. The majority of quantitative research from both ...


Cultural Norms: Transmitted Behaviors Or Adaptive Responses?, Nicolas Baumard Apr 2013

Cultural Norms: Transmitted Behaviors Or Adaptive Responses?, Nicolas Baumard

Behavioral Ethics Lab

Economic game experiments have become a prominent method among social scientists developing and testing theories of cooperation. These games provide a valuable opportunity to generate measures of cooperation that can be compared from one place to the next, yet challenges remain in how to interpret cross-cultural differences in these experiments and connect them to cooperation in naturally occurring contexts. I address these challenges by examining framing effects in public goods games (PGGs) with salmon fishers and reindeer herders in Kamchatka, Russia. Combining standard versions of the game with versions that refer to post-Soviet institutions coordinating fishing and herding, I show ...


Urbanization In Fairmount Park: The Deteriorization Of Stream Beds, Emma Schad Apr 2013

Urbanization In Fairmount Park: The Deteriorization Of Stream Beds, Emma Schad

Posters

Created for Ann Greene's Science, Technology and Society: Environmental History course.

This poster considers the possible causes of stream deterioration in Fairmount Park.

Key visual elements:

  • Map
  • Diagram


The Birds, The Bees & The Swedes: Exploring The Role Of Pleasure In Swedish Sex Education, Arielle Pardes Apr 2013

The Birds, The Bees & The Swedes: Exploring The Role Of Pleasure In Swedish Sex Education, Arielle Pardes

Posters

"The Birds, the Bees & the Swedes" displays excerpts of semi-structured interviews with 15 Swedish students on their perspectives of sex education in schools. Arielle uses clever visuals in presenting notions of "pleasure" in the middle of the poster, followed by students' direct quotes at the bottom. The gray and white contrast work well together to highlight both the text and the circular visuals on the side of the poster.

Key visual elements:

  • Effective gray and white contrast
  • Creative use of text throughout poster
  • Clever visuals to highlight text

This was created for the Center for Undergraduate Research & Fellowships (CURF) Undergraduate ...


The Ecology Of The Ideal Villa, Lane Raffaldini Rubin Apr 2013

The Ecology Of The Ideal Villa, Lane Raffaldini Rubin

Undergraduate Humanities Forum 2012-2013: Peripheries

The villa is more than a farmhouse in the country. According to James Ackerman, the villa is the most articulate architectural typology of the ideologies of its makers. For at least three millennia, its anthropological role has changed very little, serving as a periodic rural residence for urban élites who seek to escape from the city and engage in agriculture and contemplation. While in residence, the patron reflects on the virtue and beauty of the landscape and becomes aware of the wonders of dwelling within it. Villa builders try to construct a terrestrial paradise—an ideal place that expresses fundamental ...


The Effects Of Child-Bearing Policies In Remarriages: Evidence From China, Hanming Fang, Wanchuan Lin Apr 2013

The Effects Of Child-Bearing Policies In Remarriages: Evidence From China, Hanming Fang, Wanchuan Lin

PARC Working Paper Series

In this paper we document the fertility policies for remarried couples in the People's Republic of China, and investigate their effects on the women's first marriages. Our evidence suggests that the child-bearing policies in remarriages have a significant effect on the characteristics of first marriages, including the ages of first marriage for the women, age gap, age of first child birth, age lapsed between first marriage and first child birth, number of children, and the divorce rates. We also plan to investigate whether these results are consistent with a forward-looking marriage model.


The Impact Of Married Individuals Learning Hiv Status In Malawi: Divorce, Number Of Sexual Partners, Condom Use With Spouses, Theresa M. Fedor, Hans-Peter Kohler, Jere R. Behrman Mar 2013

The Impact Of Married Individuals Learning Hiv Status In Malawi: Divorce, Number Of Sexual Partners, Condom Use With Spouses, Theresa M. Fedor, Hans-Peter Kohler, Jere R. Behrman

PSC Working Paper Series

This paper assesses how knowledge of HIV status gained through HIV testing and counseling (HTC) by married individuals affects divorce, the number of sexual partners and the use of condoms within marriage. Instrumental variable probit and linear models are estimated, using a randomized experiment administered as part of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health. The results indicate that knowledge of HIV status (1) does not affect chances of divorce for either HIV-negative or HIV-positive respondents; (2) reduces the number of sexual partners among HIV-positive respondents, and (3) increases condom use with spouses for both HIV-negative and HIV-positive respondents ...


Counterpower's Long Game. Review Of Manuel Castells, Networks Of Outrage And Hope, Daniel Aldana Cohen Mar 2013

Counterpower's Long Game. Review Of Manuel Castells, Networks Of Outrage And Hope, Daniel Aldana Cohen

Departmental Papers (Sociology)

"This is the Beginning of the Beginning" flashed in white light on Manhattan's Verizon Building. The message seemed to jump out of nowhere and Occupy Wall Street marchers crossing the Brooklyn Bridge broke into ecstatic chants. This was the Illuminator's debut, just two days after New York police had brutally evicted Occupiers from Zuccotti Park. Hours later, we would find out that the Illuminator, a.k.a. Mark Read, was projecting from the apartment of Denise Vega, a public-housing resident sympathetic to Occupy. The target was no accident: Verizon was attacking its union, seeking to slash workers' pay ...


Anthrofest 2013, Charles Washington, Mike Chen, Lisa Doi, Sabine Harrington, Kyle De Sandes-Moyer, Liz Jacobs, Marguerite Leone, Divya Mishra Feb 2013

Anthrofest 2013, Charles Washington, Mike Chen, Lisa Doi, Sabine Harrington, Kyle De Sandes-Moyer, Liz Jacobs, Marguerite Leone, Divya Mishra

Anthrofest

The University of Pennsylvania anthropology annual undergraduate research conference known as ANTHROFEST brings together undergraduates involved in research across all concentrations in anthropology, as well as faculty and the broader undergraduate and graduate community. Each year, select students present and discuss their original research to the community at Penn. The conference is open to the public.


It's Not Just About The Money: Motivations For Youth Migration In Rural China, Yilin Chiang, Emily C. Hannum, Grace Kao Feb 2013

It's Not Just About The Money: Motivations For Youth Migration In Rural China, Yilin Chiang, Emily C. Hannum, Grace Kao

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

This study investigates the incentives for labor migration of youth in rural China using panel data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, a longitudinal study of youth in rural Gansu Province of China. We investigate the individual and altruistic economic motivations featured prominently in demographic and economic research on migration. However, we propose that the non-economic goal of personal development, a motivation suggested in numerous qualitative studies of women migrants in China and elsewhere, is also important, especially for young migrants. Analyzes indicate that, while young men and young women hold different motivations for migration, the desire for ...