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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Workshop | Body Worn Video Recorders: The Socio-Technical Implications Of Gathering Direct Evidence, Katina Michael, Alexander Hayes Jun 2015

Workshop | Body Worn Video Recorders: The Socio-Technical Implications Of Gathering Direct Evidence, Katina Michael, Alexander Hayes

Alexander Hayes Mr.

- From in-car video recording to body-worn video recording

- Exploring available technologies: how do they work, pros and cons

- Storing direct evidence in secure storage: factors to consider

- Citizens “shooting” back with POV tech – what are their rights?

- Crowdsourced sousveillance- harnessing public data for forensic profiling

- Police force policies and practices on the application of new media


Underclaiming And Overclaiming, Sachin Pandya, Peter Siegelman Mar 2014

Underclaiming And Overclaiming, Sachin Pandya, Peter Siegelman

Peter Siegelman

Arguments that we have too much litigation (overclaiming) or too little (underclaiming) cannot be valid without estimating how many of the undecided claims that are brought (actual claims) or not brought (potential claims) have or lack legal merit. We identify the basic conceptual structure of such underclaiming and overclaiming arguments, which entails inferences about the distribution of actual or potential claims by their probability of success on the merits within a claims-processing institution. We then survey the available methods for estimating claim merit.


Individual And Society: Sociological Social Psychology, Lizabeth A. Crawford, Katherine B. Novak Dec 2013

Individual And Society: Sociological Social Psychology, Lizabeth A. Crawford, Katherine B. Novak

Katherine B. Novak

Unlike other texts for undergraduate sociological social psychology courses, this text presents the three distinct traditions (or "faces") in sociological social psychology (symbolic interactionism, social structure and personality, and group processes and structures) and emphasizes the different theoretical frameworks within which social psychological analyses are conducted within each research tradition. With this approach, the authors make clear the link between "face" of sociological social psychology, theory, and methodology. Thus, students gain an appreciably better understanding of the field of sociological social psychology; how and why social psychologists trained in sociology ask particular kinds of questions; the types of research they ...


Anatomy Of Dissent In Islamic Societies, Ahmed Souaiaia Dec 2013

Anatomy Of Dissent In Islamic Societies, Ahmed Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

The 'Arab Spring' that began in 2011 has placed a spotlight on the transfer of political power in Islamic societies, reviving old questions about the place of political dissent and rebellion in Islamic civilization and raising new ones about the place of religion in modern Islamic societies.

In Anatomy of Dissent in Islamic Societies, Ahmed E. Souaiaia examines the complex historical evolution of Islamic civilization in an effort to trace the roots of the paradigms and principles of Islamic political and legal theories. This study is one of the first attempts at providing a fuller picture of the place of ...


Languages Of The Unheard: Why Militant Protest Is Good For Democracy, Stephen D'Arcy Dec 2013

Languages Of The Unheard: Why Militant Protest Is Good For Democracy, Stephen D'Arcy

Stephen D'Arcy

A normative democratic theory of sound militancy is proposed, drawing on the ideas of Martin Luther King, but rejecting his non-violence standard in favour of a democratic standard. This normative standard is then applied to civil disobedience, disruptive direct action, sabotage, black blocs, rioting and armed struggle.


A Policy Brief: Massachusetts (T)Afdc Case Closings, October 1993-August 1997, Donna Friedman, Emily Douglas, Michelle Hayes, Mary Ann Allard Dec 2013

A Policy Brief: Massachusetts (T)Afdc Case Closings, October 1993-August 1997, Donna Friedman, Emily Douglas, Michelle Hayes, Mary Ann Allard

Donna Haig Friedman

When a DTA (Department of Transitional Assistance) worker assesses whether a family's (T)AFDC (Temporary Aid to Families with Dependent Children) case will be closed, s/he decides which one of 67 different codes best describes the reason cash benefits for the household will be stopped. To carry out the analyses, we sorted all of the 67 codes into clusters of codes that logically grouped together: Cluster I, Increased Income; Cluster H, Sanctions; Cluster III, Eligible Persons Moved; Cluster IV, Fraud; Cluster V, Client Request; Cluster VI, No Longer Eligible; Cluster VII, Other or Multiple Meanings. The Appendix displays ...


Characteristics Of Homeless Individuals Accessing Massachusetts Emergency Shelters, 1999-2001, Tatjana Meschede, Michelle Kahan, Michelle Hayes, Donna Friedman Dec 2013

Characteristics Of Homeless Individuals Accessing Massachusetts Emergency Shelters, 1999-2001, Tatjana Meschede, Michelle Kahan, Michelle Hayes, Donna Friedman

Donna Haig Friedman

The Center for Social Policy (CSP) at the McCormack Institute, University of Massachusetts Boston oversees the Connection, Service, and Partnership through Technology (CSPTech) project. CSPTech operates a homeless management information system being implemented throughout the Commonwealth. Founded in 1995, this project is a networked computerized record-keeping system that allows homeless service providers across Massachusetts to collect uniform client information over time. This information is aggregated in a database used by service providers, advocates, government officials, researchers, and people experiencing homelessness. Analysis of this information is critical to efforts to understand the extent of this problem in Massachusetts in an attempt ...


Immigration Policing And Federalism Through The Lens Of Technology, Surveillance, And Privacy, Anil Kalhan Nov 2013

Immigration Policing And Federalism Through The Lens Of Technology, Surveillance, And Privacy, Anil Kalhan

Anil Kalhan

With the deployment of technology, federal programs to enlist state and local police assistance with immigration enforcement are undergoing a sea change. For example, even as it forcefully has urged invalidation of Arizona’s S.B. 1070 and similar state laws, the Obama administration has presided over the largest expansion of state and local immigration policing in U.S. history with its implementation of the “Secure Communities” program, which integrates immigration and criminal history database systems in order to automatically ascertain the immigration status of every individual who is arrested and booked by state and local police nationwide. By 2012 ...


Understanding How Advance Care Planning Is Approached In The Residential Aged Care Setting: A Continuum Model Of Practice As An Explanatory Device, Christopher Shanley, Elizabeth Whitmore, Angela Khoo, Colleen Cartwright, Amanda Walker, Robert Cumming Nov 2013

Understanding How Advance Care Planning Is Approached In The Residential Aged Care Setting: A Continuum Model Of Practice As An Explanatory Device, Christopher Shanley, Elizabeth Whitmore, Angela Khoo, Colleen Cartwright, Amanda Walker, Robert Cumming

Professor Colleen M Cartwright

Objective:  To gain an understanding of how advance care planning (ACP) is understood and approached by managers of residential aged care facilities.

Methods:  Qualitative interviews with managers from 41 residential aged care facilities from South Western Sydney, Australia. Content and thematic analysis of interview transcripts.

Results:  The majority of facilities do not have a systematic approach to ACP, but tend to initiate discussions about end-of-life treatments late in a resident's illness. There are varying degrees to which these discussions are used in ongoing care planning or made explicit if the resident is transferred to hospital. A number of factors ...


Discussing Prognosis With Terminally Ill Cancer Patients And Relatives: A Survey Of Physicians' Intentions In Seven Countries, Jennifer Voorhee, Judith Rietjens, Bregje Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Luc Deliens, Colleen Cartwright, Karin Faisst, Michael Norup, Guido Miccinesi, Agnes Van Der Heide Nov 2013

Discussing Prognosis With Terminally Ill Cancer Patients And Relatives: A Survey Of Physicians' Intentions In Seven Countries, Jennifer Voorhee, Judith Rietjens, Bregje Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Luc Deliens, Colleen Cartwright, Karin Faisst, Michael Norup, Guido Miccinesi, Agnes Van Der Heide

Professor Colleen M Cartwright

Objective To determine the extent to which physicians in different countries intend to inform terminal patients and relatives about prognosis, and to identify physician characteristics associated with an active approach to such discussions. Methods In the context of a European research project, a study on disclosing prognosis was conducted in seven countries. A written questionnaire with questions regarding hypothetical cases and actual practices was sent to physicians from specialties involved in the care of dying patients. Results 10,139 questionnaires were studied. The response rate was greater than 50% in all countries except Italy (39%). The percentage of physicians who ...


Should Assisted Suicide Be Performed By Physicians Only? Results Of A Survey Among Physicians In Six European Countries And Australia, Georg Bosshard, Susanne Fischer, Colleen Cartwright, Karin Faisst, Rurik Lofmark, Guido Miccinesi, Freddy Mortier, Michael Norup, Bregje Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Johannes Van Delden Nov 2013

Should Assisted Suicide Be Performed By Physicians Only? Results Of A Survey Among Physicians In Six European Countries And Australia, Georg Bosshard, Susanne Fischer, Colleen Cartwright, Karin Faisst, Rurik Lofmark, Guido Miccinesi, Freddy Mortier, Michael Norup, Bregje Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Johannes Van Delden

Professor Colleen M Cartwright

Background: Whereas there is broad agreement that euthanasia should be performed by physicians only, this is contested for (physician-) assisted suicide.

Methods: We conducted a survey to investigate whether European and Australian physicians see morally relevant differences between assisted suicide and euthanasia, and whether, after a possible legalization of assisted suicide, they believe it should be performed by physicians only.

Results: 10 139 questionnaires were studied. 76% of the physicians in Belgium, 66% in the Netherlands, 62% in Australia, 48% in Denmark, 44% in Switzerland, and 10% in Sweden thought that assisted suicide should be performed by physicians only. 16 ...


Gridland: An Allegorical Critique Of Federal Sentencing, Erik Luna Nov 2013

Gridland: An Allegorical Critique Of Federal Sentencing, Erik Luna

Erik Luna

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of A Youth Cald (Cultural And Linguistically Diverse) Sports Program In Western Australia: Resettling Refugees Using Sport As A Conduit To Integration, Peter Hancock, Trudi Cooper, Susanne Bahn Nov 2013

Evaluation Of A Youth Cald (Cultural And Linguistically Diverse) Sports Program In Western Australia: Resettling Refugees Using Sport As A Conduit To Integration, Peter Hancock, Trudi Cooper, Susanne Bahn

Susanne Bahn Dr

This paper is based on an evaluation of a Cultural and Linguistically Diverse (CaLD) Youth Sport, Recreation and Leisure Project conducted in Perth, Western Australia by researchers from Edith Cowan University on behalf of the Department of Sport and Recreation (DSR). The purpose of the Cultural and Linguistically Diverse (CaLD) Youth Sport, Recreation and Leisure Project which was facilitated by the City of Stirling (CoS Project) was to develop links between mainstream sport and recreation organisations, clubs and facilities in the CoS and young people from CaLD backgrounds. The authors of this paper were contracted by DSR to evaluate the ...


Courting Power, Anil Kalhan Oct 2013

Courting Power, Anil Kalhan

Anil Kalhan

No abstract provided.


Investigation Into Gender Perception Toward Computing: A Comparison Between The U.S. And India, Kittipong Laosethakul, Thaweephan Leingpibul, Thomas Coe Oct 2013

Investigation Into Gender Perception Toward Computing: A Comparison Between The U.S. And India, Kittipong Laosethakul, Thaweephan Leingpibul, Thomas Coe

Kittipong Laosethakul

A potential explanation for the decline of female participation in computing-related education and careers in the United States is the perception that computing is for males. In this regard, declining participation limits diversity in the computing-related workforce. Therefore, this paper investigates the impact of two psychological factors, computer anxiety and computer self-efficacy, on gender perception toward computing between American male and female students. The authors also investigate whether the same relationship is found in India, where, while computing is dominated by males, female participation is rapidly increasing due to global IT outsourcing.


Keeping Ignorance And Extremism Out Of Public Schools: The Role Of Teachers And Their Unions, Cathy Byrne Oct 2013

Keeping Ignorance And Extremism Out Of Public Schools: The Role Of Teachers And Their Unions, Cathy Byrne

Dr Cathy Byrne

No abstract provided.


The Infant Imaginary: Consent, Citizenship, And Pedagogy In Early America [Book Review], Elizabeth Dillon Sep 2013

The Infant Imaginary: Consent, Citizenship, And Pedagogy In Early America [Book Review], Elizabeth Dillon

Elizabeth Maddock Dillon

No abstract provided.


Introduction: Transitions And Transformations: Paradigms, Perspectives, And Possibilities, Caitrin Lynch, Jason Danely Sep 2013

Introduction: Transitions And Transformations: Paradigms, Perspectives, And Possibilities, Caitrin Lynch, Jason Danely

Caitrin Lynch

Rapid population aging, once associated with only a select group of modern industrialized nations, has now become a topic of increasing global concern. This volume reframes aging on a global scale by illustrating the multiple ways it is embedded within individual, social, and cultural life courses. It presents a broad range of ethnographic work, introducing a variety of conceptual and methodological approaches to studying life-course transitions in conjunction with broader sociocultural transformations. Through detailed accounts, in such diverse settings as nursing homes in Sri Lanka, a factory in Massachusetts, cemeteries in Japan and clinics in Mexico, the authors explore not ...


An Interactive Exploration Of Gender And Engineering: Unpacking The Experience, Debbie Chachra, Lynn Stein, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski, Caitrin Lynch, Yevgeniya Zastavker Sep 2013

An Interactive Exploration Of Gender And Engineering: Unpacking The Experience, Debbie Chachra, Lynn Stein, Alisha Sarang-Sieminski, Caitrin Lynch, Yevgeniya Zastavker

Alisha L. Sarang-Sieminski

The engineering student experience is understood to differ for male and female students; gendered interactions affect the development of academic and professional role confidence, as well as engineering identity. The purpose of this session is twofold. First, we aim to introduce participants to concepts of gender schemas, privilege, and identity using a range of interactive activities, including brainstorming and structured discussion. Second, we intend to share information about and obtain feedback on a Gender Discussion Exploration Kit, which the participants will be encouraged to review, use, and share at their home institutions.


Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily Hannum, Peggy Kong, Yuping Zhang Sep 2013

Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily Hannum, Peggy Kong, Yuping Zhang

Yuping Zhang

In this paper, we investigate the gender gap in education in rural northwest China. We first discuss parental perceptions of abilities and appropriate roles for girls and boys; parental concerns about old-age support; and parental perceptions of different labor market outcomes for girls' and boys' education. We then investigate gender disparities in investments in children, children's performance at school, and children's subsequent attainment. We analyze a survey of nine to twelve year-old children and their families conducted in rural Gansu Province in the year 2000, along with follow-up information about subsequent educational attainment collected seven years later. We ...


Introductory Essay: Traditional Knowledge, Spirituality And Lands, Marc Fonda Sep 2013

Introductory Essay: Traditional Knowledge, Spirituality And Lands, Marc Fonda

Marc V. Fonda Ph.D.

In times like ours, when people are inundated with notions of consumerist identities, culture is often seen mainly as a resource to be tapped into for economic development. This certainly is true of blatant consumerist culture produced by such economic behemoths as Hollywood, but it is a narrow view on the importance and functions of culture. The objective of this issue of the International Indigenous Policy Journal is to demonstrate the radical importance of culture and spirituality in not only defining a people and their society but also in affecting their well-being and how these things are all interrelated.


Socially Constructed Teen Motherhood: A Review, Marc Fonda, Rachel Eni, Eric Guimond Sep 2013

Socially Constructed Teen Motherhood: A Review, Marc Fonda, Rachel Eni, Eric Guimond

Marc V. Fonda Ph.D.

This article reviews literature on the gradual construction of teenage pregnancy as a social issue in North America. It shows how teen motherhood emerged not as an issue unto itself, but as a microcosm of numerous, closely intertwined phenomena including: the evolution of Western views on human sexuality and gender roles; the place of religious values in society; and the emergence of various modern technologies, the social and medical sciences, and how such disciplines view childhood, motherhood, and women in society. In particular, it shows that even as teen pregnancy is today viewed primarily through public health and/or socioeconomic ...


Asphalt Developments: From Road Construction To Environmental Governance And Citizenship In Peru, Sonja Pieck Aug 2013

Asphalt Developments: From Road Construction To Environmental Governance And Citizenship In Peru, Sonja Pieck

Sonja Pieck

Peru today is one of the main staging grounds for a continent-wide integration effort. Launched in 2000, the Initiative for the Integration of Regional Infrastructure in South America (IIRSA) calls for an enormous expansion of the continent's transport and energy networks and an effort to increase the region's economic competitiveness. Among its most controversial projects is the Interoceanic Highway linking western Brazil with the Pacific coast of Peru. The highway has attracted fierce criticism from NGOs who point to major environmental impacts, an inadequate mitigation process, and a lack of transparency in funding flows and decision making. In ...


Center For Governance And Sustainability: Policy Impact Through Rigorous Analysis, Maria Ivanova, Craig Murphy, Michael Denney Jul 2013

Center For Governance And Sustainability: Policy Impact Through Rigorous Analysis, Maria Ivanova, Craig Murphy, Michael Denney

Maria Ivanova

Three main functions define the center: Serves as an information hub Provides rigorous analysis Acts as an honest broker We collect and manage data on governance and sustainability across scales, apply diverse analytical models grounded in empirics, and create dialogues among scholars, practitioners, and the public.


Gender Inequality And Patterns Of Abuse Post Leaving, Lorraine Davies, Marilyn Ford-Gilboe, Joanne Hammerton Jul 2013

Gender Inequality And Patterns Of Abuse Post Leaving, Lorraine Davies, Marilyn Ford-Gilboe, Joanne Hammerton

Lorraine Davies

Drawing on Connell’s (Gender and power: Society, the person and sexual politics. California: Stanford University Press, 1987; Masculinities. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995) model of gender relations, this paper examines patterns of intimate partner violence among women who have recently left an abusive partner. In so doing, we attempt to better understand the social structural factors that shape the relations of power and control in intimate violent heterosexual unions. The data come from the first wave of a longitudinal prospective survey of 309 women who had left an abusive partner in the previous 3 years. Our data ...


Modeling The Effects Of Intimate Partner Violence And Access To Resources On Women’S Health In The Early Years After Leaving An Abusive Partner, Marilyn Ford-Gilboe, Judith Wuest, Colleen Varcoe, Lorraine Davies, Marilyn Merritt-Gray, Jacquelyn Campbell, Piotr Wilk Jul 2013

Modeling The Effects Of Intimate Partner Violence And Access To Resources On Women’S Health In The Early Years After Leaving An Abusive Partner, Marilyn Ford-Gilboe, Judith Wuest, Colleen Varcoe, Lorraine Davies, Marilyn Merritt-Gray, Jacquelyn Campbell, Piotr Wilk

Lorraine Davies

Although the negative health effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) are well documented, little is known about the mechanisms or determinants of health outcomes for women who had left their abusive partners. Using data collected from a community sample of 309 Canadian women who left an abusive partner, we examined whether women's personal, social and economic resources mediate the relationships between the severity of past IPV and current health using structural equation modelling. A good fit was found between the model and data for hypothesized models of mental and physical health. In the mental health model, both the direct ...


Introduction: Transitions And Transformations: Paradigms, Perspectives, And Possibilities, Caitrin Lynch, Jason Danely Jul 2013

Introduction: Transitions And Transformations: Paradigms, Perspectives, And Possibilities, Caitrin Lynch, Jason Danely

Jason Danely

Rapid population aging, once associated with only a select group of modern industrialized nations, has now become a topic of increasing global concern. This volume reframes aging on a global scale by illustrating the multiple ways it is embedded within individual, social, and cultural life courses. It presents a broad range of ethnographic work, introducing a variety of conceptual and methodological approaches to studying life-course transitions in conjunction with broader sociocultural transformations. Through detailed accounts, in such diverse settings as nursing homes in Sri Lanka, a factory in Massachusetts, cemeteries in Japan and clinics in Mexico, the authors explore not ...


Zombie Hasbara: 'World War Z' And Hollywood's Zionist Embrace, Jesse Benjamin Jun 2013

Zombie Hasbara: 'World War Z' And Hollywood's Zionist Embrace, Jesse Benjamin

Jesse Benjamin

No abstract provided.


Physical Activity At Daycare: Issues, Challenges And Perspectives, Melissa Van Zandvoort, Patricia Tucker, Jennifer Irwin, Shauna Burke May 2013

Physical Activity At Daycare: Issues, Challenges And Perspectives, Melissa Van Zandvoort, Patricia Tucker, Jennifer Irwin, Shauna Burke

Trish Tucker

This study sought to examine London, Ontario‐based childcare providers’ perspectives of the barriers and facilitators to physical activity participation among preschoolers (i.e. children aged 2.5–5 years) attending daycare. A heterogeneous sample of childcare providers (n = 54; response rate 47%) working at public daycare facilities in London, Ontario participated. Using a qualitative methodology, eight semi‐structured focus groups were conducted between February and March 2009. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive content analysis was used to code and categorize emerging themes. When asked to describe the barriers to engaging preschoolers in physical activity while ...


Healthy Eating And Physical Activity Challenges And Opportunities In After-School Programs: Providers’ Perspectives, Heather Thomas, L. Fellner, Patricia Tucker, Jennifer Irwin May 2013

Healthy Eating And Physical Activity Challenges And Opportunities In After-School Programs: Providers’ Perspectives, Heather Thomas, L. Fellner, Patricia Tucker, Jennifer Irwin

Trish Tucker

The purpose of this study was to understand after-school program providers’ perspectives of (a) current physical activity and nutrition curriculum, practices, and challenges, and (b) necessary modifications, program suggestions or resource needs to improve the healthy eating and active living practices within their after-school program for children aged 6 to 12 years. This qualitative study targeted a sample of nine after-school program providers in London, Ontario. Data was collected via in-depth interviews and a demographic survey between January and April 2009. Strategies to enhance data trustworthiness were incorporated throughout. After-school program providers identified insufficient healthy eating curriculum and requested interactive ...