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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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2013

Public Health

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Articles 1 - 30 of 538

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Neighborhood Energy Balance Equation: Does Neighborhood Food Retail Environment + Physical Activity Environment = Obesity? The Cardia Study, Janne Boone-Heinonen, Ana V. Diez-Roux, David C. Goff, Catherine M. Loria, Catarina I. Kiefe, Barry M. Popkin, Penny Gordon-Larsen Dec 2013

The Neighborhood Energy Balance Equation: Does Neighborhood Food Retail Environment + Physical Activity Environment = Obesity? The Cardia Study, Janne Boone-Heinonen, Ana V. Diez-Roux, David C. Goff, Catherine M. Loria, Catarina I. Kiefe, Barry M. Popkin, Penny Gordon-Larsen

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Recent obesity prevention initiatives focus on healthy neighborhood design, but most research examines neighborhood food retail and physical activity (PA) environments in isolation. We estimated joint, interactive, and cumulative impacts of neighborhood food retail and PA environment characteristics on body mass index (BMI) throughout early adulthood.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used cohort data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study [n=4,092; Year 7 (24-42 years, 1992-1993) followed over 5 exams through Year 25 (2010-2011); 12,921 person-exam observations], with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived neighborhood environment measures. Using regression with fixed effects for ...


Ma Pcmh Eval Week: Ann Lawthers, Sai Cherala, And Judy Steinberg On How You Define Success Influences Your Findings, Ann G. Lawthers, Sai Cherala, Judith Steinberg Dec 2013

Ma Pcmh Eval Week: Ann Lawthers, Sai Cherala, And Judy Steinberg On How You Define Success Influences Your Findings, Ann G. Lawthers, Sai Cherala, Judith Steinberg

Center for Health Policy and Research (CHPR) Publications

Blog post to AEA365, a blog sponsored by the American Evaluation Association (AEA) dedicated to highlighting Hot Tips, Cool Tricks, Rad Resources, and Lessons Learned for evaluators. The American Evaluation Association is an international professional association of evaluators devoted to the application and exploration of program evaluation, personnel evaluation, technology, and many other forms of evaluation. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.

This blog post was posted to AEA365 during a week of posts featuring the team at the University of Massachusetts Medical School that helped to evaluate ...


Socioeconomic-Status And Mental Health In A Personality Disorder Sample: The Importance Of Neighborhood Factors, Zach Walsh, M. Tracie Shea, Shirley Yen, Emily B. Ansell, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. Mcglashan, Robert L. Stout, Donna S. Bender, Andrew E. Skodol, Charles A. Sanislow, Leslie C. Morey, John G. Gunderson Dec 2013

Socioeconomic-Status And Mental Health In A Personality Disorder Sample: The Importance Of Neighborhood Factors, Zach Walsh, M. Tracie Shea, Shirley Yen, Emily B. Ansell, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. Mcglashan, Robert L. Stout, Donna S. Bender, Andrew E. Skodol, Charles A. Sanislow, Leslie C. Morey, John G. Gunderson

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

This cross-sectional study examined the associations between neighborhood-level socioeconomic-status (NSES), and psychosocial functioning and personality pathology among 335 adults drawn from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Participants belonged to four personality disorder (PD) diagnostic groups: Avoidant, Borderline, Schizotypal, and Obsessive Compulsive. Global functioning, social adjustment, and PD symptoms were assessed following a minimum two-year period of residential stability. Residence in higher-risk neighborhoods was associated with more PD symptoms and lower levels of functioning and social adjustment. These relationships were consistent after controlling for individual-level socioeconomic-status and ethnicity; however, the positive association between neighborhood-level socio-economic risk and PD symptoms was ...


Ma Pcmh Eval Week: Christine Johnson On Self-Assessment Medical Home Transformation Tools, Christine Johnson Dec 2013

Ma Pcmh Eval Week: Christine Johnson On Self-Assessment Medical Home Transformation Tools, Christine Johnson

Center for Health Policy and Research (CHPR) Publications

Blog post to AEA365, a blog sponsored by the American Evaluation Association (AEA) dedicated to highlighting Hot Tips, Cool Tricks, Rad Resources, and Lessons Learned for evaluators. The American Evaluation Association is an international professional association of evaluators devoted to the application and exploration of program evaluation, personnel evaluation, technology, and many other forms of evaluation. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.

This blog post was posted to AEA365 during a week of posts featuring the team at the University of Massachusetts Medical School that helped to evaluate ...


Ma Pcmh Eval Week: Linda Cabral And Laura Sefton On Participant Observation As A Data Collection Method, Linda M. Cabral, Laura A. Sefton Dec 2013

Ma Pcmh Eval Week: Linda Cabral And Laura Sefton On Participant Observation As A Data Collection Method, Linda M. Cabral, Laura A. Sefton

Center for Health Policy and Research (CHPR) Publications

Blog post to AEA365, a blog sponsored by the American Evaluation Association (AEA) dedicated to highlighting Hot Tips, Cool Tricks, Rad Resources, and Lessons Learned for evaluators. The American Evaluation Association is an international professional association of evaluators devoted to the application and exploration of program evaluation, personnel evaluation, technology, and many other forms of evaluation. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.

This blog post was posted to AEA365 during a week of posts featuring the team at the University of Massachusetts Medical School that helped to evaluate ...


Ma Pcmh Eval Week: Valerie Konar, Carla Hillerns, And Michelle Landry On Comparison Groups In Evaluation Research – Never Trivial, Valerie Konar, Carla Hillerns, Michelle R. Landry Dec 2013

Ma Pcmh Eval Week: Valerie Konar, Carla Hillerns, And Michelle Landry On Comparison Groups In Evaluation Research – Never Trivial, Valerie Konar, Carla Hillerns, Michelle R. Landry

Center for Health Policy and Research (CHPR) Publications

Blog post to AEA365, a blog sponsored by the American Evaluation Association (AEA) dedicated to highlighting Hot Tips, Cool Tricks, Rad Resources, and Lessons Learned for evaluators. The American Evaluation Association is an international professional association of evaluators devoted to the application and exploration of program evaluation, personnel evaluation, technology, and many other forms of evaluation. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.

This blog post was posted to AEA365 during a week of posts featuring the team at the University of Massachusetts Medical School that helped to evaluate ...


Modern Cavemen? Stereotypes And Reality Of The Ancestral Health Movement, David B. Schwartz, Hamilton M. Stapell Dec 2013

Modern Cavemen? Stereotypes And Reality Of The Ancestral Health Movement, David B. Schwartz, Hamilton M. Stapell

Journal of Evolution and Health

Both academic and popular interest in the ancestral health movement, or “paleo” lifestyle, has grown rapidly in recent years. More people than ever are joining the movement, and more books and articles are being published on the topic. Media coverage and certain societal preconceptions of the movement have also increased. More often than not, followers of a paleo lifestyle are thought to be “modern cavemen”: athletic, single, meat-eating, young, white, and male. To test whether or not these stereotypes are true, the authors of the present study created the first large, academic survey (N = 3,967) of the ancestral health ...


Evaluating Quality Improvement To Improve Hiv Reporting, Nandi A. Marshall, William C. Livingood, Angela Peden, Gulzar H. Shah, Russ Toal, Dayna Alexander, Alesha Wright, Sandra Jump, Shelby Freeman, Kay Davis, Lynn Woodhouse, Kellie Penix Dec 2013

Evaluating Quality Improvement To Improve Hiv Reporting, Nandi A. Marshall, William C. Livingood, Angela Peden, Gulzar H. Shah, Russ Toal, Dayna Alexander, Alesha Wright, Sandra Jump, Shelby Freeman, Kay Davis, Lynn Woodhouse, Kellie Penix

Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research

The incorporation and evaluation of Quality Improvement into Georgia’s public health systems continues to be a focus of the Georgia Public Health Practice Based Research Network. This report describes the process, preliminary results and lessons learned from incorporating Quality Improvement into one of Georgia’s public health districts.


Evidence Use In New York City Public Health Policymaking, Miriam J. Laugesen, Kimberley R. Isett Dec 2013

Evidence Use In New York City Public Health Policymaking, Miriam J. Laugesen, Kimberley R. Isett

Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research

New York City Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg has attracted national attention for his public health policy reforms. The policy process behind the reform program has received less scrutiny, especially the use of research by policymakers. We show that the process used to develop, promote, and evaluate polices is heavily based on five types of data and research. New York Department of Health and Mental Hygiene staff conducted in-depth appraisals of existing published research, used local health surveys and private laboratory surveillance data, engaged in “shoe-leather” field research, formed research collaborations within and outside government, and disseminated research to legitimize policy ...


Commentary: Moving Beyond The Numbers, Effectively Using Research To Influence Policy, F. Douglas Scutchfield, Marylou Wallace Dec 2013

Commentary: Moving Beyond The Numbers, Effectively Using Research To Influence Policy, F. Douglas Scutchfield, Marylou Wallace

Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research

This seventh issue of Frontiers reflects the variety of PHSSR. One emerging theme, however, is the notion of public health and its role in policy and policy development. PHSSR focuses on several potential users, researchers, practitioners and policy makers. As it concerns policy makers, PHSSR delivers research that allows them to make decisions about policy change that not only influences public health status, but creates healthy conditions. In this way, PHSSR essentially influences decisions about support for public health services.


Ma Pcmh Eval Week: Valerie Konar On Getting Evaluation Results Through Project Management, Valerie Konar Dec 2013

Ma Pcmh Eval Week: Valerie Konar On Getting Evaluation Results Through Project Management, Valerie Konar

Center for Health Policy and Research (CHPR) Publications

Blog post to AEA365, a blog sponsored by the American Evaluation Association (AEA) dedicated to highlighting Hot Tips, Cool Tricks, Rad Resources, and Lessons Learned for evaluators. The American Evaluation Association is an international professional association of evaluators devoted to the application and exploration of program evaluation, personnel evaluation, technology, and many other forms of evaluation. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.

This blog post was posted to AEA365 during a week of posts featuring the team at the University of Massachusetts Medical School that helped to evaluate ...


Ma Pcmh Eval Week: Ann Lawthers On Triangulation Using Mixed Methods Appeals To Diverse Stakeholder Interests, Ann G. Lawthers Dec 2013

Ma Pcmh Eval Week: Ann Lawthers On Triangulation Using Mixed Methods Appeals To Diverse Stakeholder Interests, Ann G. Lawthers

Center for Health Policy and Research (CHPR) Publications

Blog post to AEA365, a blog sponsored by the American Evaluation Association (AEA) dedicated to highlighting Hot Tips, Cool Tricks, Rad Resources, and Lessons Learned for evaluators. The American Evaluation Association is an international professional association of evaluators devoted to the application and exploration of program evaluation, personnel evaluation, technology, and many other forms of evaluation. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.

This blog post was posted to AEA365 during a week of posts featuring the team at the University of Massachusetts Medical School that helped to evaluate ...


Addressing The Persistence Of Tuberculosis Among The Canadian Inuit Population: The Need For A Social Determinants Of Health Framework, Kassandra C. Kulmann Ma Candidate, Chantelle Am Richmond Professor Dec 2013

Addressing The Persistence Of Tuberculosis Among The Canadian Inuit Population: The Need For A Social Determinants Of Health Framework, Kassandra C. Kulmann Ma Candidate, Chantelle Am Richmond Professor

Chantelle Richmond

Canadian Aboriginal people have poorer levels of health than the general population. A serious issue is the high rate of tuberculosis (TB) among the Inuit population; rates are much higher than those of the general Canadian population. Several social determinants of health (SDOH), including household crowding and poverty, are strongly correlated with TB prevalence. In this paper, we describe the medical and social determinants of TB, and critically examine the TB literature specific to the Inuit population. The majority of studies recommend biomedical interventions for the treatment of TB. Few researchers have employed the social determinants of health theory to ...


Children And Homelessness In Massachusetts, Donna Haig Friedman, Katherine Calano, Marija Bingulac, Christine Miller, Alisa Zeliger Dec 2013

Children And Homelessness In Massachusetts, Donna Haig Friedman, Katherine Calano, Marija Bingulac, Christine Miller, Alisa Zeliger

Donna Haig Friedman

In Massachusetts, more than half a million children (15% of all children) live in poverty, 30% of all children live with parents who lack secure employment, and 41% live in households with high housing cost burdens. This article examines the root causes of poverty and its links to child homelessness in the state. Though the state has a long-standing progressive political legacy, the well-being of low-income families with children continues to decline. The article offers evidence about the extent of child homelessness and its profound effects on Massachusetts children and youth. The interconnectedness of what are usually thought of as ...


Strengthening Immigrants' Health Access: Current Opportunities, Leighton C. Ku Dec 2013

Strengthening Immigrants' Health Access: Current Opportunities, Leighton C. Ku

Health Policy and Management Issue Briefs

This brief summarizes key opportunities helping the nation’s newcomers in gaining health insurance coverage and health access that are possible under the current law. Provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will help millions of legal immigrants gain access to affordable health insurance coverage. At the same time, however, immigrants will also face new responsibilities. Like citizens, lawfully present immigrants will be responsible for having health insurance coverage or paying a tax penalty, although some are exempt. Rules about immigrants’ access to health insurance benefits are often complicated because they depend on specific immigration categories, as well as eligibility ...


Factors Influencing Youth Self-Perceptions Of Overweight And Obesity, Caitlin Helen Sommers Dec 2013

Factors Influencing Youth Self-Perceptions Of Overweight And Obesity, Caitlin Helen Sommers

Dissertations and Theses

This study sought to examine whether participation in physical activity affects the ability to correctly classify body size, based on body mass index classifications. Secondarily, this study determined whether adolescents who incorrectly classified their body size overestimated or underestimated their size. Self-report data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were analyzed. Logistic regression was performed to examine relationships between self-perception of body size and physical activity, television viewing time, computer/video game use, physical education class time, and extracurricular sports activities. Significance was set to p<0.05. Physical activity was the only statistically significant independent variable (p=0.058, OR = 1.060). Although physical activity was shown to be statistically significant, it did not appear to meaningfully increase the ability of youth to correctly classify body size. Secondary analysis showed that adolescents who incorrectly classified their body size were more likely to underestimate their body size. Females more frequently underestimated their body size (females=673; males=384).


How Age Friendly Is This City? Strategies For Assessing Age-Friendliness, Michelle Dellamora Dec 2013

How Age Friendly Is This City? Strategies For Assessing Age-Friendliness, Michelle Dellamora

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Age-Friendly Cities framework, created by the World Health Organization (WHO), has emerged as a community-based response to the challenges of demographic aging and increasing urbanization. In 2010, London, Ontario, became the first city in Canada to join the WHO Global Network of Age-Friendly Communities. Network milestones require the measurement of the baseline age-friendliness of the community. The objectives of this thesis are: 1. Determine the best available assessment tools for measuring the age-friendliness of a community, and 2. Establish the baseline age-friendliness of London, Ontario. A scoping review was utilized to collect and assess available surveys and questionnaires. A ...


Children At-Risk For Hearing Impairment: A Retrospective Study Of The Ontario Infant Hearing Program Population, Katherine M. Smith Dec 2013

Children At-Risk For Hearing Impairment: A Retrospective Study Of The Ontario Infant Hearing Program Population, Katherine M. Smith

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is widespread agreement that infant hearing screening programs are effective but such programs may fail to detect all hearing impairment and children can develop subsequent hearing loss after passing the initial screen. This is the core rationale for surveillance programs that are analyzed in this thesis. Infants with hearing risk factors are followed using surveillance programs that include monitoring by audiological assessment.

The study population in this thesis consists of 2,390 children with normal hearing and 248 children with hearing impairment from different referral routes. The Infant Hearing Program Surveillance group is 1.48% of the number of ...


Community-Based Participatory Research: Defining Community Stakeholders, Laurene M. Tumiel-Berhalter, Robert Watkins, Carlos J. Crespo Dec 2013

Community-Based Participatory Research: Defining Community Stakeholders, Laurene M. Tumiel-Berhalter, Robert Watkins, Carlos J. Crespo

Carlos J. Crespo

Community-based participatory research requires the participation of community stakeholders to inform the process. The West Side Community Asthma Project, a community-based participatory research program to study the effects of the environment on asthma conducted in Buffalo, N. Y, identified a stakeholders group of community leaders and activists. Creative strategies have been implemented to reach out to other community residents to invite them to participate in the participatory process.


Differences In Demographic, Behavioral, And Biological Variables Between Those With Valid And Invalid Accelerometry Data: Implications For Generalizability, Paul D. Loprinzi, Bradley J. Cardinal, Carlos J. Crespo, Gary R. Brodowicz, Ross E. Andersen, Ellen Smit Dec 2013

Differences In Demographic, Behavioral, And Biological Variables Between Those With Valid And Invalid Accelerometry Data: Implications For Generalizability, Paul D. Loprinzi, Bradley J. Cardinal, Carlos J. Crespo, Gary R. Brodowicz, Ross E. Andersen, Ellen Smit

Carlos J. Crespo

Background: The exclusion of participants with invalid accelerometry data (IAD) may lead to biased results and/or lack of generalizability in large population studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether demographic, behavioral, and biological differences occur between those with IAD and valid accelerometry data (VAD) among adults using a representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Methods: Ambulatory participants from NHANES (2003-2004) who were 20-85 years of age were included in the current study and wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for 7 days. A "valid person" was defined as those with 4 or more days ...


Inflammatory Biomarkers And Subclinical Atherosclerosis In African-American Women With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Sle), Edith Williams, Carlos Crespo, Joan Dorn Dec 2013

Inflammatory Biomarkers And Subclinical Atherosclerosis In African-American Women With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Sle), Edith Williams, Carlos Crespo, Joan Dorn

Carlos J. Crespo

Women with lupus are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies of atherosclerosis in SLE have not been representative of the minority groups most affected by lupus and its complications. Therefore, a study of 41 lupus cases and 83 controls was conducted to investigate the relationship between carotid atherosclerosis and inflammation in African-American women. Participation consisted of a questionnaire, physical examination, fasting blood draw, and ultrasound of the carotid arteries. There were observed differences between cases and controls with regard to carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, although few reached statistical significance. Tumor ...


Transport And Health: A Look At Three Latin American Cities, Janeth Mosquera Becerra, Rodrigo S. Reis, Lawrence D. Frank, Farah A. Ramirez-Marrero, Benjamin Welle, Eugenio Arriaga Cordero, Fabian Mendez Paz, Carlos J. Crespo, Veronica Dujon, Enrique Jacoby, Jennifer Dill, Lynn Weigand, Carlos M. Padin Dec 2013

Transport And Health: A Look At Three Latin American Cities, Janeth Mosquera Becerra, Rodrigo S. Reis, Lawrence D. Frank, Farah A. Ramirez-Marrero, Benjamin Welle, Eugenio Arriaga Cordero, Fabian Mendez Paz, Carlos J. Crespo, Veronica Dujon, Enrique Jacoby, Jennifer Dill, Lynn Weigand, Carlos M. Padin

Carlos J. Crespo

Transport is associated with environmental problems, economic losses, health and social inequalities. A number of European and US cities have implemented initiatives to promote multimodal modes of transport. In Latin America changes are occurring in public transport systems and a number of projects aimed at stimulating non-motorized modes of transport (walking and cycling) have already been implemented. Based on articles from peer-reviewed academic journals, this paper examines experiences in Bogota (Colombia), Curitiba (Brazil), and Santiago (Chile), and identifies how changes to the transport system contribute to encourage active transportation. Bus rapid transit, ciclovias, bike paths/lanes, and car use restriction ...


Body Mass Index And The Risk Of Prostate Cancer, Daniel Lee Mcgee, Carlos J. Crespo Dec 2013

Body Mass Index And The Risk Of Prostate Cancer, Daniel Lee Mcgee, Carlos J. Crespo

Carlos J. Crespo

Background: This article presents cohort studies that use data from the National Health Information Survey from 1986 to 1994 and compares the effectiveness of Cox proportional hazards models that assume a linear relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of prostate cancer with models that assume a J-shaped relationship. Methods and results: Our study found that for black males over 40 years of age, neither a linear nor a J-shaped relationship yielded a statistically significant model. With white males over 40 years, assuming a linear relationship did not yield a statistically significant model (P = 0.582). When we ...


Building Community Research Capacity: Process Evaluation Of Community Training And Education In A Community-Based Participatory Research Program Serving A Predominately Puerto Rican Community, Laurene M. Tumiel-Berhalter, Victoria Mclaughlin-Diaz, John Vena, Carlos J. Crespo Dec 2013

Building Community Research Capacity: Process Evaluation Of Community Training And Education In A Community-Based Participatory Research Program Serving A Predominately Puerto Rican Community, Laurene M. Tumiel-Berhalter, Victoria Mclaughlin-Diaz, John Vena, Carlos J. Crespo

Carlos J. Crespo

Background: Education and training build community research capacity and have impact on improvements of health outcomes. Objectives: This manuscript describes the training and educational approaches to building research capacity that were utilized in a community-based participatory research program serving a Puerto Rican population and identifies barriers and strategies for overcoming them. Methods: A process evaluation identified a multitiered approach to training and education that was critical to reaching the broad community. Results: This approach included four major categories providing a continuum of education and training opportunities: networking, methods training, on-the-job experience, and community education. Participation in these opportunities supported the ...


Lower Nutritional Status And Higher Food Insufficiency In Frail Older Us Adults, Ellen Smit, Kerri M. Winters-Stone, Paul D. Loprinzi, Alice M. Tang, Carlos J. Crespo Dec 2013

Lower Nutritional Status And Higher Food Insufficiency In Frail Older Us Adults, Ellen Smit, Kerri M. Winters-Stone, Paul D. Loprinzi, Alice M. Tang, Carlos J. Crespo

Carlos J. Crespo

Frailty is a state of decreased physical functioning and a significant complication of ageing. We examined frailty, energy and macronutrient intake, biomarkers of nutritional status and food insufficiency in US older adult (age ≥ 60 years) participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (4731). Frailty was defined as meeting ≥ 2 and pre-frailty as meeting one of the following four-item criteria: (1) slow walking; (2) muscular weakness; (3) exhaustion and (4) low physical activity. Intake was assessed by 24 h dietary recall. Food insufficiency was self-reported as ‘sometimes’ or ‘often’ not having enough food to eat. Analyses were adjusted ...


An Exploration Of Threatened Harm As A Type Of Maltreatment And Its Relation To Recurrence Of Maltreatment, Roxann Mcneish Dec 2013

An Exploration Of Threatened Harm As A Type Of Maltreatment And Its Relation To Recurrence Of Maltreatment, Roxann Mcneish

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There were no studies found in the literature that primarily focused on threatened harm as type of maltreatment. This study utilized Florida's child welfare administrative data to explore threatened harm as a type of maltreatment, particularly as a predictor of recurrence of maltreatment within six and 12 months for children who had a verified report of maltreatment in FY2005-2006. Threatened harm was examined in three ways; when it was reported as the only maltreatment, the initial maltreatment, and in situations where there was a prior report. The most prevalent acts of threatened harm were examined separately. It was examined ...


The National Longitudinal Survey Of Public Health Systems: Selected Findings And Applications, Glen P. Mays Dec 2013

The National Longitudinal Survey Of Public Health Systems: Selected Findings And Applications, Glen P. Mays

Health Management and Policy Presentations

This presentation reviews the National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems and its applicability for monitoring the effects of the Affordable Care Act on public health delivery within the U.S.


Exploring The Effects Of Multi-Level Protective And Risk Factors On Child And Parenting Outcomes In Families Participating In Healthy Start/Healthy Families Oregon (Hs/Hfo), Peggy Nygren Dec 2013

Exploring The Effects Of Multi-Level Protective And Risk Factors On Child And Parenting Outcomes In Families Participating In Healthy Start/Healthy Families Oregon (Hs/Hfo), Peggy Nygren

Dissertations and Theses

While many studies focus on the links between multiple risk factors and negative outcomes such as child maltreatment, less is known about the influence of protective factors in the face of risks. The theoretical base of this study was a social ecological model of interactive influences including individual parent, family, and neighborhood level factors to predict outcomes. Protective Factor Index (PFI) and Risk Factor Index (RFI) predictors were developed to explore potential multi-level protective factor buffering effects on key child development and parenting outcomes. Participants were first time mothers enrolled in a randomized controlled study of the Healthy Start/ Healthy ...


The National Longitudinal Survey Of Public Health Systems: Selected Findings And Applications For Monitoring The Affordable Care Act, Glen P. Mays Dec 2013

The National Longitudinal Survey Of Public Health Systems: Selected Findings And Applications For Monitoring The Affordable Care Act, Glen P. Mays

Glen Mays

This presentation reviews the National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems and its applicability for monitoring the effects of the Affordable Care Act on public health delivery within the U.S.


Work Stress Reactivity And Health Outcomes: A Study Of Nurses, Laurie Marie Jacobs Dec 2013

Work Stress Reactivity And Health Outcomes: A Study Of Nurses, Laurie Marie Jacobs

Dissertations and Theses

Negative events encountered in daily life influence individual well-being. Individuals vary in their reactivity to these events, the extent to which they are behaviorally, physiologically, and psychologically influenced by them (Almeida, 2005; Neupert, Almeida, & Charles, 2007). Reactivity to events in the form of changes in health behavior could represent either an attempt at coping (Cooper, Frone, Russell, & Mudar, 1995) or a stressor-related failure of self-control (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000). Such changes in behavior could have later effects on health.

Although a great deal of attention has been paid to both the immediate and long-term effects of stressors on individuals, little is understood about the potential relationship between these immediate and long-term consequences. Exploration of this connection could not only expand the understanding of the relationships between stressors, behavior, and well-being, but also inform intervention strategies.

One important domain in which stressors occur is work; certain occupations such as nursing expose individuals to a greater likelihood of experiencing stressors simply by nature of the tasks and/or environment involved. As a nursing shortage continues, stress is in fact one of the most-often cited reasons for nurses to leave the profession (Cangelosi, Markham, & Bounds, 1998). Using a sample drawn from the Oregon Nurse Retention Project and the relatively novel statistical method of slopes-as-predictors, I examined the relationships between work stressors and nurses' health behaviors (alcohol consumption, diet, exercise) and then used those relationships as predictors of follow-up outcomes (depression, life satisfaction, perceived health).

Significant variability was found for five combinations of stressors and health behaviors, indicating that varying patterns of health behavior reactivity were indeed present in this sample; moreover four of those five stressor-behavior (reactivity) slopes emerged as significant predictors of later health and well-being. Notably, reactivity ...