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2013

Life Sciences

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1209

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Crowdfunding For Biotechs: How The Sec’S Proposed Rule May Undermine Capital Formation For Startups, Brian J. Farnkoff Dec 2013

Crowdfunding For Biotechs: How The Sec’S Proposed Rule May Undermine Capital Formation For Startups, Brian J. Farnkoff

Journal of Contemporary Health Law & Policy (1985-2015)

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Nesting Environment On Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury, Laura Grace Rollins Dec 2013

The Effects Of Nesting Environment On Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury, Laura Grace Rollins

Graduate Masters Theses

Term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury are at risk for devastating neurological sequelae. The objective of this study is to determine if altering the early environment for maternal care-taking impacts the immediate and long-term sequelae of HI offspring. The Rice-Vannucci model was used to induce HI in postnatal day (PND) 7 Long-Evans pups. Litters were assigned to a closed nest (CN) or normal standard housing (SH) condition. Neurobehavioral development, cognitive ability, and stress response were assessed to establish any benefits of the CN condition. Finally, postmortem brain tissue was analyzed for morphometric markers of injury.


Spatial Analysis Of Factors Influencing Long-Term Stress In The Grizzly Bear (Ursus Arctos) Population Of Alberta, Canada, Mathieu Bourbonnais, Trisalyn Nelson, Mark Cattet, Chris T. Darimont, Gordon Stenhouse Dec 2013

Spatial Analysis Of Factors Influencing Long-Term Stress In The Grizzly Bear (Ursus Arctos) Population Of Alberta, Canada, Mathieu Bourbonnais, Trisalyn Nelson, Mark Cattet, Chris T. Darimont, Gordon Stenhouse

Physiology

Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions ...


The Neighborhood Energy Balance Equation: Does Neighborhood Food Retail Environment + Physical Activity Environment = Obesity? The Cardia Study, Janne Boone-Heinonen, Ana V. Diez-Roux, David C. Goff, Catherine M. Loria, Catarina I. Kiefe, Barry M. Popkin, Penny Gordon-Larsen Dec 2013

The Neighborhood Energy Balance Equation: Does Neighborhood Food Retail Environment + Physical Activity Environment = Obesity? The Cardia Study, Janne Boone-Heinonen, Ana V. Diez-Roux, David C. Goff, Catherine M. Loria, Catarina I. Kiefe, Barry M. Popkin, Penny Gordon-Larsen

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Recent obesity prevention initiatives focus on healthy neighborhood design, but most research examines neighborhood food retail and physical activity (PA) environments in isolation. We estimated joint, interactive, and cumulative impacts of neighborhood food retail and PA environment characteristics on body mass index (BMI) throughout early adulthood.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used cohort data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study [n=4,092; Year 7 (24-42 years, 1992-1993) followed over 5 exams through Year 25 (2010-2011); 12,921 person-exam observations], with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived neighborhood environment measures. Using regression with fixed effects for ...


Birds, Landslides And Pastures: A Biogeographic Conundrum, Mark R. Welford Dec 2013

Birds, Landslides And Pastures: A Biogeographic Conundrum, Mark R. Welford

Mark R. Welford

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Chronic Simvastatin Treatment On The Expression Of Behavioral Symptoms In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Huntington’S Disease, Ashley Whitmarsh Dec 2013

The Effects Of Chronic Simvastatin Treatment On The Expression Of Behavioral Symptoms In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Huntington’S Disease, Ashley Whitmarsh

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a heritable, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric disturbances. An unstable CAG expansion within the gene normally encoding for the Huntingtin protein is responsible. The expanded mutant form of Huntingtin and the putative protein co-factor Rhes interact and cause cell death within the striatum. We hypothesized chronic treatment with simvastatin, a cholesterol lowering drug, would disrupt the biosynthetical pathway which gives both Rhes and its target cells binding sites and render Rhes inactive. Healthy and HD mice were treated with simvastatin or a vehicle. Animals’ motor behavior was assessed with three separate tests ...


Enrichment And Training Improve Cognition In Rats With Cortical Malformations, Kyle R. Jenks, Marcella M. Lucas, Ben A. Duffy, Ashlee A. Robbins, Barjor Gimi, Jeremy M. Barry, Rod C. Scott Dec 2013

Enrichment And Training Improve Cognition In Rats With Cortical Malformations, Kyle R. Jenks, Marcella M. Lucas, Ben A. Duffy, Ashlee A. Robbins, Barjor Gimi, Jeremy M. Barry, Rod C. Scott

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Children with malformations of cortical development (MCD) frequently have associated cognitive impairments which reduce quality of life. We hypothesized that cognitive deficits associated with MCD can be improved with environmental manipulation or additional training. The E17 methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) exposure model bears many anatomical hallmarks seen in human MCDs as well as similar behavioral and cognitive deficits. We divided control and MAM exposed Sprague-Dawley rats into enriched and non-enriched groups and tested performance in the Morris water maze. Another group similarly divided underwent sociability testing and also underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans pre and post enrichment. A third group ...


Modern Cavemen? Stereotypes And Reality Of The Ancestral Health Movement, David B. Schwartz, Hamilton M. Stapell Dec 2013

Modern Cavemen? Stereotypes And Reality Of The Ancestral Health Movement, David B. Schwartz, Hamilton M. Stapell

Journal of Evolution and Health

Both academic and popular interest in the ancestral health movement, or “paleo” lifestyle, has grown rapidly in recent years. More people than ever are joining the movement, and more books and articles are being published on the topic. Media coverage and certain societal preconceptions of the movement have also increased. More often than not, followers of a paleo lifestyle are thought to be “modern cavemen”: athletic, single, meat-eating, young, white, and male. To test whether or not these stereotypes are true, the authors of the present study created the first large, academic survey (N = 3,967) of the ancestral health ...


Community-University Partnerships For Change In The Black Belt South, Rosalind Harris Dec 2013

Community-University Partnerships For Change In The Black Belt South, Rosalind Harris

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

This article explores issues related to community-university partnerships by examining

the unfolding of the Black Belt Initiative, a 21st century mobilization within the Black Belt South to establish a Black Belt Regional Commission. The Black Belt Initiative provides an instructive and compelling case study. For instance, the very nature of the Black Belt Initiative’s beginnings through the provision of a grant by Senator Zell Miller of Georgia to the University of Georgia with the proviso that “poverty – not race be the guiding principle…” heightened the tension between historically black and white universities reflecting longstanding contestations around how problems ...


The Fate Of Local Food Systems In The Global Industrialization Market: Food And Social Justice In The Rural South, Wylin D. Wilson, Reuben C. Warren, Stephen O. Sodeke, Norbert Wilson Dec 2013

The Fate Of Local Food Systems In The Global Industrialization Market: Food And Social Justice In The Rural South, Wylin D. Wilson, Reuben C. Warren, Stephen O. Sodeke, Norbert Wilson

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

This paper investigates the connection between local food systems, health disparities, and social justice in the rural South. It begins with the relationship between food insecurity and health disparities that disproportionately affect racial and ethnic minority populations, and non-minority women and children. First, we discuss the concept of health disparities within the context of bioethics and public health ethics in order to explore the link between the food system and health as a social justice issue. Second, we define health disparities and discuss how they have historically plagued and disadvantaged racial minority populations. Third, we examine these disparities within the ...


Plight Of Black Farmers In The Context Of Usda Farm Loan Programs: A Research Agenda For The Future, Shakara S. Tyler, Eddie A. Moore Dec 2013

Plight Of Black Farmers In The Context Of Usda Farm Loan Programs: A Research Agenda For The Future, Shakara S. Tyler, Eddie A. Moore

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Black farmers remain an underdeveloped topic in academic literature. This historical study used a historical research methodology to assess the plight of Black farmers in the context of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) farm loan programs and offered an array of future research recommendations. We investigated the severity of the plight of Black farmers in the context of USDA farm loan programs with an emphasis on effective and responsive leadership in relation to four elements: 1) legislative initiatives, 2) policy initiatives, 3) USDA structure and delivery systems, and the 4) Pigford v. Glickman class action and consent decree. We ...


Community Capital And Local Economic Development Efforts, Andrew A. Zekeri Dec 2013

Community Capital And Local Economic Development Efforts, Andrew A. Zekeri

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Actions by local groups and leaders constitute an essential but poorly understood element of many rural economic development efforts. Previous studies suggest that local development efforts can influence community changes, but questions remain about why localities differ in economic development efforts. Drawing upon community capital framework and human ecological theory, the purpose of this research was to examine the effects of community capital on economic development efforts in rural communities. Hierarchical regression results indicate that social capital, cultural capital, built capital significantly predict economic development effort to develop recreation and tourism and human services. Despite that, only built capital and ...


The Impact Of Selected Socioeconomic Factors On Asset Building In Rural Communities, Nii O. Tackie, Judith N. Aboagye, Gwendolyn J. Johnson, Millicent Braxton, Latanya Hunt-Haralson, Gertrude D. Wall Dec 2013

The Impact Of Selected Socioeconomic Factors On Asset Building In Rural Communities, Nii O. Tackie, Judith N. Aboagye, Gwendolyn J. Johnson, Millicent Braxton, Latanya Hunt-Haralson, Gertrude D. Wall

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

The study examined the impact of selected socioeconomic factors on asset building. Using a questionnaire, data were obtained from a convenience sample of 204 participants from several Alabama Black Belt Counties, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and logit analysis. The results showed that a majority (64%) was willing to participate in an asset building program. Of this, an overwhelming majority (at most 70%) wanted to set up a small business; further their education, or purchase a home. In addition, one socioeconomic factor, age, had a statistically significant (p = 0.016) effect on willingness to participate in an asset building program ...


Dog Behavior Co-Varies With Height, Bodyweight And Skull Shape, Paul D. Mcgreevy, Dana Georgevsky, Johanna Carrasco, Michael Valenzuela, Deborah L. Duffy, James A. Serpell Dec 2013

Dog Behavior Co-Varies With Height, Bodyweight And Skull Shape, Paul D. Mcgreevy, Dana Georgevsky, Johanna Carrasco, Michael Valenzuela, Deborah L. Duffy, James A. Serpell

Eidonomy

Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length) and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females) were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds’ height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301) of various common breeds (n = 49) collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ ...


Final Regulations Under The Additional Hospital Insurance Tax (0.9 Percent) And The Unearned Income Medicare Contribution (3.8 Percent), Neil E. Harl Dec 2013

Final Regulations Under The Additional Hospital Insurance Tax (0.9 Percent) And The Unearned Income Medicare Contribution (3.8 Percent), Neil E. Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

On November 26, 2013, the Department of the Treasury issued final regulations for the two major taxes 1 enacted in 2010 as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.2 The Additional Hospital Insurance Tax is levied at a rate of 0.9 percent on taxpayers (other than a corporation, estate or trust) receiving wages in excess of $250,000 on a joint return, $125,000 for a separate return and $200,000 for others;3 the Unearned Income Medicare Contribution is imposed on married couples filing a joint return or a surviving spouse who earn more than ...


Index To Volume 24, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 2013

Index To Volume 24, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Dec 2013

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Land Grabs And Implications On Food Sovereignty And Social Justice In Senegal, Joanna Lafrancesca Dec 2013

Land Grabs And Implications On Food Sovereignty And Social Justice In Senegal, Joanna Lafrancesca

Master's Theses

This thesis focuses on the case study of Senegal to examine the implications of large- scale land acquisitions on the livelihoods of small-scale farmers. I investigate the diverse perspectives of market enthusiasts, human rights organizations, peasants, the state, and international financial organizations on large-scale land acquisitions. Based on primary research, I argue that the state of Senegal plays an active role in permitting “land grabs” and that they pose a threat to food sovereignty among Senegalese host communities. Lastly, I argue there needs to be a broader understanding of long-term consequences and risks to insure social justice in areas affected ...


Environmental And Socio-Economic Considerations For Aquaculture In Jervis Bay, Nsw, Alyssa Joyce, Ana M. Rubio, Pia C. Winberg Dec 2013

Environmental And Socio-Economic Considerations For Aquaculture In Jervis Bay, Nsw, Alyssa Joyce, Ana M. Rubio, Pia C. Winberg

Dr Pia C Winberg

No abstract provided.


Marketing Update For 2013 And Beyond, Chat Hart Dec 2013

Marketing Update For 2013 And Beyond, Chat Hart

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

With the government shutdown in October, there were a lot of questions about how the agricultural markets would react. Would the lack of data from USDA have a significant impact on the day-to-day variation in the markets? Would market volume diminish given the lack of information? Well, the general answer turned out to be that the crop markets continued on as normal. Farmers and traders fell back onto private source data and continued to market and move crop. Combines rolled and the harvest proceeded as usual. And for the second straight year, the most common refrain, at least in central ...


Perennial Grasses For Bioenergy In The Central United States: Updates On Economics And Research Progress, Keri Jacobs Dec 2013

Perennial Grasses For Bioenergy In The Central United States: Updates On Economics And Research Progress, Keri Jacobs

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Through policies and programmatic commitments, the United States is exploring the use of alternative transportation fuels as means to meet the growing global demand for energy and the nation’s RFS targets. The CenUSA Bioenergy project is a five year, multi-state, and multi-disciplinary coordinated research and education effort to develop a sustainable system for the production of biofuel feedstocks derived from perennial grasses on land marginal for row crop production. Now in its 3 year, the project, funded by the USDA under the NIFA-AFRI Sustainable Biofuels Initiative (project #2010-05074), focuses on the production of perennial grasses integrated within the row ...


The Cost Of Affordable Food, Candice L. Cobuzzi Dec 2013

The Cost Of Affordable Food, Candice L. Cobuzzi

SURGE

When someone puts a piece of food in front of me, I don’t just see a piece of food.

Instead, I see an innocent cow being cornered by a forklift and slaughtered, its limp, moist tissue hung on a long conveyer belt with hundreds of others.

I see hundreds of chemically-injected chickens packed into a dark barn with no hope of seeing sunlight in their lifetime.

I see immigrants pulled from their houses like criminals, taken away from the lives they’ve spent years building for themselves and their families, working for the same food company that courted them ...


The Role Of The Amygdala, Retrosplenial Cortex, And Medial Prefrontal Cortex In Trace Fear Extinction And Reconsolidation, Janine Lynn Kwapis Dec 2013

The Role Of The Amygdala, Retrosplenial Cortex, And Medial Prefrontal Cortex In Trace Fear Extinction And Reconsolidation, Janine Lynn Kwapis

Theses and Dissertations

A wealth of research has outlined the neural circuits responsible for the consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction of standard "delay" fear conditioning, in which awareness is not required for learning. Far less is understood about the neural circuit supporting more complex, explicit associations. "Trace" fear conditioning is considered to be a rodent model of explicit fear because it relies on the cortex and hippocampus and requires explicit contingency awareness in humans for successful acquisition. In the current set of studies, we aimed to better characterize the neural circuit supporting the consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction of trace fear in order to better ...


Research: South Dakota State University, Winter 2013, Christie Delfanian, Matt Landwehr Dec 2013

Research: South Dakota State University, Winter 2013, Christie Delfanian, Matt Landwehr

Research: South Dakota State University

CONTENTS:

South Dakota expertise integral part of Landsat [Page] 1
West Nile: Researchers help public health officials combat West Nile virus [page] 2
Health care: arteries, corticosteroids, concussions, and preemies [Page] 4
Oilseeds [Page] 6
Undergraduate Research [Page] 8
Organ donation key to helping Native Americans on dialysis [Page] 10
Researchers meet challenge of increased competition: 2012 measurements [Page] 11


Neural Responses During Trace Conditioning With Face And Non-Face Stimuli Recorded With Magnetoencephalography, Nicholas Lee Balderston Dec 2013

Neural Responses During Trace Conditioning With Face And Non-Face Stimuli Recorded With Magnetoencephalography, Nicholas Lee Balderston

Theses and Dissertations

During fear conditioning a subject is presented with an initially innocuous stimulus like an image (conditioned stimulus; CS) that predicts an aversive outcome like a mild electric shock (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). Subjects rapidly learn that the CS predicts the UCS, and show autonomic fear responses (CRs) during the presentation of the CS. When the CS and the UCS coterminate, as is the case for delay conditioning, individuals can acquire CRs even if they are unable to predict the occurrence of the UCS. However when there is a temporal gap between the CS and the UCS, CR expression is typically dependent ...


Assessing The Biodiversity And Susceptibility Of Trees In Maxwell Park To Future Invasive Tree Pest Outbreaks, Genevieve Alexander '14 Dec 2013

Assessing The Biodiversity And Susceptibility Of Trees In Maxwell Park To Future Invasive Tree Pest Outbreaks, Genevieve Alexander '14

Outstanding Senior Seminar Papers

The purpose of this project was to assess tree susceptibility to invasive tree pest outbreaks in a Central-Illinois urban park. Tree biodiversity in Maxwell Park, located in the Town of Normal, Illinois, was evaluated assuming that the greater the tree biodiversity in a park, the more resilient the park would be to future invasive tree pest outbreaks. The Town of Normal Parks and Recreation Department served as the community partner for this project. By determining Maxwell Park’s current level of biodiversity, proposed new trees for future replacement plantings could be identified to help increase biodiversity and decrease the potential ...


Arkansas Animal Science Department Report 2013, David L. Kreider, Paul Beck Dec 2013

Arkansas Animal Science Department Report 2013, David L. Kreider, Paul Beck

Research Series

No abstract provided.


Influence Of Genetic Variation In The Biotic Environment On Phenotypic Variation In A Plant-Feeding Insect, Darren Rebar Dec 2013

Influence Of Genetic Variation In The Biotic Environment On Phenotypic Variation In A Plant-Feeding Insect, Darren Rebar

Theses and Dissertations

While many species spend much of their lives in close association with other organisms, only recently have biologists started to explore the implications of the biotic nature of environments for their role as causes of variation in phenotypes. This means that the genotypes of individuals that constitute the biotic environment may influence the phenotypes of individuals that live in that environment. These are called indirect genetic effects (IGEs) when they occur between conspecifics, and interspecific indirect genetic effects (IIGEs) when they occur between heterospecifics. However, the impact of genetic variation in biotic environments remains largely unknown. I used a member ...


Photo-Identification Methods Reveal Seasonal And Long-Term Site-Fidelity Of Risso’S Dolphins (Grampus Griseus) In Shallow Waters (Cardigan Bay, Wales), Marijke N. De Boer, Josephine Clark, Mardik F. Leopold, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders Dec 2013

Photo-Identification Methods Reveal Seasonal And Long-Term Site-Fidelity Of Risso’S Dolphins (Grampus Griseus) In Shallow Waters (Cardigan Bay, Wales), Marijke N. De Boer, Josephine Clark, Mardik F. Leopold, Mark P. Simmonds, Peter J.H. Reijnders

ECOLOGY

A photo-identification study on Risso’s dolphins was carried out off Bardsey Island in Wales (July to September, 1997-2007). Their local abundance was estimated using two different analytical techniques: 1) mark-recapture of well-marked dolphins using a “closed-population” model; and 2) a census technique based on the total number of iden-tified individual dolphins sighted over the study period. The mark-recapture estimates of 121 (left sides; 64 - 178, 95% CI; CV 0.24) and 145 dolphins (right sides; 78 - 213, 95% CI; CV 0.24) closely matched the census technique estimates (population size of 90 - 151). It was found that the dolphins ...


Ogden College Of Science & Engineering Newsletter (Winter 2013), Cheryl Stevens, Dean Dec 2013

Ogden College Of Science & Engineering Newsletter (Winter 2013), Cheryl Stevens, Dean

Ogden College of Science & Engineering Publications

No abstract provided.