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2013

International and Area Studies

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Articles 1 - 30 of 156

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Da Desconfiança À Aliança: Portugal E A África Do Sul Na Defesa Do “Reduto Branco”, Luís Fernando Machado Barroso Dec 2013

Da Desconfiança À Aliança: Portugal E A África Do Sul Na Defesa Do “Reduto Branco”, Luís Fernando Machado Barroso

Bulletin for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies

This paper aims to analyze the diplomatic maneuver carried out by the Portuguese Government towards South Africa since the 1950’s until the military coup in Lisbon on the 25th April 1974. In October 1970, Portugal, South Africa and Rhodesia initiated a formal military alliance coined as “Exercise ALCORA”. Its final aim was to defeat the pan-Africanism subversion in Southern Africa but it also became a mechanism to integrate the most important aspects of the military strategy of the “white redoubt”. The participation of Portugal in ALCORA was the result of its political maneuver towards South Africa since de 1950 ...


Epilogue: Reflections And Observations On Peru's Past And Present, Ernesto Silva Dec 2013

Epilogue: Reflections And Observations On Peru's Past And Present, Ernesto Silva

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

The aim of this essay is to provide a panoramic socio-historical overview of Peru by focusing on two periods: before and after independence from Spain. The approach emphasizes two cultural phenomena: how the indigenous people related to the Conquistadors in forging a new society, as well as how immigration, particularly to Lima, has shaped contemporary Peru. This contribution also aims at providing a bibliographical resource to those who would like to conduct research on Peru.


Peruvian Trajectories Of Sociocultural Transformation, Daniel Paracka, Ernesto Silva Dec 2013

Peruvian Trajectories Of Sociocultural Transformation, Daniel Paracka, Ernesto Silva

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

The story of Peru presents a continuous trajectory of sociocultural transformation where one civilization appropriates, borrows, and builds on the accomplishments of the previous often creating something new and unique. During the Year of Peru program KSU's faculty and students had the opportunity to learn in depth about Peru's rich history, culture, and modern society. They learned about a country rich in archeological discovery and human history, a story that does not simply begin with the Inca Empire, as the Inca were just one in a long line of powerful ancient civilizations (Chavin, Wari, Nazca, Moche, etc.) that ...


Representation And Appropriation In Guamán Poma De Ayala, Julio Ortega, Philip Debenshire Dec 2013

Representation And Appropriation In Guamán Poma De Ayala, Julio Ortega, Philip Debenshire

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

By discussing the cultural role of iconography, this article explores the likely source of representations in Felipe Guaman Pomade Ayala's The First New Chronicle and Good Government. His process of appropriation serves as a model of the new Andean cultural production by showcasing how emblematic allegories have been used in Latin America to illustrate Colonial manuscripts as well as national emblems and public art.


Representations Of Nature In Andean Textiles, Catherine Joslyn Dec 2013

Representations Of Nature In Andean Textiles, Catherine Joslyn

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

Andean textile tradition is rich with symbolism demonstrating the close ties of Quechua speaking people of Peru with nature. The observations of several researchers and textile production centers bear witness to the fascinating world of Andean cosmology as it is expressed in traditional cloth. This article introduces many of these important ideas, people, and organizations to the reader.


The Retablos Of Edilberto Jiménez, Victor Vich, Danielle Geary Dec 2013

The Retablos Of Edilberto Jiménez, Victor Vich, Danielle Geary

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

The Ayacucho retablo has changed dramatically as a result of life events and experiences. Its most prominent architects were not strangers to the period of violence, as they experienced it firsthand. I want to comment on a set of Edilberto Jimenez retablos in what we might call an "ethics of testimony," or an act by which authors take responsibility for that which they represent, believing that their goal is to reveal the truth and to discover a new range of possible truths by doing so. It is my belief that these retablos are worth contemplation, for they represent something forbidden ...


Ayacucho, Goodbye And The Portrayal Of A Nation's Contradictions, Oswaldo Gavidia Cannon Dec 2013

Ayacucho, Goodbye And The Portrayal Of A Nation's Contradictions, Oswaldo Gavidia Cannon

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

During the 1980s and early 1990s, Peru lived difficult times with the escalation of terrorism. People living in the Andean rural areas were caught between two fires- the terrorists and the military sent to control the latter- and many innocent people were killed or disappeared. Based on these events, Julio Ortega wrote the novella Ayacucho, Goodbye. In this narrative, the dead body of an indigenous peasant leaves his grave in Ayacucho and begins a journey to Lima, the capital of Peru, looking for the parts of his body that were not buried with him, which is really a quest for ...


A Brief Historical Account Of Trends In Contemporary Peruvian Cinema, Sebastián Pimentel Dec 2013

A Brief Historical Account Of Trends In Contemporary Peruvian Cinema, Sebastián Pimentel

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

This essay is an overview of the thematic and stylistic tendencies in Peruvian cinema starting with the work of Armando Robles Godoy. It also focuses on the effect of the Law 19327 of 1973 , which was responsible for the formation of a group of influential filmmakers led by Francisco Lombardi. At the beginning of the 21st century, female directors like Claudia Llosa and Rosario Garcia Montero achieved recognition for their cinematic visions of a traumatic Peruvian past. The Vega brothers and Gianfranco Quatrinni also contribute with their styles to an existential sntdy of the Peruvian identity. From the provinces Omar ...


Extractive Versus Productive Economy: A Case Study Comparison Of Peru And South Korea, Rubén Berríos Dec 2013

Extractive Versus Productive Economy: A Case Study Comparison Of Peru And South Korea, Rubén Berríos

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

There are striking contrasts between a productive and an extractive economy. South Korea and Peru are used as examples. Korea is not a resource-rich country but has developed remarkably fast. Pem, on the other hand, is a resource-rich country but has shown uneven rates of growth and has had a lackluster development performance because it has relied on extractive industries that have brought boom and bust. Korea is a high performing economy that achieved high rates of growth implementing policies that emphasized productivity and promoted industrialization and free trade. Korea's success is explained in terms of its policies promoting ...


Culture And Innovation In Peru From A Management Perspective, Gregory J. Scott, Ian Chaston Dec 2013

Culture And Innovation In Peru From A Management Perspective, Gregory J. Scott, Ian Chaston

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

Political stability, macro-economic caution, and the aggressive pursuit of free trade have enabled Peru to emerge as one of the fastest growing economies in Latin America. This economic expansion has created heightened interest in the evolution of corporate culture and its influence on firm performance. This paper examines organizational performance in relation to the influence of cultural values on innovation by means of a survey of upper level managers. Analysis of the survey results indicates that there was a positive relation between innovation and power distance and uncertainty. Survey findings show no relationship between innovation and individualism nor innovation and ...


Streets In The Sky: The Balconies Of Lima And The Road To Intercultural Competence, Sabine H. Smith, Miriam Bley Dec 2013

Streets In The Sky: The Balconies Of Lima And The Road To Intercultural Competence, Sabine H. Smith, Miriam Bley

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

The KSU country-study program ("Year of Peru") forms the backdrop to this descriptive case study. German and Spanish faculty explored the research question: "How does intercultural inquiry anchored in discipline-based methodology help advance intercultural competence in undergraduate learners?" According to national standards, students attain learning outcomes, for example, by examining cultural "products" (e.g. balconies), in connection with cultural practices and perspectives (ACTFL, 2006). In studying "products" of different countries (e.g. Peruvian and German balconies) and by engaging in level-appropriate intercultural inquiry, learners develop knowledge, ski lls, and dispositions- key components in advancing intercultural competence.


Environmental Attitudes And Perceptions: A Comparison Of Peru And The United States, Nancy Hoalst-Pullen, Matt R. Lloyd, Melony E. Parkhurst Dec 2013

Environmental Attitudes And Perceptions: A Comparison Of Peru And The United States, Nancy Hoalst-Pullen, Matt R. Lloyd, Melony E. Parkhurst

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

This project is a cross-cultural study comparing global and local perspectives by inhabitants of Peru and the United States regarding the natural environment. Using a 5- point Likert-scale survey, we assessed the environmental attitudes Peruvians and U.S. participants have regarding their self in nature, use of nature, local responsibility toward nantre, and global resolutions to environmental issues. Additionally, we assessed how individuals of one country perceive the environmental conciousness of the other country as well as how they believe the other country perceives them. Results showed Peruvians being concurrently ecocentric and anthropocentric regarding environmental perceptions, while U.S. participants ...


Symposium - The U.S.-Iranian Relationship And The Future Of International Order Nov 2013

Symposium - The U.S.-Iranian Relationship And The Future Of International Order

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


2012-13 Jlia Masthead Nov 2013

2012-13 Jlia Masthead

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Protecting Shareholders From Themselves: How The United Kingdom’S 2011 Takeover Code Amendments Hit Their Mark, Matthew Peetz Nov 2013

Protecting Shareholders From Themselves: How The United Kingdom’S 2011 Takeover Code Amendments Hit Their Mark, Matthew Peetz

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Kraft’s takeover of Cadbury in 2011 caused considerable uproar in the United Kingdom. The political outcry caused significant amendments to the United Kingdom’s regulatory framework over mergers and acquisitions, the so-called, Takeover Code. These changes to the Takeover Code were made to help relieve pressure on target companies during takeover situations, and to correct the imbalance of power in favor of bidding companies that the political community had perceived during the Kraft-Cadbury takeover. After the changes were made, but before they were implemented, the business community expressed concern that these added regulations would be detrimental to the M ...


The Case Of Christmas Island: How International Law Affects The Australian-Malaysian Refugee Deal, Ria Pereira Nov 2013

The Case Of Christmas Island: How International Law Affects The Australian-Malaysian Refugee Deal, Ria Pereira

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

In July 2011, Australia and Malaysia entered into an arrangement in which Australian asylum seekers would be removed to neighboring Malaysia to have their asylum claims processed. Following widespread criticism in the media, Australia’s High Court ruled that such a deal violated Australia’s refuges protection laws. While this ruling should have put an end to the deal, Australia’s Immigration Minister indicated that the agreement might nevertheless be feasible. Policy makers proposed amending Australian domestic immigration laws to allow the deal to go forward unencumbered. A bill to amend Australia’s Migration Act was subsequently introduced. As it ...


The Cost Of Fear: An Analysis Of Sex Offender Registration, Community Notification, And Civil Commitment Laws In The United States And The United Kingdom, Kate Hynes Nov 2013

The Cost Of Fear: An Analysis Of Sex Offender Registration, Community Notification, And Civil Commitment Laws In The United States And The United Kingdom, Kate Hynes

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Sex offenders are often seen as a notorious group in both the United States and the United Kingdom. The public opinion of the masses has often found its way into the laws which restrict the privacy and freedoms of many sex offenders. This comment will examine the often divergent trends in lawmaking and judicial authority in both countries in regard to sex offender registration, community notification, and civil commitment. Further, the comment will study the lasting effects on the sex offender population and potential civil rights implications.


How Precipitous A Decline? U.S.-Iranian Relations And The Transition From American Primacy, Hillary Mann Leverett Nov 2013

How Precipitous A Decline? U.S.-Iranian Relations And The Transition From American Primacy, Hillary Mann Leverett

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

This essay is grounded in two basic propositions. The first is that the greatest strategic challenge facing the United States is extricating its foreign policy from a well-worn but deeply counterproductive quest for hegemonic dominance in critical areas of the world, especially the Middle East. The second is that Washington’s handling of its relations with the Islamic Republic of Iran constitutes a crucial test of America’s capacity to put its foreign policy on a more productive and realistic trajectory. Since the Islamic Republic’s founding in 1979, Washington has refused to understand and accept the basic model underlying ...


The Prohibition On The Use Of Force For Arms Control: The Case Of Iran’S Nuclear Program, Mary Ellen O'Connell, Reyam El Molla Nov 2013

The Prohibition On The Use Of Force For Arms Control: The Case Of Iran’S Nuclear Program, Mary Ellen O'Connell, Reyam El Molla

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

International law does not permit the use of military force against Iran to attempt to end its nuclear program. The resort to military force in international relations is covered first and foremost by Article 2(4) of the United Nations Charter. Article 2(4) is a general prohibition on resort to force that includes resort to military force for arms control, including nuclear weapons control. The Charter has two express but limited exceptions to the ban on military force. A state that is the victim of a significant armed attack may use force in necessary and proportional self-defense; the United ...


Caroline Revisited: An Imagined Exchange Between John Kerry And Mohammad Javad Zarif, James W. Houck Nov 2013

Caroline Revisited: An Imagined Exchange Between John Kerry And Mohammad Javad Zarif, James W. Houck

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

In 1837, sailors of Great Britain's Royal Navy sank the American ship the Caroline over Niagra Falls. Great Britain justified the incident the preemptive strike as an act of self-defense. Diplomats of the two nations negotiated a legal framework to guide future preemptive uses of force. In the face of twenty-first century nuclear weapons, however, the Caroline framework seems outdated and impractical. To date, Iran continues to develop their nuclear program, while refusing international inspectors full access to their centrifuges. The United States is committed to keeping a nuclear weapon out of Iran's hands. The United States and ...


Iran's Nuclear Program And International Law, Daniel H. Joyner Nov 2013

Iran's Nuclear Program And International Law, Daniel H. Joyner

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

In this article, Professor Daniel Joyner analyzes the legal arguments on both sides of the Iran nuclear issue. The article address what the sides regard as the relevant sources of international nuclear law, and their respective interpretations of these sources law. Professor Joyner argues that Iran’s case illustrates warped and incorrect legal interpretations of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and other sources of law, and a prejudicial and inconsistent application of the law by the West and by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The article posits that this warped interpretation of NPT obligations has led to a bleak future for ...


Npt: A Pillar Of Global Governance, Richard Butler Nov 2013

Npt: A Pillar Of Global Governance, Richard Butler

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

The NPT is regarded as the cornerstone of nuclear arms control. It is the sole, widely agreed commitment in international law, to a world free of nuclear weapons. This fact and its operational mechanisms, establish NPT as a pillar of global governance. Any breakout from it, such as the development of nuclear weapons by Iran, a non-nuclear weapons state party to NPT, would jeopardize the future of the treaty and deeply harm the structure of contemporary global governance. If it chooses to do so, Iran cannot be prevented from taking such action by threatening it with the use of force ...


The Iranian Nuclear Issue, The End Of The American Century, And The Future Of International Order, Flynt L. Leverett Nov 2013

The Iranian Nuclear Issue, The End Of The American Century, And The Future Of International Order, Flynt L. Leverett

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

How the U.S.-Iranian competition for influence in the Middle East plays out will have profound consequences not just for the Middle East, but also for the legal frameworks, rules-based regimes, and mechanisms of global governance that shape international order in the 21st century. This is particularly true with regard to U.S.-Iranian disagreements over the Islamic Republic’s nuclear activities. Strategic competition between America and Iran and its implications for international order play out against a backdrop of the progressive diminution of U.S. leadership in world affairs. Relative decline challenges the United States to share ...


Foreword, Amy C. Gaudion Nov 2013

Foreword, Amy C. Gaudion

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Mamluk Jerusalem: Architecturally Challenging Narratives, Andrew C. Smith Nov 2013

Mamluk Jerusalem: Architecturally Challenging Narratives, Andrew C. Smith

LUX: A Journal of Transdisciplinary Writing and Research from Claremont Graduate University

Narratives abound concerning the religious and political positioning of Jerusalem in the past as well as the present and have been used in a variety of ways to serve various ideologies or political ends. One such narrative (which can be found even in some academic treatises of the history of Jerusalem) states that following the Muslim re-conquest of the city after the Crusades Muslim rulers neglected the city entirely, leading to its decline into obscurity and ruin. This narrative asserts that the city remained as such until Zionism, Jewish immigration, and, most especially, the establishment of the state of Israel ...


Charm Offensive Or 'Axis Of Evil'? An Analysis Of The Iranian Nuclear Program And American Responses, Kailas Menon Nov 2013

Charm Offensive Or 'Axis Of Evil'? An Analysis Of The Iranian Nuclear Program And American Responses, Kailas Menon

LUX: A Journal of Transdisciplinary Writing and Research from Claremont Graduate University

This paper assesses the likelihood that Iran’s nuclear program poses a threat to American foreign-policy interests and the extent to which the American response has succeeded in reducing this threat. The researcher conducted this assessment using publicly available data from governmental or intergovernmental agencies such as the IAEA and the CIA, think tanks such as the Brookings Institute, and contemporary press reports. The findings indicate that Iran’s nuclear program has some military aspects, which might pose a threat to American security interests either by emboldening the Iranian leadership to engage in brinksmanship or by increasing the Israeli perception ...


Information And Communication Technologies And The Digital Divide In Africa: A Review Of The Periodical Literature, 2000-2012, Susan E. Russell, Tom Steele Nov 2013

Information And Communication Technologies And The Digital Divide In Africa: A Review Of The Periodical Literature, 2000-2012, Susan E. Russell, Tom Steele

Electronic Journal of Africana Bibliography

The digital revolution has transformed much of the global economy. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) play a key role in this revolution. However, not everyone has equal access to these technologies. This gap exists on multiple levels, whether between individuals, small segments within a population, countries, or global regions. The term used to refer to this inequality is the digital divide. This bibliography focuses on recent literature written to describe the digital divide on the African continent.


The Power Of Politics For Zambia’S Public Sector Unions: A Case Study Of The 2013 Nursing Strikes, Andrew Stawasz, Thaddeus Talbot Nov 2013

The Power Of Politics For Zambia’S Public Sector Unions: A Case Study Of The 2013 Nursing Strikes, Andrew Stawasz, Thaddeus Talbot

Zambia Social Science Journal

Recent pay reform efforts in Zambia have sought to generate more competitive wages and benefits for workers in the public sector. However, these efforts have been characterised by inconsistent policy decisions during wage negotiations. Such decisions produce distortions in the pay structure that result in industrial unrest from unions in the public sector. Previous literature has not examined how public sector unions influence these outcomes in Zambia. This article examines factors that affect public sector unions’ influence in Zambia. Seven factors were identified after analysing the 2013 wage negotiations and subsequent nurses’ strikes at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) as ...


Some Observations On The Agrarian Question In The Era Of Economic Liberalisation In Sub-Saharan Africa: Which Way Forward?, Gear M. Kajoba Nov 2013

Some Observations On The Agrarian Question In The Era Of Economic Liberalisation In Sub-Saharan Africa: Which Way Forward?, Gear M. Kajoba

Zambia Social Science Journal

This paper contributes to the debate on the way forward in sub-­‐Saharan Africa with respect to the agrarian question in emerging markets under economic liberalisation. The point of departure is that since the peasantry is a temporary category which can be transformed into other social groups that can earn their living from incomes raised outside agriculture (such as from wage employment in mines, manufacturing industries, and the service sectors), not every rural dweller should be or is a farmer. Improved methods of cultivation especially with mechanisation, agricultural extension, entrepreneurship, and skills training and empowerment of women and youth; secure ...


Determinants Of Active Ageing In Zambia, Christopher C. Mapoma, Andrew Banda Nov 2013

Determinants Of Active Ageing In Zambia, Christopher C. Mapoma, Andrew Banda

Zambia Social Science Journal

This article investigated determinants of active ageing proposed by the WHO 2002 Active Ageing Framework using data from a developing country -­‐ Zambia. Up to date, there is little or no evidence of studies conducted to answer whether or not determinants proposed by the Active Ageing Framework of 2002 apply to developing countries like Zambia. This article set out to (1) explore which of the determinants of active ageing apply to Africa and Zambia in particular and (2) the influence of HIV/AIDS on active ageing in general. A non-­‐experimental cross-­‐sectional research design was used to collect data for ...