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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Comparative History Of Aids In Latin America: Brazil And Cuba, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

A Comparative History Of Aids In Latin America: Brazil And Cuba, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

According to a joint report of the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization in September 2002 there were approximately 1.4 million HIV+ people in Latin America, and a further 420,000 HIV+ people in the Caribbean. The number of infections had increased by nearly 10% from the previous year in Latin America, and 16% in the Caribbean. While striking, these figures may obscure the diversity of the HIV epidemic in the region. Latin America has a varied pattern of infections, which means that the experience of Bolivia, Ecuador and Mexico is quite different from that of ...


Book Review Of, La Patria: Politics And The Armed Forces In Latin America, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

Book Review Of, La Patria: Politics And The Armed Forces In Latin America, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

Reviews the book "For La Patria: Politics and the Armed Forces in Latin America," by Brian Loveman.


War And Hiv In Latin America, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

War And Hiv In Latin America, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

Conflict has shaped the HIV pandemic from its inception, from the spread of HIV-1 in Central Africa, to the diffusion of HIV-2 from Portuguese Africa to the globe. At the same time, the relationship between HIV and conflict has been non-linear and poorly understood. Nancy Mock and her colleagues have been almost the only scholars to propose a model to understand this relationship. Their work suggests that several key variables (such as the time scale of the conflict, the characteristics of the parties involved, and the geographic scale of the fighting) explain wide variations in how warfare appears to have ...


Book Review Of, The Politics And History Of Aids Treatment In Brazil In Latin American Politics And Society, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

Book Review Of, The Politics And History Of Aids Treatment In Brazil In Latin American Politics And Society, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

Reviews the book "The Politics and History of AIDS Treatment in Brazil," by Amy Nunn


Book Review Of, Tribute Of Blood: Army, Honor, Race, And Nation In Brazil, 1864-1945, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

Book Review Of, Tribute Of Blood: Army, Honor, Race, And Nation In Brazil, 1864-1945, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

Reviews the non-fiction book "The Tribute of Blood: Army, Honor, Race, and Nation in Brazil, 1864-1945," by Peter M. Beattie.


Book Review Of, Nazis And Good Neighbors: The United States’ Campaign Against The Germans Of Latin America In World War Two, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

Book Review Of, Nazis And Good Neighbors: The United States’ Campaign Against The Germans Of Latin America In World War Two, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

Reviews the book "Nazis & Good Neighbors: The United States Campaign Against the Germans of Latin America in World War II," by Max Paul Friedman.


Canada’S New Role In North American Energy Security, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

Canada’S New Role In North American Energy Security, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

Energy analysts have given renewed attention to Canada's position in the North American energy market since the September 11th attacks, because of fear that conflict might interrupt the flow of oil from the Middle East. There are currently $30 billion (U.S.) in projects to develop the Alberta oil sands, in addition to new petroleum projects in Newfoundland, and major natural gas finds off the Atlantic coast. While Canada is already the single major oil exporter to the United States (ahead of both Saudi Arabia and Venezuela), its production could double by 2010. Canada’s rapidly increasing energy production ...


Developing Countries, Vaccine Access And Influenza Outbreaks: Ethics And Global Health Governance When Facing A Pandemic, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

Developing Countries, Vaccine Access And Influenza Outbreaks: Ethics And Global Health Governance When Facing A Pandemic, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

The threat posed by influenza pandemics raises serious ethical issues, as well as questions of global health governance. In order to create pre-pandemic vaccines, global health authorities need access to virus from regional outbreaks. But because the countries where these outbreaks occur are unlikely to benefit from the vaccine, they are sometimes reluctant to share this seed stock, and may try to make proprietary arrangements with pharmaceutical companies, as briefly occurred in Indonesia. Although these arrangements may increase developing countries' access to vaccine, they hamper the global cooperation necessary to prepare for influenza outbreaks. Developing countries, in contrast, point to ...


Biopiracy And Vaccines: Indonesia And The World Health Organization's New Pandemic Influenza Plan, Shawn Smallman Oct 2013

Biopiracy And Vaccines: Indonesia And The World Health Organization's New Pandemic Influenza Plan, Shawn Smallman

Shawn C. Smallman

Viral samples of avian influenza are essential to preparing pre-pandemic vaccines. In 2007, the conflicting interests of the developed and developing nations led Indonesia to briefly stop sharing viral samples. The result was a struggle in which the two blocs argued for different paradigms for viral sample sharing. The first paradigm, articulated by the developed world, depicted the issue as one of health security, in which international law mandated the sharing of viral samples. The second paradigm, advanced by the developing world, depicted viral sample sharing as a form of biopiracy, which violated countries' sovereign control of their biological resources ...