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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

"Turkish Rambo": Geopolitical Dramas As Narrative Counter-Hegemony, Marwan M. Kraidy, Omar Al-Ghazzi Nov 2013

"Turkish Rambo": Geopolitical Dramas As Narrative Counter-Hegemony, Marwan M. Kraidy, Omar Al-Ghazzi

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Arabs and Turks share a historically complicated relationship. After 400 years of Ottoman imperialism over Arab lands that lasted until after World War 1, Turkish leader Mustafa kemal Atatürk's secularized Turkey and cut linguistic ties with Arab culture. Secularism, nationalism and NATO membership during the second half of the 20th century further distanced Turkey from Arab countries. This changed in 2001 with the rise of the Justice and Development Party (known by its Turkis acronym AKP). Incorporating electoral politics in a pro-business platform reflecting the AKP's pious and entrepreneurial constituency in Anatolian cities, the AKP has consolidated power ...


Citation Filtered: Iran’S Censorship Of Wikipedia, Nima Nazeri, Collin Anderson Nov 2013

Citation Filtered: Iran’S Censorship Of Wikipedia, Nima Nazeri, Collin Anderson

Iran Media Program

Using proxy servers in Iran, researchers Collin Anderson and Nima Nazeri identified every blocked Persian language Wikipedia article and divided blocked pages into ten categories to determine the type of content state censors are most adverse. In total, 963 blocked articles were found, covering a range of socio-political and sexual content including politics, journalism, the arts, religion, sex, sexuality, and human rights. Censors repeatedly targeted Wikipedia pages about government rivals, minority religious beliefs, and criticisms of the state, officials, and the police. Just under half of the blocked Wiki-pages are biographies, including pages about individuals the authorities have allegedly detained ...


Soft War: A New Episode In The Old Conflicts Between Iran And The United States, Farzan Sabet, Roozbeh Safshekan Nov 2013

Soft War: A New Episode In The Old Conflicts Between Iran And The United States, Farzan Sabet, Roozbeh Safshekan

Iran Media Program

Soft war is ubiquitous today with the way the Islamic Republic of Iran characterizes its relationship with the West, and is a key concern of Iranian national security policy. Few, however, have seriously undertaken the task of defining what soft war is in concrete terms. This analysis proposes a definition of soft war grounded in Joseph Nye’s concept of ‘soft power’ and the history of Iran’s encounter with the West, particularly the United States. In this framework, soft war is the exercise of soft power by the United States on Iran, creating security challenges for the Islamic Republic ...


An Unpredictable Gospel: American Evangelicals And World Christianity, 1812–1920, Heather J. Sharkey Sep 2013

An Unpredictable Gospel: American Evangelicals And World Christianity, 1812–1920, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Habitus Transformation: Immigrant Mother’S Cultural Translation Of Educational Strategies In Korea, Hyejeong Jo Jun 2013

Habitus Transformation: Immigrant Mother’S Cultural Translation Of Educational Strategies In Korea, Hyejeong Jo

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

This study aims to examine the transformation of habitus through a case study of immigrant mothers who navigate a heated educational competition in South Korea. To illuminate the process of habitus change, this study investigates the ways in which immigrant mothers make sense of a unique educational cultural practice of Korean parents, which is heavy reliance on shadow education.


The Islamic Republic’S Political Elite & Syria: Understanding What They Think Through Iranian Media Narratives, Farzan Sabet Jun 2013

The Islamic Republic’S Political Elite & Syria: Understanding What They Think Through Iranian Media Narratives, Farzan Sabet

Iran Media Program

The Islamic Republic of Iran has been the central regional backer of the Bashar al-Assad regime since the outbreak of the Syrian civil war in March 2011. Despite the importance of Iran in the drama unfolding in Syria, including any possible resolution to the conflict, the Iranian political elite’s perceptions of the Syrian civil war are arguably not well understood. This report attempts to uncover these perceptions by analyzing the Iranian print news media and highlighting the dominant narratives. As one of the first systematic studies of Iranian media narratives on the Syrian civil war, this report can be ...


Presidential Candidates: A Look At Ict Policy Rhetoric, Iran Media Program Jun 2013

Presidential Candidates: A Look At Ict Policy Rhetoric, Iran Media Program

Iran Media Program

All eight candidates participating in Iran’s eleventh presidential elections commented on ICT issues and cyberspace, unsurprising since the period leading up to the elections saw some of the slowest Internet speeds, crackdowns on VPNs, and warnings from various security bodies about the Internet’s ability to stir up seditious sentiment in advance of June 14th. This article takes a look at the candidates and their statements about ICT policy over the course of their campaigns.


Facing Boundaries, Finding Freedom: An In-Depth Report On Iranian Journalists Working In Iran, Magdalena Wojcieszak, Amy Brouillette, Briar Smith Jun 2013

Facing Boundaries, Finding Freedom: An In-Depth Report On Iranian Journalists Working In Iran, Magdalena Wojcieszak, Amy Brouillette, Briar Smith

Iran Media Program

Despite extensive documentation of and attention to direct state pressure on journalists and the almost continual reissuing of “red lines” as a pretense for these media-repressive tactics, little systematic research has been done about the field of journalism in Iran. Beyond direct state repression—harassment, arrests, imprisonment—Iranian journalists face a myriad of regulatory and bureaucratic controls that restrict editorial freedom and the flow of information between journalists and citizens. Yet we know little about how reporters in Iran contend with these challenges on an everyday basis, and in particular outside the context of tightened state controls and crackdowns on ...


Catastrophe Risk Models For Evaluating Disaster Risk Reduction Investments In Developing Countries, Erwann Michel-Kerjan, Stefan Hochrainer-Stigler, Howard Kunreuther, Joanne Linnerooth-Bayer, Reinhard Mechler, Robert Muir-Wood, Nicola Ranger, Pantea Vaziri, Michael Young Jun 2013

Catastrophe Risk Models For Evaluating Disaster Risk Reduction Investments In Developing Countries, Erwann Michel-Kerjan, Stefan Hochrainer-Stigler, Howard Kunreuther, Joanne Linnerooth-Bayer, Reinhard Mechler, Robert Muir-Wood, Nicola Ranger, Pantea Vaziri, Michael Young

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Major natural disasters in recent years have had high human and economic costs, and triggered record high postdisaster relief from governments and international donors. Given the current economic situation worldwide, selecting the most effective disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures is critical. This is especially the case for low- and middle-income countries, which have suffered disproportionally more economic and human losses from disasters. This article discusses a methodology that makes use of advanced probabilistic catastrophe models to estimate benefits of DRR measures. We apply such newly developed models to generate estimates for hurricane risk on residential structures on the island of ...


Parental Factors And Early English Education As A Foreign Language: A Case Study In Mainland China, Yuko Goto Butler May 2013

Parental Factors And Early English Education As A Foreign Language: A Case Study In Mainland China, Yuko Goto Butler

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

As English has increasingly become associated with social and economic power in the context of globalization, there has been a growing concern regarding achievement gaps in English that appear to be correlated to learners’ socio-economic status (SES). The present study aims to examine how parents’ SES and their behaviors and beliefs about English education relate to their children’s English language learning, and how such relationships may differ across different grade levels. The participants were fourth, sixth and eighth grade students who had learned English from the third grade level (572 students in total) together with their parents in a ...


The Political Affiliations Of Iranian Newspapers, Shahram Rafizadeh, Mahsa Alimardani May 2013

The Political Affiliations Of Iranian Newspapers, Shahram Rafizadeh, Mahsa Alimardani

Iran Media Program

The complexities of the Iranian media ecosystem become most apparent during the election season when the heightened political climate leads to intensified scrutiny to and reliance on print media. In the absence of political parties, the press serves as a valuable tool during election campaigns, and this report highlights the shifting allegiances in national publications with a focus on politics, economics, and society. Newspapers are divided by faction (Pro-government Conservative, Traditional Conservative, Critical-of-the-Government Conservative, Affiliated with Reformists, and Reformist), and labeled with their 2009 political affiliations, their expected affiliations for 2013, and their stance on reformists. Once the Guardian Council ...


Sociological Perspectives On Ethnicity And Education In China: Views From Chinese And English Literatures, Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng, Emily C. Hannum, Chunping Lu Apr 2013

Sociological Perspectives On Ethnicity And Education In China: Views From Chinese And English Literatures, Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng, Emily C. Hannum, Chunping Lu

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

This paper reviews Chinese- and English-language literature on ethnic minorities and education in China. Six major research topics emerge from the Chinese-language research: (1) Marxism and ethnic minority education; (2) patriotism and national unity in education for ethnic minority students; (3) multicultural education; (4) determinants of ethnic differences in education; (5) school facilities and teacher quality; and (6) preferential / affirmative action policies. Four research themes are identified from the English-language literature: (1) policy overviews; (2) education and ethnic identity; (3) incentives and disincentives for buy-in to the education system; and (4) educational stratification. The majority of quantitative research from both ...


Cultural Norms: Transmitted Behaviors Or Adaptive Responses?, Nicolas Baumard Apr 2013

Cultural Norms: Transmitted Behaviors Or Adaptive Responses?, Nicolas Baumard

Behavioral Ethics Lab

Economic game experiments have become a prominent method among social scientists developing and testing theories of cooperation. These games provide a valuable opportunity to generate measures of cooperation that can be compared from one place to the next, yet challenges remain in how to interpret cross-cultural differences in these experiments and connect them to cooperation in naturally occurring contexts. I address these challenges by examining framing effects in public goods games (PGGs) with salmon fishers and reindeer herders in Kamchatka, Russia. Combining standard versions of the game with versions that refer to post-Soviet institutions coordinating fishing and herding, I show ...


Will Politics Be Tweeted? New Media Use By Iranian Youth In 2011, Magdalena Wojcieszak, Briar Smith Mar 2013

Will Politics Be Tweeted? New Media Use By Iranian Youth In 2011, Magdalena Wojcieszak, Briar Smith

Iran Media Program

A survey of 2,800 Iranian youths regarding their consumption of media and social media indicates that the Internet and state-run television are their primary source for news and information, followed by traditional media and personal connections. Twitter, long thought to be the catalyst of the post-election discontent in 2009, did not show up on the radar of news and information sources.

The survey was conducted in 2011 by the Annenberg School for Communication’s Center for Global Communication Studies (CGCS) and is reported in the journal New Media & Society. The article “Will politics be tweeted? New media use by Iranian youth in 2011” by Magdalena Wojcieszak, Ph.D. (Gr ’09), IE University in Spain; and Briar Smith, associate director of CGCS, reported on efforts to ...


It's Not Just About The Money: Motivations For Youth Migration In Rural China, Yilin Chiang, Emily C. Hannum, Grace Kao Feb 2013

It's Not Just About The Money: Motivations For Youth Migration In Rural China, Yilin Chiang, Emily C. Hannum, Grace Kao

Asia-Pacific Education, Language Minorities and Migration (ELMM) Network Working Paper Series

This study investigates the incentives for labor migration of youth in rural China using panel data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, a longitudinal study of youth in rural Gansu Province of China. We investigate the individual and altruistic economic motivations featured prominently in demographic and economic research on migration. However, we propose that the non-economic goal of personal development, a motivation suggested in numerous qualitative studies of women migrants in China and elsewhere, is also important, especially for young migrants. Analyzes indicate that, while young men and young women hold different motivations for migration, the desire for ...


Finding A Way - How Iranian Reach For News And Information, Magdalena Wojcieszak, Briar Smith, Mahmood Enayat Feb 2013

Finding A Way - How Iranian Reach For News And Information, Magdalena Wojcieszak, Briar Smith, Mahmood Enayat

Iran Media Program

The Iran Media Program publishes its groundbreaking 2011-2012 report on media consumption in Iran: Finding a Way – How Iranians reach for news and information. The report was authored by Magdalena Wojcieszak, Briar Smith and Mahmood Enayat and encompasses the results of two surveys conducted over the past year: the first is a field-based, systematically recruited sample of Iranians in several major metropolitan areas which mirrored the demographics of the country. The second study is an online questionnaire among young, metropolitan, educated and technologically savvy Iranians, and was aimed at illustrating the extent to which these youth employ new media for ...


Outside In: The Practices Of Iranian Diaspora Journalists, Magdalena Wojcieszak, Amy Brouillette, Briar Smith Jan 2013

Outside In: The Practices Of Iranian Diaspora Journalists, Magdalena Wojcieszak, Amy Brouillette, Briar Smith

Iran Media Program

The Iran Media Program (IMP) conducted a survey of Iranian journalists living and working outside Iran. The IMP’s aim was to examine more closely the role and relationship between Iranian reporters abroad and their international and domestic audiences, as well as to broaden our knowledge of the Iranian diaspora media culture.

With this report, the IMP hopes to contribute new insights regarding the transnational dimensions of Iranian journalism, as well as how Iranian journalists working outside Iran view their roles within and perspectives on the broader Iranian media ecosystem. The IMP’s research adds to a growing body of ...


Between Conformity And Resistance: Essays On Politics, Culture, And The State By Marilena Chauí (Review), Mércia Regina Santana Flannery Jan 2013

Between Conformity And Resistance: Essays On Politics, Culture, And The State By Marilena Chauí (Review), Mércia Regina Santana Flannery

Departmental Papers (Romance Languages)

Selections of the work authored by the renowned Brazilian philosopher Marilena Chauí are the material found in this volume. The book is part of a Palgrave Macmillan series that proposes to divulge the work of scholars from different parts of the word, assembled by interest, relevance, and the degree to which they are representative of the overall academic production of the scholars in question. Marilena Chauí is one of Brazil's most highly regarded Brazilian thinkers of modern times and the selection presented in this volume is both historically relevant and representative of the author's work. Under the theme ...


Guatemala & The University Of Pennsylvania: Meeting In The Middle, Frances K. Barg, Eve Weiss, Charles Branas Jan 2013

Guatemala & The University Of Pennsylvania: Meeting In The Middle, Frances K. Barg, Eve Weiss, Charles Branas

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics

The GUATEMALA-PENN relationship is a partnership that is borne from more than a century of research, service and scholarship. Our goal, with this book and with our programs, is to grow this partnership based upon the reciprocal needs of our Guatemalan stakeholders and the mission of the university. Guatemala is only one country away from the US. Our shared heritage and joint economic and social interests make it critical to foster a strong and mutually beneficial relationship between our two countries. Our connections have evolved over time in response to new knowledge gained about each other. This book is a ...


Essays On Family Structure And Marriage In Sub-Saharan Africa, Sophia Chae Jan 2013

Essays On Family Structure And Marriage In Sub-Saharan Africa, Sophia Chae

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The three essays in this dissertation examine issues related to family structure and marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa. The first two essays explore how family structures influence children's outcomes. The third essay focuses on the data quality of marriage histories collected in a longitudinal survey. The first essay examines whether the timing and type of orphanhood is associated with early sexual debut and early marriage among 12-19-year-old adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. I also test whether education mediates orphans' risk of early sexual initiation and early marriage. Discrete-time event history models suggest that female double orphans, regardless ...


Music, Aesthetics, Peripherality: Notes On A Philosophy Of History Of Latin American Music (1910-1973), Stephan Hammel Jan 2013

Music, Aesthetics, Peripherality: Notes On A Philosophy Of History Of Latin American Music (1910-1973), Stephan Hammel

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation is a theoretical treatment of the history of Latin American music in the twentieth century. It's central claim is twofold. First, the progressive development of a Latin American music was made possible and meaningful by the region's economic, political and cultural peripherality vis-Ã -vis the (neo-)colonial metropole: Western Europe and the United States. That peripherality was manifest as an attempt to find in Latin American particularity the grounds for universal significance. Reading this attempt in Kantian terms of conceptual determination, it appears as an aesthetics. Given the failure of imported concepts to adequately schematize the ...


The Horse In Pre-Imperial China, Xiang Wan Jan 2013

The Horse In Pre-Imperial China, Xiang Wan

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the role of the domestic horse in pre-imperial China motivated by the rise of studies on the horse as an interdisciplinary field. Among archaeological finds of the pre-imperial era, horse corpses and horse harnesses have been an essential part of cultural relics. Documentary sources on the horse can be traced back to the earliest Chinese writings. In this dissertation it is suggested that the domestication was a long, staged process, and the transmission route of the horse from the Urals to China via Central Asia will be proposed.

A comprehensive survey of the archaeological remains related to ...


African Americans From "Back Yonder": The Historical Archaeology Of The Formation, Maintenance, And Dissolution Of The American Enclave In Samanã¡, Dominican Republic, Kristen R. Fellows Jan 2013

African Americans From "Back Yonder": The Historical Archaeology Of The Formation, Maintenance, And Dissolution Of The American Enclave In Samanã¡, Dominican Republic, Kristen R. Fellows

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

By the end of 1825, 6,000 African Americans had left the United States to settle in the free black Republic of Haiti. After arriving on the island, 200 immigrants formed an enclave in what is now Samaná, Dominican Republic. The Americans in Samaná continued to speak English, remained Protestant (in a country of devout Catholics), and retained American cultural practices for over 150 years. Relying on historical archaeological methods, this dissertation explores the processes of community formation, maintenance, and dissolution, while paying particular attention to intersections of race and nation. Fieldwork took place in the Spring and Summer of ...


The Female Gaze In Contemporary Japanese Literature, Kathryn Hemmann Jan 2013

The Female Gaze In Contemporary Japanese Literature, Kathryn Hemmann

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The female gaze can be used by writers and readers to look at narratives from a perspective that sees women as subjects instead of objects. Applying a female gaze to discourses that have traditionally been male-dominated opens new avenues of interpretation that are empowering from a feminist perspective. In this dissertation, I use the murder mystery novels of the bestselling female author Kirino Natsuo and the graphic novels of a prolific four-woman artistic collective called CLAMP to demonstrate how writers are capable of applying a female gaze to the themes of their work and how readers can and have read ...


Mechanics Of Mobilization: The Making Of A Taxi Workers Alliance, Amruta Inamdar Jan 2013

Mechanics Of Mobilization: The Making Of A Taxi Workers Alliance, Amruta Inamdar

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation examines the political engagement and occupational struggles of South Asian immigrant taxi workers in an American metropolis, and their participation in a taxi workers alliance. Contrary to popular understandings of South Asian immigrants as a model minority --- politically passive and economically successful professionals --- these South Asian immigrant taxi workers often struggle to make ends meet, and are actively involved in both leadership positions of their workers alliance as well as the rank and file. Further, their political engagements and their creative strategies to survive, maximize income, and achieve upward mobility show how poorer immigrants in non-professional occupations cannot ...


Labors Of Representation: Cultivating Land, Self, And Community Among Muslims In Late Colonial Bengal, Ananya Dasgupta Jan 2013

Labors Of Representation: Cultivating Land, Self, And Community Among Muslims In Late Colonial Bengal, Ananya Dasgupta

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

LABORS OF REPRESENTATION: CULTIVATING LAND, SELF, AND COMMUNITY AMONG MUSLIMS IN LATE COLONIAL BENGAL

Ananya Dasgupta

Lisa Mitchell

This dissertation studies how the specificity of regional practices of cultural productions, ideological strands, forms and practices of civil associations, and styles of literary expressions among Muslims inflected the Pakistan movement in late colonial Bengal. Using wide-ranging sources that include vernacular religious tracts, the popular genre of Muslim improvement texts, pamphlets of tenant-peasant associations, journals, diaries, autobiographies, and literary archives, I trace historical transformations in practices and ideas about religion and political representation among the Muslims of Bengal from the mid-nineteenth century ...


In The Government's Service: A Study Of The Role And Practice Of Early China's Officials Based On Excavated Manuscripts, Daniel Sungbin Sou Jan 2013

In The Government's Service: A Study Of The Role And Practice Of Early China's Officials Based On Excavated Manuscripts, Daniel Sungbin Sou

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The aim of this dissertation is to examine the practices of local officials serving in the Chu and Qin centralized governments during the late Warring States period, with particular interest in relevant excavated texts. The recent discoveries of Warring States slips have provided scholars with new information about how local offices operated and functioned as a crucial organ of the centralized state. Among the many excavated texts, I mainly focus on those found in Baoshan, Shuihudi, Fangmatan, Liye, and the one held by the Yuelu Academy.

Much attention is given to the function of districts and their officials in the ...


Northern Song Reflections On The Tang, Jeffrey Rice Jan 2013

Northern Song Reflections On The Tang, Jeffrey Rice

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

NORTHERN SONG REFLECTIONS ON THE TANG

Jeffrey Rice

Victor Mair

In the mid-eleventh century Chinese intellectuals argued about history, and left their competing narratives to us in print. They contested how history should be written, and what relevant lessons ought to be adapted to the changing society of Song 宋 (960-1279) dynasty China. They were particularly concerned with the history of the long-lasting Tang 唐 (618-907) dynasty. They revised the official history of the Tang on a variety of levels: they used primary sources differently to analyze evidence, developed a new literary language to write historical prose, employed editorial critiques ...


Towards A Multilingual Future: The Ecology Of Language At A University In Eastern Ukraine, Bridget A. Goodman Jan 2013

Towards A Multilingual Future: The Ecology Of Language At A University In Eastern Ukraine, Bridget A. Goodman

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In Ukraine, the Russian and Ukrainian languages have historically alternated in policy and practice in their official status and social prestige. As in many areas of the world, English is emerging in Ukraine as a language of economic value, social prestige, and education though it is not a language of wider communication. The goal of the research was to explore the ecology of language at a university which is implementing English as a medium of instruction in all subjects for multiple groups of students in Dnipropetrovs&rsquok, Ukraine. Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted over the 2010-2011 academic year to answer the ...


2013 Latin America Summit Report, James G. Mcgann Jan 2013

2013 Latin America Summit Report, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global and Regional Think Tank Summit Reports

No abstract provided.