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Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons

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2013

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Studying Soil Moisture And Land-To-Water Carbon Export In Urbanized Coastal Areas Using Remotely Sensed Data And A Regional Hydro-Ecological Model, Yun Yang Dec 2013

Studying Soil Moisture And Land-To-Water Carbon Export In Urbanized Coastal Areas Using Remotely Sensed Data And A Regional Hydro-Ecological Model, Yun Yang

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

The main objective of this research was to study the flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from a terrestrial urbanized watershed to an estuarine system using a process-based regional hydro-ecological model and remotely sensed data.

While DOC is an important component of the global carbon cycle, the link of the variations in terrestrial carbon storage is still poorly understood. Soil moisture is a key factor that influences the amount of available water for vegetation growth and the decomposition rate of organic matter in the soil and thus contributes to the amount of DOC in the soil at the land-water boundary ...


Crater Detection Via Genetic Search Methods To Reduce Image Features, Joseph Paul Cohen Dec 2013

Crater Detection Via Genetic Search Methods To Reduce Image Features, Joseph Paul Cohen

Graduate Masters Theses

Recent approaches to crater detection have been inspired by face detection's use of gray-scale texture features. Using gray-scale texture features for supervised machine learning crater detection algorithms provides better classification of craters in planetary images than previous methods. When using Haar features it is typical to generate thousands of numerical values from each candidate crater image. This magnitude of image features to extract and consider can spell disaster when the application is an entire planetary surface. One solution is to reduce the number of features extracted and considered in order to increase accuracy as well as speed. Feature subset ...


Producing Space: Block-By-Block Change In A Gentrifying Neighborhood, Jen Douglas Dec 2013

Producing Space: Block-By-Block Change In A Gentrifying Neighborhood, Jen Douglas

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Gentrification of urban neighborhoods is part of an ongoing restructuring of the city, linked to the emerging occupational structure of the service economy and the remaking of built environments that were created for a production economy. It is the name given to processes in which commodification and reinvestment accompany the in-migration of professional and managerial workers, often displacing prior residents and giving altered spatial form to inequality.

This dissertation is a case study of gentrification in Hyde and Jackson Squares, part of Boston's Jamaica Plain neighborhood. The emergence of gentrification pressures and their uneven distribution within the area is ...


Birds, Landslides And Pastures: A Biogeographic Conundrum, Mark R. Welford Dec 2013

Birds, Landslides And Pastures: A Biogeographic Conundrum, Mark R. Welford

Mark R. Welford

No abstract provided.


Techniques For The Visualization Of Positional Geospatial Uncertainty, Brent A. Barré Dec 2013

Techniques For The Visualization Of Positional Geospatial Uncertainty, Brent A. Barré

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Geospatial data almost always contains some amount of uncertainty due to inaccuracies in its acquisition and transformation. While the data is commonly visualized (e.g. on digital maps), there are unanswered needs for visualizing uncertainty along with it. Most research on effectively doing this addresses uncertainty in data values at geospatial positions, e.g. water depth, human population, or land-cover classification. Uncertainty in the data’s geospatial positions themselves (positional uncertainty) has not been previously focused on in this regard. In this thesis, techniques were created for visualizing positional uncertainty using World Vector Shoreline as an example dataset. The techniques ...


Social Support And Thriving Health: A New Approach To Understanding The Health Of Indigenous Canadians, Chantelle Richmond, Nancy Ross, Grace Egeland Dec 2013

Social Support And Thriving Health: A New Approach To Understanding The Health Of Indigenous Canadians, Chantelle Richmond, Nancy Ross, Grace Egeland

Chantelle Richmond

We examined the importance of social support in promoting thriving health among indigenous Canadians, a disadvantaged population. We categorized the self-reported health status of 31625 adult indigenous Canadians as thriving (excellent, very good) or nonthriving (good, fair, poor). We measured social support with indices of positive interaction, emotional support, tangible support, and affection and intimacy. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to estimate odds of reporting thriving health, using social support as the key independent variable, and we controlled for educational attainment and labor force status. Compared with women reporting low levels of social support, those reporting high levels of ...


Narratives Of Social Support And Health In Aboriginal Communities, Chantelle Richmond Dec 2013

Narratives Of Social Support And Health In Aboriginal Communities, Chantelle Richmond

Chantelle Richmond

Societies that foster high-quality social relationships and social support seemingly produce healthier populations. Existing research identifies social support as a significant dimension and determinant of Canadian Aboriginal health, yet patterns of morbidity and mortality overwhelmingly reflect social causes (e.g., violence, suicide), thereby suggesting that social support may not be widely accessible within this population. This paper seeks to understand how broader societal factors (e.g., colonialism) work to influence access to social support in the everyday social environments of Aboriginal communities. Narrative analysis of interviews with 26 Aboriginal Community Health Representatives (CHRs) from across Canada. Sources of social support ...


Social Support, Material Circumstance And Health Behaviour: Influences On Health In First Nation And Inuit Communities Of Canada, Chantelle Richmond, Nancy Ross Dec 2013

Social Support, Material Circumstance And Health Behaviour: Influences On Health In First Nation And Inuit Communities Of Canada, Chantelle Richmond, Nancy Ross

Chantelle Richmond

An expansive literature describes the links between social support and health. Though the bulk of this evidence emphasizes the health-enhancing effect of social support, certain aspects can have negative consequences for health (e.g., social obligations). In the Canadian context, the geographically small and socially interconnected nature of First Nation and Inuit communities provides a unique example through which to explore this relationship. Despite reportedly high levels of social support, many First Nation and Inuit communities endure broad social problems, thereby leading us to question the assumption that social support is primarily health protective. We draw from narrative analysis of ...


Health Disparities In Canada Today: Some Evidence And A Theoretical Framework, Katherine Frohlich, Nancy Ross, Chantelle Richmond Dec 2013

Health Disparities In Canada Today: Some Evidence And A Theoretical Framework, Katherine Frohlich, Nancy Ross, Chantelle Richmond

Chantelle Richmond

This paper documents contemporary evidence on patterns of health disparities in Canada and suggests theoretical mechanisms that give rise to these patterns. The overall health of Canadians, as measured by life expectancy or mortality, has improved dramatically over the past 30 years and some disparities have diminished slightly (e.g., life expectancy by income group for men), while others have increased (e.g., diabetes for Aboriginal peoples). Arguably the most egregious health disparities in Canada are those existing between Aboriginals and the rest of the Canadian population. This paper focuses specifically on three social determinants and their effects on disparities ...


Explaining The Paradox Of Health And Social Support Among Aboriginal Canadians, Chantelle Richmond Dec 2013

Explaining The Paradox Of Health And Social Support Among Aboriginal Canadians, Chantelle Richmond

Chantelle Richmond

Societies that foster high quality social environments and integration produce healthier populations. The mechanisms underlying the protective effect of social integration appear to be through various forms of social support. Despite reportedly high rates of social support within the Aboriginal population, however, current patterns of health are overrepresented by social ills such as family violence, alcoholism and suicide. This paper explores this paradox through qualitative interviews with Aboriginal Community Health Representatives (CHR's). CHR's narratives point to two key explanations for the health-support paradox: (i) social support is not a widely accessible resource; and (ii) the negative health effects ...


Community-Based Participatory Research (Cbpr) With Indigenous Communities: Producing Respectful And Reciprocal Research, Joshua Tobias, Chantelle Richmond, Isaac Luginaah Dec 2013

Community-Based Participatory Research (Cbpr) With Indigenous Communities: Producing Respectful And Reciprocal Research, Joshua Tobias, Chantelle Richmond, Isaac Luginaah

Chantelle Richmond

The health disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in Canada continue to grow despite an expanding body of research that attempts to address these inequalities, including increased attention from the field of health geography. Here, we draw upon a case study of our own community-based approach to health research with Anishinabe communities in northern Ontario as a means of advocating the growth of such participatory approaches. Using our own case as an example, we demonstrate how a collaborative approach to respectful and reciprocal research can be achieved, including some of the challenges we faced in adopting this approach.


Hepatitis B In Ghana's Upper West Region: A Hidden Disease In Need Of National Policy Attention, Paul Mkandawire, Chantelle Richmond, Jenna Dixon, Isaac Luginaah, Joshua Tobias Dec 2013

Hepatitis B In Ghana's Upper West Region: A Hidden Disease In Need Of National Policy Attention, Paul Mkandawire, Chantelle Richmond, Jenna Dixon, Isaac Luginaah, Joshua Tobias

Chantelle Richmond

Like many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is highly prevalent in Ghana. Using qualitative methods, this paper draws from the political ecology of health theoretical framework to examine perceptions and understandings of HBV in the Upper West Region of Ghana. The findings reveal that extremely low levels of knowledge and pervasive lay misconceptions about the disease within this geographic context are shaped by large scale structural influences. Furthermore, in this context there is essentially no access to HBV immunizations, testing or treatment services which reinforces potential routes for the spread of HBV. An explosive spread of HBV ...


Formal Dementia Care Among First Nations In Southwestern Ontario, Sara Finkelstein, Dorothy Forbes, Chantelle Richmond Dec 2013

Formal Dementia Care Among First Nations In Southwestern Ontario, Sara Finkelstein, Dorothy Forbes, Chantelle Richmond

Chantelle Richmond

This article explores how dementia care is provided to First Nations communities in southwestern Ontario. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with health care providers and analysed using a constructivist grounded-theory methodology. Two interrelated frameworks for understanding dementia care were identified: a care delivery framework and a knowledge framework. The care delivery framework identified care goals, care elements being provided, care barriers, and strategies and solutions to deliver care and overcome barriers. The knowledge framework defined four groups of knowledge stakeholders: persons with dementia, informal care providers, formal care providers, and the First Nations community. It identified the knowledge each ...


Efficacy Of A 3-Hour Aboriginal Health Teaching In The Medical Curriculum: Are We Changing Student Knowledge And Attitudes?, Alysia Zhou, Samantha Boshart, Jennifer Seelisch, Reza Eshaghian, Ryan Mcleod, Jeff Nisker, Chantelle Richmond, John Howard Dec 2013

Efficacy Of A 3-Hour Aboriginal Health Teaching In The Medical Curriculum: Are We Changing Student Knowledge And Attitudes?, Alysia Zhou, Samantha Boshart, Jennifer Seelisch, Reza Eshaghian, Ryan Mcleod, Jeff Nisker, Chantelle Richmond, John Howard

Chantelle Richmond

There is national recognition of the need to incorporate Aboriginal health issues within the medical school curricula. This study aims to evaluate changes in medical students’ knowledge and attitudes about Aboriginal health, and their preparedness to work in Aboriginal communities after attending a 3-hour Aboriginal health seminar. A cross-sectional survey was administered before and after the seminar for Year 1 and 2 medical students at the University of Western Ontario. The survey included four true or false questions and 24 questions using a seven-point Likert scale (1 – strongly disagree, 7 – strongly agree). Eighty two of 130 (64 per cent) Year ...


The Political Ecology Of Health: Perceptions Of Environment, Economy, Health And Well-Being Among 'Namgis First Nation, Chantelle Richmond, Susan Elliott, R Matthews, B Elliott Dec 2013

The Political Ecology Of Health: Perceptions Of Environment, Economy, Health And Well-Being Among 'Namgis First Nation, Chantelle Richmond, Susan Elliott, R Matthews, B Elliott

Chantelle Richmond

Informed by Mayer's (Progr. Hum. Geogr 20 (1996) 441) political ecology of disease framework, this paper investigates First Nation's perceptions of the links between environment, economy and health and well-being. A case study of 'Namgis First Nation (Alert Bay, British Columbia, Canada) is used to explore the risks and benefits of salmon aquaculture for British Columbia's First Nations. Analysis of interview data (n=23) indicates strong links between reduced access to environmental resources, marginal participation in the economy, and declining community health and well being. Results suggest that aquaculture development has further decreased the community's access ...


The Social Determinants Of Inuit Health: A Focus On Social Support In The Canadian Arctic, Chantelle Richmond Dec 2013

The Social Determinants Of Inuit Health: A Focus On Social Support In The Canadian Arctic, Chantelle Richmond

Chantelle Richmond

Objectives. Societies that foster socially supportive networks produce healthier populations. Social support is a significant determinant of health among Canada’s Inuit population; however, little is known about the characteristics that provide access to social support among Inuit. This exploratory analysis describes how 4 types of social support (namely, positive social interaction, emotional support, tangible support and affection and intimacy) differ in relation to various determinants of health. Study design. Micro-data from the Arctic Supplement of the 2001 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (n=26,290) was used. Methods. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine levels (high/low ...


The Determinants Of First Nation And Inuit Health: A Critical Population Health Approach, Chantelle Richmond, Nancy Ross Dec 2013

The Determinants Of First Nation And Inuit Health: A Critical Population Health Approach, Chantelle Richmond, Nancy Ross

Chantelle Richmond

Environmental dispossession disproportionately affects the health of Canada's Aboriginal population, yet little is known about how its effects are sustained over time. We use a critical population health approach to explore the determinants of health in rural and remote First Nation and Inuit communities, and to conceptualize the pathways by which environmental dispossession affects these health determinants. We draw from narrative analysis of interviews with 26 Community Health Representatives (CHRs) from First Nation and Inuit communities across Canada. CHRs identified six health determinants: balance, life control, education, material resources, social resources, and environmental/cultural connections. CHRs articulated the role ...


Export Controls: A Contemporary History, Bert Chapman Dec 2013

Export Controls: A Contemporary History, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Provides highlights of my recently published book Export Controls: A Contemporary History. Describes the roles played by multiple U.S. Government agencies and congressional oversight committees in this policymaking arena including the Commerce, Defense, State, and Treasury Departments. It also reviews the roles played by international government organizations such as the Missile Technology Control Regime, export oriented businesses, and research intensive universities.


High Peaks Back - Country Trails Plan, Benjamin Godsoe Dec 2013

High Peaks Back - Country Trails Plan, Benjamin Godsoe

Muskie School Capstones and Dissertations

The High Peaks Trails Plan is a regional vision for back-country trails in Maine's High Peaks region. The plan identifies challenges and opportunities which face the trails community, and outlines several strategies for trails groups to move forward together to overcome mutual challenges.


Web 2.0-Based Collaborative Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support System: A Case Study Of Human-Computer Interaction Patterns, Mohammadreza Jelokhani-Niaraki Dec 2013

Web 2.0-Based Collaborative Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support System: A Case Study Of Human-Computer Interaction Patterns, Mohammadreza Jelokhani-Niaraki

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The integration of GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) capabilities into the Web 2.0 platform offers an effective Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support System (MC-SDSS) with which to involve the public, or a particular group of individuals, in collaborative spatial decision making. Understanding how decision makers acquire and integrate decision-related information within the Web 2.0-based collaborative MC-SDSS has been one of the major concerns of MC-SDSS designers for a long time. This study focuses on examining human-computer interaction patterns (information acquisition behavior) within the Web 2.0-based MC-SDSS environment. It reports the results of an experimental study that investigated ...


Synthesizing Population, Health, And Place, Martin Raubal, Geoffrey Jacquez, John Wilson, Werner Kuhn Dec 2013

Synthesizing Population, Health, And Place, Martin Raubal, Geoffrey Jacquez, John Wilson, Werner Kuhn

Journal of Spatial Information Science

No abstract provided.


An Interactive Bibliography On Temporal Gis, Willington Siabato, Christophe Claramunt, Miguel Ángel Bernabé-Poveda Dec 2013

An Interactive Bibliography On Temporal Gis, Willington Siabato, Christophe Claramunt, Miguel Ángel Bernabé-Poveda

Journal of Spatial Information Science

No abstract provided.


Formalizing Spatiotemporal Knowledge In Remote Sensing Applications To Improve Image Interpretation, Christelle Pierkot, Samuel Andrés, Jean François Faure, Frédérique Seyler Dec 2013

Formalizing Spatiotemporal Knowledge In Remote Sensing Applications To Improve Image Interpretation, Christelle Pierkot, Samuel Andrés, Jean François Faure, Frédérique Seyler

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Technological tools allow the generation of large volumes of data. For example satellite images aid in the study of spatiotemporal phenomena in a range of disciplines such as urban planning environmental sciences and health care. Thus remote-sensing experts must handle various and complex image sets for their interpretations. The GIS community has undertaken significant work in describing spatiotemporal features and standard specifications nowadays provide design foundations for GIS software and spatial databases. We argue that this spatiotemporal knowledge and expertise would provide invaluable support for the field of image interpretation. As a result we propose a high level conceptual framework ...


Multi-Scale Window Specification Over Streaming Trajectories, Kostas Patroumpas Dec 2013

Multi-Scale Window Specification Over Streaming Trajectories, Kostas Patroumpas

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Enormous amounts of positional information are collected by monitoring applications in domains such as fleet management cargo transport wildlife protection etc. With the advent of modern location-based services processing such data mostly focuses on providing real-time response to a variety of user requests in continuous and scalable fashion. An important class of such queries concerns evolving trajectories that continuously trace the streaming locations of moving objects like GPS-equipped vehicles commodities with RFID's people with smartphones etc. In this work we propose an advanced windowing operator that enables online incremental examination of recent motion paths at multiple resolutions for numerous ...


The Semantic Similarity Ensemble, Andrea Ballatore, Michela Bertolotto, David C. Wilson Dec 2013

The Semantic Similarity Ensemble, Andrea Ballatore, Michela Bertolotto, David C. Wilson

Journal of Spatial Information Science

Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval data mining and information integration. To date a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs perceptions hypotheses and ...


Semantic And Conceptual Issues In Geographic Information Systems, Eliseo Clementini, Esteban Zimanyi Dec 2013

Semantic And Conceptual Issues In Geographic Information Systems, Eliseo Clementini, Esteban Zimanyi

Journal of Spatial Information Science

No abstract provided.


Testing Ogc Web Feature And Coverage Service Performance: Towards Efficient Delivery Of Geospatial Data, Gregory Giuliani, Alain Dubois, Pierre Lacroix Dec 2013

Testing Ogc Web Feature And Coverage Service Performance: Towards Efficient Delivery Of Geospatial Data, Gregory Giuliani, Alain Dubois, Pierre Lacroix

Journal of Spatial Information Science

OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) specifications allow interoperable access to distributed geospatial data made available through spatial data infrastructures (SDIs). To ensure that a service is sufficiently responsive to fulfill users’ expectations and requirements performance of services must be measured and monitored to track latencies bottlenecks and errors that may negatively influence its over- all quality. Despite the importance of data retrieval and access little research has been published on this topic and mostly concentrates on the usability of services when integrating distributed data sources. Considering these issues this paper extends and validates the FOSS4G ...


Building A Gis Model To Assess Agritourism Potential, Brian G. Baskerville Dec 2013

Building A Gis Model To Assess Agritourism Potential, Brian G. Baskerville

Theses and Dissertations in Geography

Rural areas of the world are developing and implementing tourism programs to diversify and reinvigorate their local economies. Often, these programs focus on privately-held lands in largely agricultural regions. In some countries, tourism development strategies have combined agriculture and tourism to create a new industry – agritourism. This industry, although not new in the United States, is still in its nascent stages. Before starting an agritourism enterprise, farmers and ranchers must consider the various factors that will likely influence their potential for long-term success. These factors can be grouped into 1) farm-specific factors such as an operator’s personality or the ...


Burma: A Land Of Contrasts, David Butgereit Dec 2013

Burma: A Land Of Contrasts, David Butgereit

David M. Butgereit, M.S.N.

No abstract provided.


Spatial Hyperdynamism In A Post-Disturbance Simulated Forest, Qian Wang, George Malanson Dec 2013

Spatial Hyperdynamism In A Post-Disturbance Simulated Forest, Qian Wang, George Malanson

George P Malanson

Spatial hyperdynamism in a post-disturbance simulated forest is studied. When the cutting rate is high and if the cutting pattern is scattered or involving a larger area, the two landscape metrics have much greater variance after cutting. After cutting the potential interaction between different species is more dynamic than that before the cutting, which can be detected from the variation of the proximity measure. These dynamics are primarily driven by the appearance and disappearance of single cell patches as colonizers temporarily occupy cells vacated by the deaths of better competitors. Boundary cells are most likely to be dynamic because their ...