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2009

Culture

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Articles 1 - 30 of 53

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Culture, Psyche, And Body Make Each Other Up, Dov Cohen, Angela K. Y. Leung, Hans Ijzerman Dec 2009

Culture, Psyche, And Body Make Each Other Up, Dov Cohen, Angela K. Y. Leung, Hans Ijzerman

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The commentaries make important points, including ones about the purposeful uses of embodiment effects. Research examining such effects needs to look at how such effects play themselves out in people's everyday lives. Research might usefully integrate work on embodiment with work on attribution and work in other disciplines concerned with body–psyche connections (e.g., research on somaticizing versus “psychologizing” illnesses and hypercognizing versus hypocognizing emotions). Such work may help us understand the way positive and negative feedback loops operate as culture, psyche, and body make each other up.


A Descriptive Review Of Health Care Providers Perspective On Stigmatization Of Hiv/Aids Patients: United States And South Africa, Ana I. Fonseca Dec 2009

A Descriptive Review Of Health Care Providers Perspective On Stigmatization Of Hiv/Aids Patients: United States And South Africa, Ana I. Fonseca

Honors Projects Overview

Compares the issue of social stigma affecting people with HIV/AIDS in the United State and in South Africa. Posits that stigma is more of an interpersonal problem in the United States, while it is a huge barrier to access to care in South Africa. Data was compiled through personal conversations and experiences in South Africa during June 2009, interviews with health professional and community members in Rhode Island during the fall of 2009, and reading of the professional literature.


Silent Subversions, Derek Dubois Dec 2009

Silent Subversions, Derek Dubois

Master's Theses, Dissertations, Graduate Research and Major Papers Overview

Explores the concept of spectatorship in relation to gender in the earliest period of film history in the United States known as the silent era. Argues that a new mode of spectatorship emerges for women during the 1920s, which employs to advantage the extra-diegetic components of spectacle in theater design, new customized genres for female filmgoers, fandom, and exotic male film stars, such as Rudolph Valentino. Focuses primarily on feminist film theory and on cultural studies as methodological models.


Smoking And Psychological Health In Relation To Country Of Origin, Michael Lyvers, Tessa Hall, Mark Bahr Oct 2009

Smoking And Psychological Health In Relation To Country Of Origin, Michael Lyvers, Tessa Hall, Mark Bahr

Mike Lyvers

In English-speaking, Western-Anglo countries, where smoking has become stigmatized in recent decades as a result of widespread anti-smoking campaigns, smokers commonly report poorer psychological health on average than non-smokers do. This may be indirectly related to the strong pressures to quit in such countries, as poorer psychological health is associated with a reduced likelihood of quitting, thus leading to a selection bias for smokers with relatively poorer psychological health. In the present study, 147 smoker and non-smoker participants either came from Western-Anglo countries where smoking has become stigmatized (Australia, Canada, U.S.) or countries in regions where smoking remains relatively ...


Culture As Common Sense: Perceived Consensus Versus Personal Beliefs As Mechanisms Of Cultural Influence, Xi Zou, Kim-Pong Tam, Michael W. Morris, Sau-Lai Lee, Ivy Yee-Man Lau, Chi-Yue Chiu Oct 2009

Culture As Common Sense: Perceived Consensus Versus Personal Beliefs As Mechanisms Of Cultural Influence, Xi Zou, Kim-Pong Tam, Michael W. Morris, Sau-Lai Lee, Ivy Yee-Man Lau, Chi-Yue Chiu

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The authors propose that culture affects people through their perceptions of what is consensually believed. Whereas past research has examined whether cultural differences in social judgment are mediated by differences in individuals’ personal values and beliefs, this article investigates whether they are mediated by differences in individuals’ perceptions of the views of people around them. The authors propose that individuals who perceive that traditional views are culturally consensual (e.g., Chinese participants who believe that most of their fellows hold collectivistic values) will themselves behave and think in culturally typical ways. Four studies of previously well-established cultural differences found that ...


The Culture Of Punishment: Prison, Society, And Spectacle, Michelle Brown Sep 2009

The Culture Of Punishment: Prison, Society, And Spectacle, Michelle Brown

Michelle Brown

America is the most punitive nation in the world, incarcerating more than 2.3 million people—or one in 136 of its residents. Against the backdrop of this unprecedented mass imprisonment, punishment permeates everyday life, carrying with it complex cultural meanings. In The Culture of Punishment, Michelle Brown goes beyond prison gates and into the routine and popular engagements of everyday life, showing that those of us most distanced from the practice of punishment tend to be particularly harsh in our judgments. The Culture of Punishment takes readers on a tour of the sites where culture and punishment meet—television ...


Smoking And Psychological Health In Relation To Country Of Origin, Michael Lyvers, Tessa Hall, Mark Bahr Sep 2009

Smoking And Psychological Health In Relation To Country Of Origin, Michael Lyvers, Tessa Hall, Mark Bahr

Mark Bahr

In English-speaking, Western-Anglo countries, where smoking has become stigmatized in recent decades as a result of widespread anti-smoking campaigns, smokers commonly report poorer psychological health on average than non-smokers do. This may be indirectly related to the strong pressures to quit in such countries, as poorer psychological health is associated with a reduced likelihood of quitting, thus leading to a selection bias for smokers with relatively poorer psychological health. In the present study, 147 smoker and non-smoker participants either came from Western-Anglo countries where smoking has become stigmatized (Australia, Canada, U.S.) or countries in regions where smoking remains relatively ...


Do You See What I See? : Making The Invisible Visible Through An Exploration Of The Intersubjective Experience Of Social Work Clinicians Working With Fat Clients, Lauren Polly Hanson Aug 2009

Do You See What I See? : Making The Invisible Visible Through An Exploration Of The Intersubjective Experience Of Social Work Clinicians Working With Fat Clients, Lauren Polly Hanson

Theses, Dissertations, and Projects

This qualitative study was designed with flexible research methods to explore experiences of clinical social workers in sitting with and developing relationships with fat clients. Using an intersubjective theoretical lens, this research investigates clinicians' countertransference or beliefs about fatness in the relationship building process with fat clients. An analysis of the literature revealed multiple meanings for fat, complex dynamics in therapeutic relationships and potential parallels between some racial oppressions and fat oppression using the concept of visible difference. This exploratory study presents findings based on nine semi-structured interviews with clinical social workers who see fat clients. Participants were asked about ...


Unemployed Steelworkers, Social Class, And The Construction Of Morality, Paul Andrew Carruth Aug 2009

Unemployed Steelworkers, Social Class, And The Construction Of Morality, Paul Andrew Carruth

All Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explores the dynamics of economic relations and distributive outcomes according to displaced steelworkers' own accountings of deindustrialization and job loss. Whereas class analyses tend to investigate consciousness according to “true” versus “false” preferences and “post-class” scholars assert that “post-materialism” is replacing “materialist” social concerns, the author abandons these dualisms to demonstrate that workers use cultural codes of “purity” and “pollution” to represent and evaluate individuals, interests, and relations. The findings buttress the continuing relevance of social class for explaining social identity, consciousness, and antagonism.


Gender Images In Hurricane Katrina Coverage, Pamela K. Morris Jul 2009

Gender Images In Hurricane Katrina Coverage, Pamela K. Morris

Social Justice

Media coverage of Hurricane Katrina was criticized in terms of race and class. But analyses from a gender perspective are missing. This research reviewed photographs of Katrina coverage in four prominent U.S. newspapers. Findings show that victims were all sexes and ages; but when it came to officials and heroes – men dominated. Also, women were more often shown with children than were men. These stereotypical images found in times of crises show culture’s core.


Gender Images In Hurricane Katrina Coverage, Pamela K. Morris Jul 2009

Gender Images In Hurricane Katrina Coverage, Pamela K. Morris

Pamela K. Morris

Media coverage of Hurricane Katrina was criticized in terms of race and class. But analyses from a gender perspective are missing. This research reviewed photographs of Katrina coverage in four prominent U.S. newspapers. Findings show that victims were all sexes and ages; but when it came to officials and heroes – men dominated. Also, women were more often shown with children than were men. These stereotypical images found in times of crises show culture’s core.


Healers And Helpers, Unifying The People: A Qualitative Study Of Lakota Leadership., Kem M. Gambrell Jul 2009

Healers And Helpers, Unifying The People: A Qualitative Study Of Lakota Leadership., Kem M. Gambrell

Theses, Dissertations, & Student Scholarship: Agricultural Leadership, Education & Communication Department

The purpose of this critical grounded theory qualitative study was to explore Lakota Leadership from a Native perspective. Interviews were conducted with enrolled members of a Lakota tribe in an urban setting as well as on the Rosebud reservation to gain better awareness of leadership through a non-mainstream viewpoint. Previously, in order to understand leaders and followers, research limited its scope of discernment to dominant society, implying that non-mainstream individuals will acquiesce, or that differences found are inconsequential. Leadership scholars also have implied that leadership theory is “universal enough”, and can be applied globally regardless of influences such as race ...


Measures Of Personal Success And Failure: A Self-Assessment, Applying The Sociological Imagination, Minxing Zheng Jun 2009

Measures Of Personal Success And Failure: A Self-Assessment, Applying The Sociological Imagination, Minxing Zheng

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

In this paper the author explores the meanings of personal success and failure as internalized from broader society in contrast to his own life, culture, and family background, professional aspirations, and emergent critical thinking and values. Using various sociological concepts and writings, he asks and seeks to explore questions such as: "How am I doing? Am I having a successful life so far or have I had more failure than success? How do I measure my personal success and failure? Was my success or failure based upon my own standards or other people's determinations? How do I decide my ...


Slides: Agricultural Resilience And Urban Growth: A Closer Look, William R. Travis Jun 2009

Slides: Agricultural Resilience And Urban Growth: A Closer Look, William R. Travis

Western Water Law, Policy and Management: Ripples, Currents, and New Channels for Inquiry (Martz Summer Conference, June 3-5)

Presenter: William R. Travis, Department of Geography, Center for Science & Technology Policy Research, CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder

30 slides


'Tú Is What The Other Person Does': The Pragmatic Divide Between Intention And Interpretation In Personal Address., Kristine L. Muñoz Jun 2009

'Tú Is What The Other Person Does': The Pragmatic Divide Between Intention And Interpretation In Personal Address., Kristine L. Muñoz

Department of Communication Studies Publications

Personal address is a pervasive index of identities, relationships and culture that is of enduring interest to pragmatics research and theory (see Clyne, Norrby & Warren, 2009; Hughson, 2009, for recent work). Sociolinguistic models of personal address proceed from a correlational perspective, in which choices among alternative address terms are centered on variation between the formal (V) and informal (T) second person pronouns. Research in this tradition presumes relatively direct connections between specifiable situational variables, such as relative age, familiarity, and sex, and address term choices. By contrast, the cultural perspective proceeds from the assumption that personal address reveals a unique system of ...


Cultural Differences As A Moderator Of Perceptions Of Injustice And Workplace Deviance, Amber Schroeder May 2009

Cultural Differences As A Moderator Of Perceptions Of Injustice And Workplace Deviance, Amber Schroeder

All Theses

Previous research has suggested that organizational justice perceptions are negatively related to workplace deviance, but the impact of individual cultural orientations has rarely been considered. Thus, the current paper examined individualism and collectivism as moderators of the justice-deviance relationship. Results suggested that injustice was more likely to lead to deviant workplace behavior in individuals high on individualism or low on collectivism than in individuals on the opposite ends of these spectrums. Practical implications and study limitations are discussed.


Latinos' Collectivism And Self-Disclosure In Intercultural And Intractultural Friendships And Acquaintanceships, Audrey Liz Schwartz May 2009

Latinos' Collectivism And Self-Disclosure In Intercultural And Intractultural Friendships And Acquaintanceships, Audrey Liz Schwartz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Self-disclosure is the process of sharing personal information with others and varies according to relationship intimacy, cultural norms, and personal values. Collectivism, defined as the tendency to define oneself in terms of social/cultural roles, may impact self-disclosure in intercultural relationships. The present study investigated whether Latinos/as reliably self-disclose more in intracultural versus intercultural friendships and acquaintanceships. An additional question was whether cultural variables such as collectivism, ethnic identity, and acculturation are related to self-disclosure differences. Data were collected via an online survey from internationally born Latinos and Latino Americans. Results of linear mixed effects model testing revealed that ...


Mexican American Identities And Histories In Children’S Picture Storybooks: Thinking Critically, Thinking Diversely, Scott A. Beck Apr 2009

Mexican American Identities And Histories In Children’S Picture Storybooks: Thinking Critically, Thinking Diversely, Scott A. Beck

Georgia Educational Researcher

Each year increasing numbers of Mexican-heritage students are served by teachers with little knowledge of the history and diversity of the Mexican American community. This article introduces teachers to Mexican American history and diversity while taking a useful and critical look at children’s picture storybooks regarding Mexican-heritage peoples in the U.S. Ideas in the article regarding how to select, compare and contrast these picture books in the classroom will allow teachers to learn about their Mexican-heritage students, counter prejudices and stereotypes, and more effectively reach out to build academic and personal connections with these students.


Don't Criticise The Effects Of Video Games On Kids, Exploit Them!, Jeffrey E. Brand Feb 2009

Don't Criticise The Effects Of Video Games On Kids, Exploit Them!, Jeffrey E. Brand

Jeffrey Brand

[Extract] For young learners today, video games are part of the "cultural furniture". The development of boys and girls, their socialisation, and their formal learning (including literacy) are at risk if they reject contemporary media. What humanises technology most completely is appropriation of it. As any parent or teacher who has tried it knows, using popular media in the service of formal learning most readily overcomes the risk attributed to them. It also eliminates the source of moral panics: ignorance about the learners' world.


Mandalas Of Security, Rosita Dellios Feb 2009

Mandalas Of Security, Rosita Dellios

Rosita Dellios

In employing the constructional metaphor of 'architectures' for the constructive purpose of security enhancement in the eastern Asian region, it is but a small step to 'indigenise' the process by slipping into the mentality of mandala-building. In doing so, it is to be hoped that Asian security 'architectures' will prove more acceptable and accessible to participants - and thus efficacious in their purpose. The mandala adds nothing new to the experience of Asian communities but redirects effort towards existing cultural orientations. In effect, it is a conceptual device for refining Western technostructures in ways more meaningful to the needs and expectations ...


"How May The World Be At Peace?": Idealism As Realism In Chinese Strategic Culture, Rosita Dellios Feb 2009

"How May The World Be At Peace?": Idealism As Realism In Chinese Strategic Culture, Rosita Dellios

Rosita Dellios

There is a famous orientalism which declares: "Let the Chinese dragon sleep for when she awakes she will astonish the world." In this decade of China's self-strengthening, Western Realists seem to be seeing dragons again. Not so their geoeconomic counterparts. They see only markets. Neither the threat nor opportunity analysts, however, quite see China in the "round"; a mandala of security in which certain principles have long held sway over matters of survival and, indeed, benefit. An appreciation of China's cultural-philosophical tradition provides a corrective to these blinkered visions. More than that, it suggests a way forward in ...


Mandala: From Sacred Origins To Sovereign Affairs In Traditional Southeast Asia, Rosita Dellios Feb 2009

Mandala: From Sacred Origins To Sovereign Affairs In Traditional Southeast Asia, Rosita Dellios

Rosita Dellios

This paper examines 'mandala' as a tradition of knowledge in Southeast Asia. It marries two concepts of mandala: (1) a Hindu-Buddhist religious diagram; with (2) a doctrine of traditional Southeast Asian 'international relations', derived from ancient Indian political discourse. It also highlights the value of Chinese thought as the 'yin' to ancient India's 'yang', in the construction of a Southeast Asian mandalic political culture. In its investigations, this paper draws on to the writings of key historians of this period, particularly O. W. Wolters, as well as the influential Indian text on governance, Kautilya's Arthasastra.


Driving Gender: An Analysis Of U.S. Auto Ad Visuals 1925-2005, Pamela K. Morris Feb 2009

Driving Gender: An Analysis Of U.S. Auto Ad Visuals 1925-2005, Pamela K. Morris

Social Justice

Advertising has been found to be not only a reflection of society, but also the basis for living amongst a group of people. The images in advertisements especially provide ideas and standards for acceptable behavior, social norms and values specific to men and women. Studying advertisement visuals can illuminate power relations in culture. This approach to feminist theory takes a look at how women and others are used to sell products and how these depictions illuminate power.

A framework using cultural, communication and feminist theories is constructed to build an approach for reviewing advertising messages. Focus is on visuals of ...


Driving Gender: An Analysis Of U.S. Auto Ad Visuals 1925-2005, Pamela K. Morris Feb 2009

Driving Gender: An Analysis Of U.S. Auto Ad Visuals 1925-2005, Pamela K. Morris

Pamela K. Morris

Advertising has been found to be not only a reflection of society, but also the basis for living amongst a group of people. The images in advertisements especially provide ideas and standards for acceptable behavior, social norms and values specific to men and women. Studying advertisement visuals can illuminate power relations in culture. This approach to feminist theory takes a look at how women and others are used to sell products and how these depictions illuminate power.

A framework using cultural, communication and feminist theories is constructed to build an approach for reviewing advertising messages. Focus is on visuals of ...


Toward A More Complete Understanding Of The Link Between Multicultural Experience And Creativity, William W. Maddux, Angela K.-Y. Leung, Chi-Yue Chiu, Adam D. Galinsky Feb 2009

Toward A More Complete Understanding Of The Link Between Multicultural Experience And Creativity, William W. Maddux, Angela K.-Y. Leung, Chi-Yue Chiu, Adam D. Galinsky

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Responds to G. J. Rich's comments on the current author's original article which presented evidence supporting the idea that multicultural experience can facilitate creativity. Rich has argued that our review, although timely and important, was somewhat limited in scope, focusing mostly on smaller forms of creativity ("little c": e.g., paper-and-pencil measures of creativity) as well as on larger forms of multicultural experience ("Big M": e.g., living in a foreign country). We agree with many aspects of Rich's assessment. The issue of whether different forms of multicultural experience can affect Big C creativity is of interest ...


International Trade, Factor Mobility And The Persistence Of Cultural-Institutional Diversity, Marianna Belloc, Samuel Bowles Jan 2009

International Trade, Factor Mobility And The Persistence Of Cultural-Institutional Diversity, Marianna Belloc, Samuel Bowles

Economics Department Working Paper Series

Cultural and institutional differences among nations may result in differences in the ratios of marginal costs of goods in autarchy and thus be the basis of specialization and comparative advantage, as long as these differences are not eliminated by trade. We provide an evolutionary model of endogenous preferences and institutions under autarchy, trade and factor mobility in which multiple asymptotically stable cultural-institutional conventions may exist, among which transitions may occur as a result of decentralized and un-coordinated actions of employers or employees. We show that: i) specialization and trade may arise and enhance welfare even when the countries are identical ...


Diabolical Frivolity Of Neoliberal Fundamentalism, Sefik Tatlic Jan 2009

Diabolical Frivolity Of Neoliberal Fundamentalism, Sefik Tatlic

Sefik Tatlic

Today, we cannot talk just about plain control, but we must talk about the nature of the interaction of the one who is being controlled and the one who controls, an interaction where the one that is “controlled” is asking for more control over himself/herself while expecting to be compensated by a surplus of freedom to satisfy trivial needs and wishes. Such a liberty for the fulfillment of trivial needs is being declared as freedom. But this implies as well the freedom to choose not to be engaged in any kind of socially sensible or politically articulated struggle.


The Cultural Congruency Effect: Culture, Regulatory Focus, And The Effectiveness Of Gain- Vs. Loss-Framed Health Messages, Ayse K. Uskul, David Sherman, John Fitzgibbon Jan 2009

The Cultural Congruency Effect: Culture, Regulatory Focus, And The Effectiveness Of Gain- Vs. Loss-Framed Health Messages, Ayse K. Uskul, David Sherman, John Fitzgibbon

Ayse K Uskul

The present study contributes a cultural analysis to the literature on the persuasive effects of matching message frame to individuals’ motivational orientations. One experiment examines how members of cultural groups that are likely to differ in their regulatory focus respond to health messages focusing on either the benefits of flossing or the costs of not flossing. White British participants, who had a stronger promotion focus, were more persuaded by the gain-framed message, whereas East-Asian participants, who had a stronger prevention focus, were more persuaded by the loss-framed message. This cultural difference in persuasion was mediated by an interaction between individuals ...


On The Boundaries Of Culture As An Affirmative Defense, Reid Griffith Fontaine, Eliot M. Held Jan 2009

On The Boundaries Of Culture As An Affirmative Defense, Reid Griffith Fontaine, Eliot M. Held

Reid G. Fontaine

A “cultural defense” to criminal culpability cannot achieve true pluralism without collapsing into a totally subjective, personal standard. Applying an objective cultural standard does not rescue a defendant from the external imposition of values—the purported aim of the cultural defense—because a cultural standard is, at its core, an external standard imposed onto an individual. The pluralist argument for a cultural defense also fails on its own terms—after all, justice systems are themselves cultural institutions. Furthermore, a defendant’s background is already accounted for at sentencing. The closest thing to a cultural defense that a court could adopt ...


Looking Forward, Looking Back: Cultural Differences And Similarities In Time Orientation, Donnel A. Briley Jan 2009

Looking Forward, Looking Back: Cultural Differences And Similarities In Time Orientation, Donnel A. Briley

Donnel A Briley

No abstract provided.